The Belfast Blitz was an event that occurred on the night of Easter Tuesday, 15 April 1941. Easter ( Greek: Πάσχα Pascha or Pasxa) is the most important religious feast in the Christian Liturgical year. Events 1450 - Battle of Formigny: Toward the end of the Hundred Years' War, the French attack and nearly annihilate English Year 1941 ( MCMXLI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (the link will display 1941 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Two hundred bombers of the German Air Force (Luftwaffe) attacked the city of Belfast in Northern Ireland. A bomber is a Military aircraft designed to attack ground and sea targets primarily by dropping Bombs on them Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. ( German 'luftvafe is a generic German term for an Air force. Belfast ( is the capital city of Northern Ireland and the seat of government in Northern Ireland. Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a Country within the United Kingdom, lying in the northeast of One thousand people died as a result of the bombing and even more were injured. In terms of property damage, half of the houses in Belfast were destroyed. Outside of the city of London, this was the greatest loss of life in a night raid during the blitz. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. The Blitz was the sustained bombing of Britain by Nazi Germany between 7 September 1940 and 10 May 1941 in World War II.  Roughly 100,000 people of a total population of 425,000 were left homeless.
Although the Republic of Ireland had declared its neutrality during World War II, Belfast, being part of Northern Ireland and therefore part of the United Kingdom, was at war. Ireland ( Irish: Éire, ˈeːrʲə is a country in north-western Europe. Irish neutrality has been a policy of the Irish Free State and its successor Ireland, since independence from the United Kingdom of Great Britain World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a Country within the United Kingdom, lying in the northeast of The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located
Belfast had an enviable engineering tradition. Engineering is the Discipline and Profession of applying technical and scientific Knowledge and As Britain was preparing for the conflict, the factories and shipyards of Belfast were gearing up. A factory (previously manufactory) or manufacturing plant is an industrial Building where workers manufacture goods Shipyards and dockyards are places which repair and build ships These can be Yachts military Belfast made a considerable contribution towards the Allied war effort.
Unfortunately, the government of Northern Ireland lacked the will, energy and capacity to cope with a major crisis when it came.
James Craig, Lord Craigavon, was Prime Minister of Northern Ireland since is inception in 1921, until his death on November 24, 1940. James Craig 1st Viscount Craigavon, Bart, PC ( 8 January 1871 – 24 November 1940) was a prominent Irish unionist Events 380 - Theodosius I makes his adventus, or formal Year 1940 ( MCMXL) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Lady Londonderry confided to Sir Samuel Hoare, the Home Secretary, that Craigavon had become "ga-ga". Samuel John Gurney Hoare 1st Viscount Templewood GCSI, GBE, CMG, PC ( 24 February 1880 &ndash 7 May 1959 The Secretary of State for the Home Department, commonly known as the Home Secretary, is the minister in charge of the United Kingdom Home Office
Richard Dawson Bates, was the Home Affairs Minister. Sir Richard Dawson Bates 1st Baronet, JP, DL, OBE (23 November 1876 - 10 June 1949 also known as Sir Dawson Bates (as Knight bachelor According to Sir Wilfred Spender, the cabinet secretary was "incapable of giving his responsible officers coherent directions on policy" – actually, he was drunk for most of each day.
It appears that Sir Basil Brooke, the Minister of Agriculture, was the only active minister. Basil Stanlake Brooke 1st Viscount Brookeborough, Bt, KG, CBE, MC, PC, HML ( June 9 1888 &ndash He successfully busied himself with the task of making Northern Ireland a major supplier of food to Britain in her time of need.
John Clarke MacDermott, the Minister of Public Security, after the first bombing, initiated the “Hiram Plan” to evacuate the city and to return Belfast to 'normality' as quickly as possible. It was MacDermott who sent the telegram to de Valera seeking assistance.
There was unease with the complacent attitude of the government, which led to resignations:
Lord Craigavon died on Sunday, November 24, 1940. Events 380 - Theodosius I makes his adventus, or formal Year 1940 ( MCMXL) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. He was succeeded by John Miller Andrews, then 70 years old, who was no more capable of dealing with the situation than his predecessor. John Miller Andrews CH ( July 17, 1871 &ndash August 5, 1956) was the second Prime Minister of Northern Ireland. The minutes of his cabinet meetings show more discussion on protecting the bronze statue of Carson than the provision of air-raid shelters. Edward Henry Carson Baron Carson, PC, Kt, KC (often known as Sir Edward Carson or Lord Carson) (
On April 28, 1943, six members of the Government threatened to resign, forcing him from office. Events 1192 - Assassination of Conrad of Montferrat (Conrad I King of Jerusalem, in Tyre, two days after his title Year 1943 ( MCMXLIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. He resigned on May 1. Events 305 - Diocletian and Maximian retire from the office of Roman Emperor.
War materials and food was sent by sea from Belfast to Britain, some under the protection of the “neutral” Irish flag. For other uses of Neutral and Neutrality see Neutral A neutral country takes no side in a War between other parties The M. V. Munster, operated by the 'Belfast SteamShip Company' plyed between Belfast and Liverpool under the Irish flag, until she hit a mine and was sunk outside Liverpool. Liverpool ( is a City and Metropolitan borough of Merseyside, England along the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary A naval mine is a self-contained Explosive device placed in water to destroy Ships or Submarines Unlike Depth charges mines are deposited 
Unfortunately there was little preparation for the conflict with Germany. The Office of Public Sector Information ( OPSI) is the body responsible for the operation of Her Majesty's Stationery Office (usually abbreviated as HMSO
James Craig, Lord Craigavon, Prime Minister of Northern Ireland since its inception in 1921, claimed; "Ulster is ready when we get the word and always will be. James Craig 1st Viscount Craigavon, Bart, PC ( 8 January 1871 – 24 November 1940) was a prominent Irish unionist " He was asked, in the N. I. parliament: "if the government realized 'that these fast bombers can come to Northern Ireland in two and three quarter hours". His reply was: “We here today are in a state of war and we are prepared with the rest of the United Kingdom and empire to face all the responsibilities that imposes on the Ulster people. The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. Ulster ( Ulaidh ˈkwɪɟɪ ˈʌlˠu / ˈʌlˠi is one of the four provinces of Ireland, in addition to Connacht, Munster and Leinster There is no slacking in our loyalty. ”
Richard Dawson Bates, the Home Affairs Minister, simply refused to reply to army correspondence and when the Ministry of Home Affairs was informed by imperial defence experts that Belfast was a certain Luftwaffe target, nothing was done.
Belfast, a city with the highest population density had the lowest proportion of air-raid shelters. Prior to the "Belfast Blitz" there were only 200 public shelters, although 4,000 households had built their own shelters. No searchlights set up, as they only arrived on April 10. There were no night-fighters. On the night of the raid, no RAF aircraft took to the air. There were only 22 anti-aircraft guns, six light, and sixteen heavy. On the night, only seven were operated for a short time. There was no smokescreen ability. There were some barrage balloons.
These air-raid shelters were Anderson shelters. For the general article about fortified structures see Bunker. They were just sheets of corrugated galvanised iron. Corrugated galvanised iron (colloquially corrugated iron, commonly abbreviated CGI is a Building material composed of sheets of hot-dip galvanised Since most casualties were caused by falling masonry rather than by blast, these structures provided effective shelter for those who had them.
Unlike other British cities, children had not been evacuated. There had been the "Hiram Plan" initiated by Richard Dawson Bates, the Home Affairs Minister, but it failed to materialise. Fewer than 4,000 women and children were evacuated. There were still 80,000 children in Belfast. Even the children of soldiers had not been evacuated, with calamitous results when the married quarters of Victoria barracks received a direct hit.
From papers recovered after the war, we know of a Luftwaffe reconnaissance flight over Belfast on November 30, 1940. Events 1700 - Battle of Narva — A Swedish army of 8500 men under Charles XII defeats Year 1940 ( MCMXL) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Germans established that Belfast, was defended by only seven anti-aircraft batteries, which made it the most undefended city in the United Kingdom. From their photographs, they identified suitable targets:
There had been a number of small bombings, probably by planes that missed their targets over the Clyde or the cities of the north-west of England. The River Clyde ( Gaelic: Abhainn Chluaidh, avɪɲˈxɫ̪uəj is a major River in Scotland. North West England is one of the nine official Regions of England.
On March 24, 1941, John McDermott, Minister for Security, wrote to the Prime Minister, John Andrews expressing his concerns that Belfast was so poorly protected. Events 1401 - Mongol emperor Timur sacks Damascus. 1603 - James VI of Scotland Year 1941 ( MCMXLI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (the link will display 1941 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. "Up to now we have escaped attack. So had Clydeside until recently. Clydeside got its blitz during the period of the last moon. There [is] ground for thinking that the . . . enemy could not easily reach Belfast in force except during a period of moonlight. The period of the next moon from say the 7th to the 16th of April may well bring our turn. " Unfortunately, McDermott was proved right.
The first deliberate raid took place on the night of April 7. Events 529 - First draft of Corpus Juris Civilis (a fundamental work in Jurisprudence) is issued by Eastern Roman Emperor (Some authors count this as the second raid of four). It targeted the docks. Neighbouring residential areas were also hit. Six Heinkel He 111 bombers, from Kampfgruppe 26, flying at 7,000 feet, dropped incendiaries, high explosive and parachute-bombs. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout Incendiary devices or incendiary bombs are Bombs designed to start Fires or destroy sensitive equipment using materials such as Napalm, Thermite By British blitz experience, casualties were light. 13 lost their lives, including a soldier killed when an anti-aircraft battery, at the Balmoral show-grounds, misfired. The most significant loss was a 4½ acre factory floor for manufacturing the fuselages of Short Stirling bombers. The fuselage (from the French fuselé "spindle-shaped" is an Aircraft 's main body section that holds crew and passengers or Cargo WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout The Royal Air Force announced that Squadron Leader J. W. C. Simpson shot down one of the Heinkels over Downpatrick. Downpatrick ( is a town in County Down in Northern Ireland, about 33 km south of Belfast.
The Luftwaffe crews returned to their base in Northern France and reported that Belfast's defences were, "inferior in quality, scanty and insufficient". This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics.
William Joyce (known as "Lord Haw-Haw") announced in radio broadcasts from Hamburg that there will be “Easter eggs for Belfast”. William Joyce ( 24 April 1906 – 3 January 1946) the man generally associated with the nickname Lord Haw-Haw
On Easter Tuesday, April 15, 1941, spectators watching a football match at Windsor Park noticed a lone Luftwaffe Junkers 107 circling overhead. Easter ( Greek: Πάσχα Pascha or Pasxa) is the most important religious feast in the Christian Liturgical year. Events 1450 - Battle of Formigny: Toward the end of the Hundred Years' War, the French attack and nearly annihilate English Year 1941 ( MCMXLI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (the link will display 1941 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a Team sport played between two teams of eleven players and is widely considered Windsor Park, in Belfast, is the home ground of the Northern Irish football club Linfield. ( German 'luftvafe is a generic German term for an Air force. There was no military response. Distillery F.C. defeated Linfield F.C. by 3 goals to 1. Lisburn Distillery is a Northern Ireland football club playing in the IFA Premiership.
That evening up to 200 bombers left their bases in Northern France and the Low Countries and headed for Belfast. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Belfast ( is the capital city of Northern Ireland and the seat of government in Northern Ireland. There were Heinkel He 111s, Junkers Ju 88s and Dorniers. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout Dornier Flugzeugwerke was a German Aircraft manufacturer founded in Friedrichshafen in 1914 by Claudius Dornier
At 10:40PM the air raid sirens sounded. A civil defense siren (also referred to as an air raid siren, tornado siren, tsunami siren, or other outdoor warning siren and also rarely referred Accounts differ as to when flares were dropped to light up the city. The first attack was against the city's waterworks, which had been attacked in the previous raid. High explosives were dropped. Initially it was thought that the Germans had mistaken this reservoir for the harbour and shipyards, where many ships, including HMS Ark Royal were being repaired. Design In 1923 the Admiralty prepared plans for a ten year building programme which included a new aircraft carrier and 300 aircraft for the Fleet Air Arm However that attack was not an error. When incendiaries were dropped and the city burned, the water pressure was too low for firefighting.
Wave after wave of bombers dropped their incendiaries, high explosives and land-mines. Altogether 203 metric tons of high explosives bombs, 80 landmines attached to parachutes, and 800 firebomb canisters containing 96,000 incendiary bombs were dropped on the city.
There was no opposition. In the mistaken belief that they might damage RAF fighters, the 7 anti-aircraft batteries, ceased firing. Anti-aircraft warfare, or air defense, is any method of engaging hostile military Aircraft in defence of ground objectives, ground or naval forces But, the RAF had not responded. The bombs continued to fall until 5AM. 56,000 houses (more than half of the city's housing stock) were damaged leaving 100,000 temporarily homeless. Outside of London, this was the greatest loss of life in a night raid during the Blitz. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. The Blitz was the sustained bombing of Britain by Nazi Germany between 7 September 1940 and 10 May 1941 in World War II. A stray bomber attacked Derry killing 15. Another attacked Bangor killing 5. Bangor (Beannchor is a large Town in County Down, Northern Ireland, with a population of 76403 people in the 2001 Census, making it the
By 4AM the entire city seemed to be in flames. At 4:15AM John MacDermot, the Minister of Security managed to contact Basil Brooke (then Agriculture Minister), seeking permission to seek help from the Irish Free State. Basil Stanlake Brooke 1st Viscount Brookeborough, Bt, KG, CBE, MC, PC, HML ( June 9 1888 &ndash The Irish Free State (Saorstát Éireann (1922&ndash1937 was the state established as a Dominion on 6 December 1922 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty, signed by Brooke noted in his diary "I gave him authority as it is obviously a question of expediency". Since 1:45AM all telephones had been cut. Fortunately, the railway telegram from Belfast to Dublin was still operational. "Railroad" and "Railway" both redirect here For other uses see Railroad (disambiguation. The telegram was sent at 4:35AM, asking the Irish Premier, de Valera for assistance. Éamon de Valera (ˈeɪmən dɛvəˈlɛrə (born Edward George de Valera) (14 October 1882 &ndash 29 August 1975 was one of the dominant political figures in 20th century
Over 900 lives were lost, 1,500 were injured, 400 of them seriously. 35,000 houses, more than half the houses in the city were damaged. 11 churches, 2 hospitals, and 2 schools were destroyed. They rely on newspaper reports of the time, personal recollections and other primary sources, such as Jimmy Doherty, an air raid warden (who later served in London during the V1 and V2 blitz), who wrote a book on the blitz. Primary source is a term used in a number of disciplines In Historiography, a primary source (also called original source) is a Document, Recording The Fieseler Fi 103, better known as V-1 (German Vergeltungswaffe 1 was an early Cruise missile used during World War Two See also Vergeltungswaffe The V-2 rocket ( Vergeltungswaffe 2 was the first Ballistic missile and first man-made object to achieve
Emma Duffin, a nurse at the Queen’s University Hospital, (who previously served during the Great War), who kept a diary; and Major Seán O'Sullivan, who produced a detailed report for the Dublin government. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All For other uses of the term 'diary' see Diary (disambiguation. There are other diarists and narratives. Dr. Brian Barton of Queen's University, Belfast has written most on this topic, but there can be a different slant to his accounts. Queen's University Belfast is a university in Belfast, Northern Ireland.
When the bombs fell, the population did not know what to do. There were few bomb shelters. An air raid shelter on the Hallidays Road received a direct hit killing all those taking shelter within it. Many people who were dug out of the rubble alive had taken shelter underneath their stairs and were fortunate enough that their homes had not received a direct hit or had even caught on fire. The population did not know whether to run, hide or stay in their beds.
In the New Lodge area people had taken refuge in a Mill, which presumably appeared to them to be a sturdy building. Tragically 35 were crushed to death when the mill wall collapsed. In another mill, the York Street Mill, one of its massive sidewalls collapsed on to Sussex and Vere Streets killing all those who still remained in their homes.
Major O'Sullivan reported "In the heavily ‘blitzed’ areas people ran panic-stricken into the streets and made for the open country. As many were caught in the open by blast and secondary missiles, the enormous number of casualties can be readily accounted for. It is perhaps true that many saved their lives running but I am afraid a much greater number lost them or became casualties. "
That night almost 300 people, many from the Protestant Shankill, took refuge in the Clonard Monastery in the Catholic Falls Road area. The Shankill Road ( is the arterial road leading through a predominantly Protestant working-class area Falls Road also refers to the Rochester Lockport and Niagara Falls Railroad, the New York Central Railroad 's line to Niagara Falls New York. The crypt under the sanctuary and the cellar under the working sacristy, had been fitted out and opened to the people, as an air-raid shelter. Prayers were said and hymns sung by the mainly Protestant women and children during the bombing.
The mortuary services had emergency plans to deal with only 200 bodies. In the event, the public baths on the Falls Road and on Peter's Hill, and the large fruit market, Saint George's market, were used as mortuaries. 150 corpses remained in the Falls Road baths for three days. Then they were buried in a mass grave, with 123 still unidentified. 255 corpses were laid out in St George's Market. Many bodies and parts of bodies could not be identified. Mass graves for the unclaimed bodies were dug in the Milltown and City Cemeteries.
Nurse Emma Duffin, who had served in the Great War, contrasted death in that conflict with what she saw:
Major Seán O'Sullivan reported on the intensity of the bombing in some areas, such as the Antrim Road, where bombs “fell within fifteen to twenty yards of one another. ” The most heavily-bombed area was that which lay between York Street and the Antrim Road.
O'Sullivan felt was that the whole civil defence sector was utterly overwhelmed. Heavy jacks were unavailable. He described some distressing consequences, such as how “in one case the leg and arm of a child had to be amputated before it could be extricated. ”
In his opinion, the greatest want was the lack of hospital facilities. He went to the Mater Hospital at 2PM in the afternoon, 9 hours after the raid ended, to find the street with a traffic jam of ambulances waiting to admit their casualties. The Mater Infirmorum Hospital, commonly known as The Mater ( Ospidéal an Mater) is an acute hospital in Belfast, He spoke with Professor Flynn, (Theodore Thomson Flynn, an Australian based at the Mater Hospital and father of actor Errol Flynn), head of the casualty service for the city, who told him of "casualties due to shock, blast and secondary missiles, such as glass, stones, pieces of piping, etc. Theodore Thomson Flynn ( 11 October 1883 - 23 October 1968) was an Australian biologist and a professor in both Tasmania The Mater Infirmorum Hospital, commonly known as The Mater ( Ospidéal an Mater) is an acute hospital in Belfast, Errol Leslie Thomson Flynn ( June 20, 1909 &ndash October 14, 1959) was an Australian Film Actor, most " O'Sullivan reported: “There were many terrible mutilations among both living and dead - heads crushed, ghastly abdominal and face wounds, penetration by beams, mangled and crushed limbs etc”. His report concluded with: "a second Belfast would be too horrible to contemplate".
To a Dún Laoghaire fireman the most haunting sight were not the horribly wounded dead, but those without a blemish. Dún Laoghaire (in Irish d̪ˠuːn̪ˠ ˈɫeːrʲə sometimes spelled Dún Laoire; Anglicised as Dunleary, dʌn ˈlɪəri is a suburban When the city’s gasworks exploded, there was a temporary vacuum. This vacuum means "absence of matter" or "an empty area or space" for the cleaning appliance see Vacuum cleaner. This smothered all fires and all life. Windows, slates, and all loose material were sucked from the houses. Those inside, mostly still lying in their beds, were lifeless, their eyes wide open with fright, and their mouths wide open seeking a breath.
220,000 fled from the city. Many “arrived in Fermanagh having nothing with them only night shirts”. County Fermanagh (fɚr'mænɘ Contae Fhear Manach or Fear Manach ('Men of Monach'in Irish) is the westernmost of the six counties that form Northern 10,000 “officially” crossed the border. Over 500 received care from the Irish Red Cross in Dublin. The town of Dromara saw its population increase from 500 to 2,500. In Newtownards, Bangor, Larne, Carrickfergus, Lisburn and Antrim many thousands of Belfast citizens took refuge either with friends or strangers.
O'Sullivan reported on a
Train after train and bus after bus were filled with those next in line. At nightfall the Northern Counties Station was packed from platform gates to entrance gates and still refugees were coming along in a steady stream from the surrounding streets . . . Open military lorries were finally put into service and even expectant mothers and mothers with young children were put into these in the rather heavy drizzle that lasted throughout the evening. On the 17th I heard that hundreds who either could not get away or could not leave for other reasons simply went out into the fields and remained in the open all night with whatever they could take in the way of covering. ”
Cabinet Minister Richard Dawson Bates informed the cabinet of rack-renting of barns, and over thirty people per house in some areas.
By 6AM; within two hours of the request for assistance, 71 fire men with 13 fire tenders from Dundalk, Drogheda, Dublin, and Dún Laoghaire were on their way to cross the Irish border to assist their Belfast colleagues. Firefighters are rescuers extensively trained primarily to put out hazardous Fires that threaten civilian populations and property to rescue people from car accidents collapsed A fire apparatus, fire engine, fire truck, or fire appliance is a vehicle designed to assist in fighting Fires by transporting Firefighters Dundalk (Dún Dealgan is the County town of County Louth in Ireland, situated close to the border with Northern Ireland. Drogheda (ˈdrɒhədə ˈdrɔːdə ( Droichead Átha in Irish, meaning "Bridge of the Ford" is an industrial and port town in County Louth on Dublin (ˈdʌblɨn/ /ˈdʊblɨn or /ˈdʊbəlɪn/, bˠalʲə aːha klʲiəh or cliə(ɸ is both the largest city and capital of Ireland. Dún Laoghaire (in Irish d̪ˠuːn̪ˠ ˈɫeːrʲə sometimes spelled Dún Laoire; Anglicised as Dunleary, dʌn ˈlɪəri is a suburban In each station volunteers were asked for, as it was beyond their normal duties. In every instance, all volunteered. They remained for three days, until they were sent back by the Northern Ireland government. By then 250 fire men from Clydeside had arrived. 
De Valera formally protested to Berlin. Berlin is the capital city and one of sixteen states of Germany. He followed up with his "they are our people" speech.
Frank Aiken, the Minister for Defence was in Boston, Massachusetts at the time. Frank Aiken (Proinsias Mac Aodhagáin new spelling Proinsias Mac Aogáin; 13 February 1898 – 18 May 1983 was a senior Irish Politician. The Minister for the Co-ordination of Defensive Measures was created by the Ministers and Secretaries (Amendment Act 1939 to assist Ireland through the World War II He gave an interview to the press there, saying: “the people of Belfast are Irish people too”.
Initial German radio broadcasts celebrated the raid. Luftwaffe pilot gave this description "We were in exceptional good humour knowing that we were going for a new target, one of England's last hiding places. Wherever Churchill is hiding his war material we will go . Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC, PC (Can ( 30 November 1874 . . Belfast is as worthy a target as Coventry, Birmingham, Bristol or Glasgow. Coventry ( is a city and Metropolitan borough in the County of West Midlands in England. Birmingham ( ˈbɜːmɪŋəm Ber -ming-um Bristol ( ˈbrɪstəl is a city, Unitary authority and ceremonial county in South West England, west of London Glasgow (ˈglæzgoʊ is the largest city in Scotland and third most populous in the United Kingdom " William Joyce "Lord Haw-Haw" announced that "The Führer will give you time to bury your dead before the next attack . William Joyce ( 24 April 1906 – 3 January 1946) the man generally associated with the nickname Lord Haw-Haw . . Tuesday was only a sample. "
However Belfast was not mentioned again by the Nazis. After the war, instructions from Joseph Goebbels were discovered ordering it not to be mentioned. Paul Joseph Goebbels (German pronunciation ˈɡœbəls English generally ˈɡɝbəlz (29 October 1897 1 May 1945 was a German politician and Reich Minister of Public It would appear that Adolf Hitler, in view of de Valera's negative reaction, was concerned that de Valera and Irish American politicians might encourage the United States to enter the war. Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately Irish Americans (Gael-Mheiriceánach are citizens of the United States who can claim ancestry originating in Ireland. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the
Eduard Hempel, the German ambassador called to the Irish Ministry for External Affairs, to offer sympathy and attempt an explanation. Eduard Hempel (1887&ndash1972 was the Nazi German Minister to Ireland between 1937 and 1945 &mdash in the build up to and during The Emergency ( Second World The Minister for Foreign Affairs (Aire Gnóthaí Eachtracha is the senior minister at the Department of Foreign Affairs in the Government of Ireland. J. P. Walshe, assistant secretary, recorded that the German was "clearly distressed by the news of the severe raid on Belfast and especially of the number of civilian casualties. " He stated that "he would once more tell his government how he felt about the matter and he would ask them to confine the operations to military objectives as far as it was humanly possible. He believed that this was being done already but it was inevitable that a certain number of civilian lives should be lost in the course of heavy bombing from the air".
Among the people of Northern Ireland, reactions tended to blame their government for inadequate precautions. Tommy Henderson, an Independent Unionist MP in the House of Commons of Northern Ireland, summed up their feelings when he invited the Minister of Home Affairs to Hannahstown and the Falls Road, saying "The Catholics and the Protestants are going up there mixed and they are talking to one another. Thomas Gibson Henderson (1877 &ndash August 14, 1970) usually known as Tommy Henderson, was an Ulster independent Unionist The House of Commons of Northern Ireland was the lower house of the Parliament of Northern Ireland created under the Government of Ireland Act 1920. They are sleeping in the same sheugh, below the same tree or in the same barn. They all say the same thing, that the government is no good. "
One widespread criticism was that the Germans located Belfast by heading for Dublin, which was not observing a blackout and following the railway lines north. In The Blitz: Belfast in the war years, Dr Brian Barton wrote: "Government Ministers felt with justification, that the Germans were able to use the unblacked out lights in the south to guide them to their targets in the North. " Barton insisted that Belfast was "too far north" to use radio guidance.
Other writers, such as Tony Gray's The Lost Years state that the Germans did follow their radio guidance beams. It seems strange that the railway line, and the railway telegraph wire which was used to call Dublin for help, remained intact if they were following it. Several accounts point out that Belfast, standing at the end of the long inlet of Belfast Lough, would be easily located. Belfast Lough ( Loch Lao or Loch Laoigh in Irish) is a large natural intertidal sea lough situated at the mouth of the River Lagan on the
Another claim was that the Catholic population in general and the IRA in particular guided the bombers. This article deals with the Irish republican organisation opposed to the Anglo-Irish Treaty styling itself "Irish Republican Army" as it existed from the time of the Treaty Dr Barton wrote: "the Catholic population was much more strongly opposed to conscription, was inclined to sympathise with Germany", ". . . there were suspicions that the Germans were assisted in identifying targets, held by the Unionist population. It is true that the bulk of the damage caused by the raids was in Protestant areas. ", and "The police, at the time reported seeing lights shining from the hills surrounding the city and thought it suspicious. "
The bulk of the damage caused by the raids was in Protestant areas. However many of the industries attacked, such as the Harland and Wolff Shipyards, mainly employed Protestants. The areas adjoining these industries were largely Protestant.
This view was probably influenced by the decision of the IRA Army Council to support Germany. The IRA Army Council is the decision-making body of the Provisional Irish Republican Army, more commonly known as the IRA a Paramilitary group dedicated to bringing However they were not in a position to communicate with the Germans. Information recovered from Germany after the war showed that the planning of the blitz was based entirely on their own aerial reconnaissance. See main article on IRA Nazi links IRA Abwehr World War II.
After three days, sometime after 6pm the fire crews from south of the border began making up their hose and ladders to head for home. By then most of the major fires were under control and the firemen from Clydeside and other British cities were arriving. Some had received food, others were famished. All were exhausted. Two of the crews received refreshments in Banbridge; others were entertained in the Ancient Order of Hibernians hall in Newry. Banbridge ( is a rapidly growing Town in County Down, Northern Ireland. The Ancient Order of Hibernians ( AOH) is an Irish-Catholic Fraternal organization. Newry ( short form An tIúr, "The Yew" is the fourth largest city in Northern Ireland and eighth on the island of Ireland.
Belatedly in 1995 on the fiftieth anniversary of the ending of the Second World War an invitation was received by the Dublin Fire Brigade, addressed to any survivors of those historic days, to attend a function at Hillsborough Castle and meet Prince Charles. Year 1995 ( MCMXCV) was a Common year starting on Sunday. Events of 1995 Hillsborough Castle is an official government residence in Northern Ireland. Only four of those who were there were still known to be alive at that time, one Tom Coleman, traveled north to receive some recognition for his colleagues' solidarity at such a critical time.
There was a later raid on Belfast on May 4; it was confined to the docks and shipyards. Events 1256 - The Augustinian monastic order is constituted at the Lecceto Monastery when Pope Alexander IV Again the Irish emergency services crossed the border, this time without an invitation. A subsequent air raid on Dublin, on May 30, is described in the article on the bombing of Dublin in World War II. Dublin (ˈdʌblɨn/ /ˈdʊblɨn or /ˈdʊbəlɪn/, bˠalʲə aːha klʲiəh or cliə(ɸ is both the largest city and capital of Ireland. Events 1416 - The Council of Constance, called by the Emperor Sigismund a supporter of Antipope John XXIII burns Jerome of Prague following The Bombing of Dublin in World War II occurred on 31 May 1941 when amid World War II, the German Air Force ( Luftwaffe) bombed Dublin
^ Richard Bates was drunk for most of each day. Source: The Belfast Blitz, 1941, Jonathan Bardon, Lecturer of History, Queens University, Belfast.