Location in the Republic of Lebanon
|Governorate||Beirut, Capital City|
|- Mayor||Abdel Mounim Ariss|
|- City||100 km² (31 sq mi)|
|- Density||12,500/km² (32,374. Wikipedia talkFeatured lists for an explanation of this and other inclusion tags below -->This list of countries, arranged alphabetically Lebanon (ˈlɛbənɒn Arabic: ar لبنان Lubnān) officially the Republic of Lebanon or Lebanese Republic (ar الجمهورية اللبنانية |||} Lebanon is divided into six Governorates ( Muhafazah) listed with their capitals in parentheses Beirut ( Beirut The Governorate of Beirut ( Arabic:, ar-Latn Muhāfazat Bayrūt is the only Lebanese governorate that consists of one District and one City A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning "greater" is a modern title used in many countries for the highest ranking officer in a municipal government Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. Square Kilometre ( US spelling square kilometer) symbol km2, is a decimal multiple of the SI unit of The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume 9/sq mi)|
|Time zone||+2 (UTC)|
|- Summer (DST)||+3 (UTC)|
|Website: City of Beirut|
Beirut (Arabic: بيروت, Bayrūt, Greek: Βηρυττός Viryttós, French: Beyrouth, Syriac: ܒܝܪܘܬ) is the capital and largest city of Lebanon. A metropolitan area is a large population center consisting of a large Metropolis and its adjacent zone of influence or of more than one closely adjoining neighboring central Daylight saving time ( DST Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people See Syriac (disambiguation for other uses Syriac (syr ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ leššānā Suryāyā) is an Eastern Aramaic language Lebanon (ˈlɛbənɒn Arabic: ar لبنان Lubnān) officially the Republic of Lebanon or Lebanese Republic (ar الجمهورية اللبنانية Located on a peninsula at the midpoint of Lebanon's coastline with the Mediterranean sea, it serves as the country's largest and main seaport. A peninsula is a piece of land that is nearly surrounded by Water but connected to Mainland via an Isthmus. ||-||-|-||-||-||-||-||-||-|} A port is a facility for receiving Ships and transferring cargo The first mention of this metropolis is found in the ancient Egyptian Tell el Amarna letters, dating to the 15th century BC, and the city has been continuously inhabited over the centuries since. Ancient Egypt was an Ancient Civilization in eastern North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now The site of Amarna (commonly known as el-Amarna or incorrectly as Tel el-Amarna; see below ( Arabic: العمارنة al-‘amārnah) is located
Beirut holds Lebanon's seat of government and plays a central role in the Lebanese economy with its Downtown, Hamra, Verdun, and Ashrafieh based corporate firms and banks. The city is also the focal point of the region's cultural life, renowned for its press, theaters and cultural activities. After the destructive Lebanese civil war, Beirut underwent major reconstruction, and the redesigned historic city center, marina, pubs and nightlife districts have once again rendered it a popular tourist attraction. The Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990 was a multifaceted Civil war whose antecedents can be traced back to the conflicts and political compromises reached after the end
Originally named Bêrūt, "The Wells" by the Phoenicians, Beirut's history goes back more than 5000 years. Phoenicia ( Phoenician: Phoenician nunsvg|12px|נ]]Phoenician nun  Excavations in the downtown area have unearthed layers of Phoenician, Hellenistic, Roman, Arab and Ottoman remains. The Beirut Central District ( BCD) popularly known as Centre Ville, is the name given to Beirut ’s historical and geographical core, the “vibrant  The first historical reference to Beirut dates from the 14th century BC, when it is mentioned in the cuneiform tablets of the "Amarna letters. The Amarna letters (sometimes "Amarna correspondence" or "Amarna tablets" are an archive of correspondence on Clay tablets mostly diplomatic " Ammunira of Biruta (Beirut) sent 3 letters to the pharaoh of Egypt. Ammunira was the king of Beirut in the mid fourteenth century BCE  Biruta is also referenced in the letters from Rib-Hadda of Byblos. Rib-Hadda (also rendered Rib-Addi, Rib-Addu, Rib-Adda) was king of Byblos during the mid fourteenth century BCE Byblos ( Βύβλος) is the Greek name of the Phoenician city Gebal (earlier Gubla) The most ancient settlement was on an island in the river that progressively silted up. The city was known in antiquity as Berytus (see also List of traditional Greek place names); this name was taken in 1934 for the archaeological journal published by the Faculty of Arts and Sciences at the American University of Beirut. This is a list of Greek place names. That is a list of the names of places as they exist in the Greek language. The American University of Beirut (AUB الجامعة الأميركية في بيروت is a private independent University in Beirut, Lebanon. 
In 140 BC, the city was taken and destroyed by Diodotus Tryphon in his contest with Antiochus VII Sidetes for the throne of the Seleucid monarchy. Diodotus Tryphon was king of the Hellenistic Seleucid kingdom. Antiochus VII Euergetes, nicknamed Sidetes (from Sidon) ruler of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire, reigned from 138 to 129 BC The Seleucid Empire /sə'lusɪd/ ( 312 - 63 BC) was a Hellenistic empire i Beirut was soon rebuilt on a more regularized Hellenistic plan, renamed Laodicea in Phoenicia (Greek: Λαοδικεια ή του Φοινίκη) or Laodicea in Canaan, in honor of a Seleucid Laodice. This article focuses on the cultural aspects of the Hellenistic age for the historical aspects see Hellenistic period. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly The modern city overlies the ancient one and little archaeology had been accomplished until after the end of the civil war in 1991; now large sites in the devastated city center have been opened to archaeological exploration. A dig in 1994 established that one of Beirut's modern streets, Souk Tawile, still follows the lines of an ancient Hellenistic/Roman one.
Mid-first century coins of Berytus bear the head of Tyche, goddess of fortune; on the reverse, the city's symbol appears: a dolphin entwines an anchor. In ancient Greek city cults, Tyche (Τύχη meaning "luck" in Greek, Roman equivalent Fortuna) was the presiding Tutelary This symbol was taken up by the early printer Aldus Manutius in 15th century Venice. Aldus Manutius (1449/1450 – February 6, 1515) the Latinized name of Teobaldo Mannucci, sometimes called Aldus Manutius the Elder to distinguish Venice ( Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venesia or Venexia) is a city in Northern Italy, the capital of the
Beirut was conquered by Agrippa in 64 BC and the city was renamed in honor of the emperor's daughter, Julia; its full name became Colonia Julia Augusta Felix Berytus.  The veterans of two Roman legions were established in the city: the fifth Macedonian and the third Gallic. The city quickly became Romanized. Large public buildings and monuments were erected and Berytus enjoyed full status as a part of the empire. 
Under the Romans, it was enriched by the dynasty of Herod the Great, and was made a colonia, Colonia Iulia Augusta Felix Berytus, in 14 BC. Herod (הוֹרְדוֹס Horodos, Greek: Herōdes) also known as Herod I or Herod the Great (73 BC – 4 BC in Jericho A Roman colonia (plural coloniae) was originally a Roman outpost established in conquered territory to secure it Beirut's school of law was widely known at the time.  Two of Rome's most famous jurists, Papinian and Ulpian, both natives of Phoenicia, taught at the law school under the Severan emperors. Aemilius Papinianus (142&ndash212 also known as Papinian, was a celebrated Roman jurist magister libellorum and after the death of Gaius Domitius Ulpianus (died 228 anglicized as Ulpian, was a Roman Jurist of Tyrian ancestry The Severan dynasty was a Roman imperial Dynasty, which ruled the Roman Empire between 193 and 235. When Justinian assembled his Pandects in the 6th century, a large part of the corpus of laws were derived from these two jurists, and Justinian recognized the school as one of the three official law schools of the empire (533). Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus ( Greek: Φλάβιος Πέτρος Σαββάτιος Ιουστινιανός; known in English as Justinian I or Pandects ( Lat pandectae, adapted from Gr pandektes, all-containing is a name given to a compendium or digest of Roman law Within a few years, as the result of a disastrous earthquake (551), the students were transferred to Sidon. Sidon,or Saïda, ( Arabic ar صيدا; Phoenician phoenician yodh  Saida (Sidon)], IkamaAbout 30,000 were killed in Berytus alone and, along the Phoenician coast, total casualties were close to 250,000. 
Beirut passed to the Arabs in 635. Mount Sannine ( Arabic: جبل صنين is a Mountain in the Mount Lebanon range The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding  As a trading centre of the eastern Mediterranean, Beirut was overshadowed by Akka during the Middle Ages. From 1110 to 1291 it was in the hands of the Crusaders. The Crusades were a series of military campaigns of a religious character waged by much of Christian Europe against external and internal opponents  No matter who was its nominal overlord, whether Turk or Mamluk, Beirut was ruled locally by Druze emirs. The Druze ( Arabic: درزي derzī or durzī, plural دروز durūz) are a religious community found primarily in Syria, Lebanon  One of these, Fakr ed-Din Maan II, fortified it early in the 17th century, but the Ottomans retook it in 1763 and thenceforth, with the help of Damascus, Beirut successfully broke Akka's monopoly on Syrian maritime trade and for a few years supplanted it as the main trading centre in the region. Fakhr-al-Din II also the Great or Fakhreddine II (1572&ndash April 13, 1635) (فخر الدين الثاني بن قرقماز was a Lebanese The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish Damascus ( دمشق,, also commonly known as الشام ash-Shām) is the capital and largest city of Syria. During the succeeding epoch of rebellion against Ottoman hegemony at Akka under Jezzar and Abdullah pashas, Beirut declined to a small town (population about 10,000), and was fought over among the Druze, the Turks and the pashas. Ahmed al-Jazzar (Arabic أحمد الجزار born 1720 in Bosnia, died 1804 in Ottoman Acre Damascus Wiliyah) was the ruler of Akko or Acre After Ibrahim Pasha captured Akka in 1832, Beirut began its early modern revival.
In 1888, Beirut was made capital of a vilayet in Syria, including the sanjaks Latakia, Tripoli, Beirut, Akka and Bekaa. The Grand Serail (السراي الكبير also known as the Government Palace) is the headquarters of the Prime Minister of Lebanon. A wilāyah (ولاية or vilâyet (in Persian and Ottoman Turkish) is an administrative division usually Sanjak and Sandjak (other variants sinjaq sanjaq) are the most common English transcriptions of the Turkish word sancak Tripoli ( Lebanese Arabic: طرابلس Ṭrāblos or Ṭrēblos locally Ṭrōbles Standard Arabic: Ṭarābulus Τρίπολις Tripolis is the second-largest  Beirut became a very cosmopolitan city and had close links with Europe and the United States. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Beirut became a centre of missionary activity, which was generally very unsuccessful in conversions (a massacre of Christians in 1860 was the occasion for further European interventions), but did build an impressive education system. A missionary is a member of a Religion who works to convert those who do not share the missionary's faith someone who proselytizes. This included the Syrian Protestant College, which was established by American missionaries and eventually became the American University of Beirut (AUB). Beirut became the centre of Arab intellectual activity in the 19th century. Provided with water from a British company and gas from a French one, the city thrived on exporting silk grown on nearby Mount Lebanon. Silk is a natural Protein Fiber, some forms of which can be woven into Textiles The best-known type of silk is obtained from cocoons After French engineers established a modern harbor (1894) and a rail link across Lebanon to Damascus, and then to Aleppo (1907), much of the trade was carried by French ships to Marseille, and soon French influence in the area exceeded that of any other European power. For other meanings see Aleppo (disambiguation. Halab redirects here for other meanings see Halab (disambiguation. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Marseille, ( English alt Marseilles mɑrˈseɪ — French: maʁsɛj locally — Provençal Occitan: Marselha maʀˈsijɔ In 1911, the population mix was reported in the Encyclopædia Britannica as Muslims, 36,000; Christians, 77,000; Jews, 2500; Druze, 400; foreigners, 4100. The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica Inc After the collapse of the Ottoman Empire following World War I, Beirut, along with all of Lebanon was placed under the French Mandate. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All The French Mandate of Lebanon was a League of Nations Mandate created at the end of World War I.
Lebanon achieved independence in 1943 and Beirut became its capital city. Beirut remained the intellectual capital of the Arab world and a major commercial and tourist center until 1975 when a brutal civil war broke out in Lebanon. The Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990 was a multifaceted Civil war whose antecedents can be traced back to the conflicts and political compromises reached after the end  During most of the war, the city was divided between the largely Muslim west part and the Christian east.  The central area of the city, previously the focus of much of the commercial and cultural activities, became a no man's land. No man's land is a term for land that is not occupied or more specifically land that is under dispute between countries or areas that will not occupy it because of fear or uncertainty Many of the city's inhabitants fled to other countries. In 1983, French and US barracks were bombed, killing 302. The Beirut barracks bombing was a major incident on October 23, 1983, during the Lebanese Civil War.
Since the end of the war in 1990, the people of Lebanon have been rebuilding Beirut, and by the start of the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict the city had somewhat regained its status as a tourist, cultural, and intellectual center in the Middle East, as well as a center for commerce, fashion, and media. Solidere sal is a Lebanese joint-stock company in charge of planning and redeveloping Beirut Central District Background See also Israel-Lebanon conflict The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO had engaged in cross-border attacks from Southern Lebanon Tourism is Travel for Recreational or Leisure purposes The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people who "travel However, many would say the city has lost its premier status, due to competition from places like Dubai and Cyprus in the fields of tourism, business, fashion, commerce, and banking. Dubai (in دبيّ,) is one of the seven emirates and most populous city of the United Arab Emirates (UAE Cyprus (Κύπρος transliterated: Kýpros,; Kıbrıs officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία Kypriakī́ Dīmokratía Reconstruction of downtown Beirut has been largely driven by Solidere, a development company established in 1994 by Rafik Hariri. Solidere sal is a Lebanese joint-stock company in charge of planning and redeveloping Beirut Central District Beirut is home to the international designer Elie Saab, jeweller Robert Moawad, and to some popular satellite television stations, such as LBC, Future TV, New TV and others. Elie Saab (Arabic إيلي صعب (born July 4 1964 sometimes known simply as 'ES' is a Lebanese Fashion designer. Satellite television is Television delivered by the means of Communications satellites as compared to conventional Terrestrial television and Cable The city was host to the Asian Club Basketball Championship and the Asian Football Cup. Beirut also successfully hosted the Miss Europe pageant eight times, 1960-1964, 1999, 2001-2002. Miss Europe is a popular regional Beauty pageant among female contestants from the nations of the European continent established at the end of World War II by
The 2005 assassination of former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafik Hariri near the Saint George Bay in Beirut shook the entire country. The Saint George Bay (known in Lebanon as Golfe de Saint-Georges) is located on the northern coast of the city of Beirut in Lebanon  Approximately one million people gathered for an opposition rally in Beirut, a month after the death of Hariri. . The "Cedar Revolution" was the largest rally in Lebanon's history.  The last Syrian troops withdrew from Beirut on April 26, 2005. Events 1467 - The miraculous image in Our Lady of Good Counsel appear in Genazzano, Italy. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. 
Beirut is positioned on a peninsula extending westward into the Mediterranean Sea, about 94 km (58 mi) north of the Lebanon-Israel border. Raouché is a residential and commercial neighborhood in Beirut, Lebanon. The city is flanked by the Lebanon mountains, it has taken on a triangular shape, largely influenced by its situation between and atop two hills: Al-Ashrafieh and Al-Musaytibah. Achrafieh, ( Arabic: الأشرفية spelled in English as Ashrafieh) is one of Beirut 's oldest quarters The Beirut Governorate area is of 18 square kilometres (6. 9 sq mi), and the city's metropolitan area is of 67 square kilometres (26 sq mi). Beirut's coast is rather diverse; rocky beaches, sandy shores, and cliffs are situated beside one another.
Beirut has a Mediterranean climate characterized by a hot and humid summer, pleasant fall and spring, and cool, rainy winter. A Mediterranean climate is one that resembles the Climate of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin, which includes over half of the area with this climate type world-wide August is the hottest month of the year with a monthly average high temperature of 29 °C (85 °F), and January and February are the coldest months with a monthly average low temperature of 10 °C (50 °F). During the afternoon and evening the prevailing wind direction is from the west, i. e. , onshore, or inland from the Mediterranean Sea; at night the wind direction reverses to offshore, i. e. , blowing from the land out to the sea.
Winter is the rainy season, with major precipitation falling after December. The average annual rainfall is 860 millimetres (34. 1 inches); the rainfall is concentrated during scattered days in winter falling in heavy cloudbursts.
|Weather averages for Beirut|
|Average high °C (°F)||16 (61)||16 (62)||18 (65)||21 (71)||23 (75)||26 (80)||28 (84)||29 (85)||28 (83)||26 (80)||22 (72)||17 (64)||22 (73)|
|Average low °C (°F)||10 (50)||10 (50)||11 (52)||14 (58)||17 (63)||20 (69)||22 (73)||23 (75)||22 (72)||20 (68)||15 (59)||11 (53)||16 (62)|
|Precipitation cm (inches)||18 (7. In Meteorology, precipitation (also known as one class of hydrometeors, which are atmospheric water phenomena is any product of the condensation of atmospheric 4)||15 (6)||9 (3. 8)||5 (2. 0)||1 (0. 7)||0. 25 (0. 1)||0 (0)||0 (0)||0. 5 (0. 2)||4 (1. 9)||11 (4. 7)||17 (6. 9)||86 (34. 1)|
|Source: Weatherbase 2007|
Beirut is divided into twelve municipality recognized neighborhoods, these are: Ashrafieh, Beshoura, Dar el Mreyseh, Marfa’, Mazra’a, Mdawar, Mina El Hosson, Msaytbeh, Ras Beirut, Rmeil, Saifi, Zkak El Blat.  Four of the twelve official Palestinian refugee camps in Lebanon are located in Beirut: Burj el-Barajneh, Dbayeh, Mar Elias, and Shatila. Palestinian Refugee camps were established after the 1948 Arab-Israeli War to accommodate Palestinian refugees who fled from the war Bourj el-Barajneh (برج البراجنة is a neighborhood and suburb of Beirut, in Lebanon located between the Beirut International Airport and Mar Elias (مار الياس is a Christian Saint very well known and worshiped by Christians in Lebanon The Shatila refugee camp (مخيم شاتيلة (also Chatila refugee camp) is a long-term Refugee camp for Palestinian refugees set up by UNRWA  Of the fifteen unregistered or unofficial refugee camps, Sabra, which lies adjacent to Shatila, is also located in Beirut. 
The capital Beirut is the seat of the Lebanese Parliament  and of the government, and encompasses all the Ministries, most of the public administrations, embassies and consulates.  Beirut is one of six mohafazah (state governorates; mohafazat, singular), with the others being Beqaa, North Lebanon, South Lebanon, Mount Lebanon and Nabatiye. The Governorate of Beirut ( Arabic:, ar-Latn Muhāfazat Bayrūt is the only Lebanese governorate that consists of one District and one City Beqaa ( البقاع) is a governorate in Lebanon with a population of 750000 inhabitants North Governorate (الشمال transliterated: ash- Shamal) is one of the Governorates of Lebanon. South Governorate (الجنوب transliterated: Al-Janub) is one of the governorates of Lebanon. Mount Lebanon ( Arabic: جبل لبنان; transliterated: Jabal Libnan is one of the Governorates of Lebanon. Nabatieh Governorate (محافظة النبطية Muhaa-fza al-Nabatiya) is one of the six governorates of Lebanon. 
|Name||Took office||Left office|
|1||Kamel Abbas Hamieh||1936||1941|
|7||Chafik Abou Haydar||1967||1977|
|8||Mitri El Nammar||1977||1987|
|10||Nayef Al Maaloof||1992||1995|
The city is home to numerous international organizations. The United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA) is headquartered in Downtown Beirut while the International Labour Organization (ILO) and UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) both have regional offices in Beirut covering the Arab world. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security The United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (UN-ESCWA headquartered in Beirut, Lebanon, is one of the five regional The International Labour Organization United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established on November 16 The Arab Air Carriers Organization (AACO) is also headquartered in Beirut. The Arab Air Carriers Organization (AACO (الإتحاد العربي للنقل الجوي is a regional airline trade organization of Arab airlines established in 1965 by 
There are wide-ranging estimates of Beirut's population, from as low as 938,940 people, to 1,303,129 people, to as high as 2,012,000.  The lack of an exact figure is due to the fact that no population census has been taken in Lebanon since 1932. 
Beirut is one of the most religiously diverse cities of the Middle East, with Christians, and Muslims both having a significant presence. The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Beirut is the most Christian capital of the Middle East. There are nine major religious sects in Beirut (Sunni Muslim, Shiite Muslim, Druze, Maronite Catholic, Greek Orthodox, Greek Catholic, Armenian Orthodox, Armenian Catholic, and Protestant). Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. Sunni Islam is also referred to as Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jamā‘h (Arabic The Druze ( Arabic: درزي derzī or durzī, plural دروز durūz) are a religious community found primarily in Syria, Lebanon Maronites ( الموارنة,, Syriac: ܡܪܘܢܝܐ, Latin: Ecclesia Maronitarum) are members of one of the Syriac The Greek Orthodox Church ( Greek: Ἑλληνορθόδοξη Ἐκκλησία Hellēnorthódoxē Ekklēsía) is formed by several autocephalous churches This article refers to Eastern Churches in full communion with the Holy See The Armenian Apostolic Church (Հայաստանեայց Առաքելական Եկեղեցի Hayasdaneaytz Arakelagan (Refer to List of Armenian Catholic Patriarchs of Cilicia) The Armenian Catholic Church is an Eastern Catholic church Sui juris within Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. Family matters such as marriage, divorce and inheritance are still handled by the religious authorities representing a person's faith. Calls for civil marriage are unanimously rejected by the religious authorities but civil marriages held in another country are recognized by Lebanese civil authorities. Several decades ago, Beirut was also home to a Jewish community, in Wadi Abu Jamil neighbourhood.
Beirut has had a history of political strife due to religious divisions. Religion has historically divided Lebanese society decisively, evident in its prolonged civil war.
Higher education in Beirut, and all over Lebanon, is provided by technical and vocational institutes, university colleges, university institutes and universities. The American University of Beirut (AUB الجامعة الأميركية في بيروت is a private independent University in Beirut, Lebanon. Among these numbers of institutions nationwide, the Lebanese University is the only public institution in the capital. The Lebanese University (الجامعة اللبنانية Université Libanaise is the only public institution for higher learning  The responsibility of the Directorate General of Higher Education is responsible for managing the university colleges, university Institutes and Universities in Beirut and nationwide. 
Among the most famous private schools in Beirut are the International College, the American Community School, the Collège Protestant Français, the Collège Louise Wegman and the Grand Lycée Franco-Libanais. The American Community School at Beirut (also known as ACS Beirut or the مدرسة الجالية الأميركية في بيروت is a private school located in Beirut The Grand Lycée Franco-Libanais (GLFL is a French Lycée in the Ashrafieh district of Beirut Lebanon founded in 1909 by the Mission Laïque Française an
The higher education system is based on the Baccalauréat libanais but the Baccalauréat Français is accepted as an equivalent. Before being admitted to any higher education institution, one must achieve his or her Baccalauréat examinations. Baccalauréat technique is an alternative to credentials. 
Foreign students who wish to study in higher Lebanese institutions must also meet Lebanese qualifications. Their examinations must be equivalent to the Baccalauréat system before they are granted admission to higher institutions. They are not subject to any special quota system, and scholarships are granted within the framework of bilateral agreements concluded with other countries.  Degrees obtained outside Lebanon must be certified by the Lebanese embassy abroad and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Lebanon. Then, candidates must go in person to the Secretariat of the Equivalence Committee with required documents. 
Beirut is home to some of the most well-renowned universities in the middle East, such as the American University of Beirut, Université Saint-Joseph and the Lebanese American University. The American University of Beirut (AUB الجامعة الأميركية في بيروت is a private independent University in Beirut, Lebanon. Université Saint-Joseph (USJ is a private higher institute of education founded by the Jesuits in 1875 in Beirut, Lebanon, known Lebanese American University is an American institution operating in Lebanon.
The city's airport is the Raffic Hariri International Airport and is located in the southern suburbs. Transport in Beirut is a daily necessity to everyone living in and outside the capital Beirut Rafic Hariri International Airport (formerly Beirut International Airport or Khaldé International Airport) ( مطار رفيق الحريري الدولي Beirut Rafic Hariri International Airport (formerly Beirut International Airport or Khaldé International Airport) ( مطار رفيق الحريري الدولي 
By land, the latter are served by either service or taxis. A Service taxi is a low-cost taxi service available in Lebanon, Israel and a few other countries somewhat akin to a Shuttle but usually provided A taxicab, also taxi or cab, is a type of Public transport for a single passenger or small group of passengers typically for a non-shared ride A service taxi is a lot cheaper than a normal taxi, however to avoid misunderstanding agreement over the pricing need to be made before setting off. 
Beirut has frequent bus connections to other cities in Lebanon and major cities in Syria. The Lebanese Commuting Company, or LCC in short, is just one of a handful brands of public transportation all over Lebanon.  On the other hand, the publicly owned buses are managed by Office des Chemins de Fer et des Transports en Commun (OCFTC), or the "Railway and Public Transportation Authority" in English. OCFTC ( Office des Chemins de Fer et des Transports en Commun, French for Railway and Public Transportation Authority) is the Lebanese government authority  Buses for northern destinations and Syria leave from Charles Helou Station. 
Apart from the international airport, the Port of Beirut is another port of entry. The Port of Beirut is the main port in Lebanon located in the capital city Beirut, and is one of the largest ports on the Eastern Mediterranean. A port of entry is a place where one may lawfully enter a country As a final destination, anyone can also reach Lebanon by ferry from Cyprus or by road from Damascus. 
Beirut has been exposed to cultural changes due to contacts with many civilizations. As mentioned under the history of Beirut, this city had interacted with cultures from the Greeks to the Romans and, presently, to the Arabs. Not only was there a law school under the Romanized Berytus, it was also believed to be the first law school in the world. Because of this, this is currently part of the cultural pride of the Lebanese. 
Beirut hosted the Francophonie and the Arab League summits in 2002. La Francophonie is an international organisation of French-speaking countries and governments and in French, the community of French-speaking peoples In 2007, Beirut hosted the ceremony for Le Prix Albert Londres, which rewards outstanding Francophone journalists every year. Albert Londres (1884 - 1932 was a French Journalist and Writer. The adjective francophone (alternately Francophone) means French -speaking typically as primary language whether referring to individuals groups or places  The city is set to host the Jeux de la Francophonie in 2009. The Jeux de la Francophonie (Francophone Games in English are a combination of artistic and sporting events for French speaking nations held every four years since 
The National Museum of Beirut is just a few blocks from the French Embassy and the Military Tribunal, and is found just at the corner of the Damascus Expressway. The National Museum of Beirut ( متحف بيروت الوطنيّ) is the principal Museum of Archaeology in Lebanon. 
The American University of Beirut archaeological museum is the third oldest museum in the Middle East, it exhibits a wide range of artifacts from Lebanon and neighboring countries. 
Sursock Museum was built by the Sursock family at the end of the 19th century as a private villa. Sursock Museum, which is officially known as Nicolas Sursock Museum, is a modern art Museum in Beirut, Lebanon. Sursock is a Greek Orthodox, Lebanese family and one of Beirut's aristocratic families It was then donated to the Lebanese government and now houses Beirut's most influential and popular art museum. The permanent collection shows a collection of Japanese engravings and numerous works of Islamic art, and temporary exhibitions are shown throughout the year. 
Robert Mouawad Private Museum exhibits Henri Pharaon's private archaeology and antiques collection, located near Beirut's the Grand Serail. Henri Philippe Pharaoun (or Henry Pharoun) ( 1901 - August 6 1993) was a Lebanese Art collector, sportsman Politician The Grand Serail (السراي الكبير also known as the Government Palace) is the headquarters of the Prime Minister of Lebanon. 
Planet Discovery is a children’s science museum. It holds interactive experiments, exhibitions, performances and workshops, and awareness competitions. 
Beirut is the main center in Lebanon for the television, newspaper, and book publishing industries. The television stations include Tele Liban, LBC, Future TV, New TV, Al-Manar, ANB, NBN , and OTV. Télé Liban (TL is Lebanese Television network owned by the Lebanese government The Lebanese Broadcasting Corporation (المؤسسة اللبنانية للإرسال widely known as LBC, is the first private television station in Lebanon Future Television ( Arabic: تلفزيون المستقبل Televiziyon Al Mustaqbal) a television station broadcasting from Lebanon. Al Jadeed, formerly known as New TV, is a 24-hour PAN Arab station broadcasting from Lebanon offering general-interest programming in the Arabic language Al-Manar (المنار The Beacon) is the satellite Television station of Hezbollah, broadcasting from Beirut, OTV or Orange TV is a publicly-traded television station in Lebanon. The newspapers include An-Nahar, As-Safir, Al Mustaqbal, Al Akhbar, Al-Balad, Ad-Diyar, Al Anwar, Al Sharq, L'Orient Le Jour and the Daily Star. An-Nahar ( النهار) The Day, is the leading Arabic-language daily Newspaper in Lebanon. As-Safir ( السفير) The Ambassador, is a leading Arabic-language daily Newspaper in Lebanon. Al Akhbar (الأخبار Ar The News) is a daily Arabic Newspaper published in Beirut, and funded by a group of Lebanese Al-Balad ( البلد) The country, officially Sada Al-Balad ( صدى البلد) The echo of the country Ad-Diyar ( الديار), is an Arabic-language daily Newspaper in Lebanon. The Daily Star is a pan-Middle East English language newspaper edited in Beirut and published alongside the International Herald Tribune
Beirut, in addition to Sidon and Tripoli, hosted the 2000 AFC Asian Cup. Beirut Sports City Stadium (ملعب المدينةالرياضية is a 65600 capacity multi-use Stadium in Beirut, Lebanon. The Asian Football Confederation 's 2000 AFC Asian Cup finals were held in Lebanon between October 12 and October 29.  There are two stadiums in the city, Camille Chamoun Sports City Stadium and Beirut Municipal Stadium. Beirut Sports City Stadium (ملعب المدينةالرياضية is a 65600 capacity multi-use Stadium in Beirut, Lebanon. Beirut Municipal Stadium (ملعب بيروت البلدي is a 18000 capacity multi-use Stadium in Beirut, Lebanon.
There are eight football teams in the Lebanese Premier League that are based in Beirut: Nejmeh, Al-Ansar, Al-Hikma, Al Ahed, Al-Mabarrah, Safa, Racing Beirut and Shabab Al-Sahel. Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a Team sport played between two teams of eleven players and is widely considered Lebanese Premier League Clubs - 2008/09 See also Lebanese Premier League 2008-09 Al Ahed Al Ansar Al-Nejmeh Sporting Club (نادي النجمة commonly known as Nejmeh, is a professional sports club based in the Manara destruct of Beirut, the This page is about the Lebanese football club For the Saudi Arabian football club see Al-Ansar (Medina Al-Ansar (الأنصار is a Lebanese Al-Hikma (الحكمة also known as Club Sportif La Sagesse) is a Lebanese sporting club based in Beirut which takes part in Football (soccer Al Ahed (العهد is a Lebanese football team playing at the top level Al-Mabarrah (المبرة is a Lebanese Football (soccer club which competes in the Lebanese Premier League. Safa Sporting Club ( Arabic: الصفاء is a Lebanese professional Football (soccer club based in Beirut. Racing Beirut ( Arabic: الراسينغ بيروت is a Lebanese football team playing at the top level Shabab Al-Sahel ( Arabic: شباب الساحل is a Lebanese Football (soccer club based in Beirut who play in the Lebanese Premier League
Beirut has two Basketball teams, Al Riyadi and Al Hikma, that participate in the premiere division of the Lebanese Basketball Championship. Basketball is a team Sport in which two teams of five active players each try to score points against one another by propelling a ball through a 10 feet (3 m 
Other sports events in Beirut include the annual Beirut Marathon,Hip ball, a weekly Horse racing at Beirut Hippodrome, and Golf and Tennis tournaments that take place at Golf Club of Lebanon. The Beirut Marathon is a Marathon sporting event that has been held every year in Beirut, Lebanon since 2003 This article is about the sport For other uses see Horserace (drinking game or Horse race (politics. The Beirut Hippodrome, officially called Hippodrome Du Parc De Beyrouth, is a Horse-racing facility in Beirut, Lebanon. Tennis is a sport played between two players ( singles) or between two teams of two players each ( doubles) Golf Club of Lebanon is a Country club and Golf course founded in 1923 and is located in Beirut, Lebanon.
Recently Beirut has taken to rugby league as well, with three out of the five teams in the Lebanon Championship based in Beirut. History See also History of rugby league The grass roots of rugby league can be traced to early football history, through the playing of ball games Rugby league is a Team Sport that has been played in Lebanon since 2002.
Beirut was considered as a possible candidate for the 2024 Summer Olympics games. The 2024 Summer Olympics, which will be officially known as the Games of the XXXIII Olympiad, is an international athletic event that has yet to be organized by the  The massive $1. 2 billion Sannine Zenith project will make Lebanon capable of holding the games. 
There are hundreds of art galleries in Beirut and its suburbs. Lebanese people are very involved in art and art production. More than 5000 fine art artists and equal artists working in music, design, architecture, theatre, film, photography and all other forms of art are producing in Lebanon. Every year hundreds of fine art students graduate from universities and institutions. Artist Workshops are flourishing all around Lebanon. In Beirut specifically, the art scene is very rich, vibrant, and diverse.
On another scale, fashion and couture are very much thriving throughout the city. Fashion houses are opening up and a number of international fashion designers have displayed their work in various fashion shows. Beirut is home to international fashion designers such as Elie Saab, Zuhair Murad, and Georges Chakra.
The once destroyed town center is again active. Its former reputation as a crossroads between three continents and gateway to the East has been restored and modernized. Beirut’s is oft-invoked “Paris of the East”, and there is plenty of sightseeing, shopping, cuisine, and nightlife to keep a tourist within the city limits for the duration a visit to Lebanon.  Lebanon's capital city is a vibrant, stylish metropolis, with all of the fun, fashion, and flair that a city lover could look for. All over the city, sleek, modern buildings are springing up, alongside arabesque Ottoman and French-style buildings, giving Beirut a unique style. 
In Travel and Leisure magazine's World Best Awards 2006, Beirut was ranked the 9th (out of 10) city in the world, falling just short of New York City and coming ahead of San Francisco. Travel + Leisure is a travel Magazine based in New York City Published 12 times a year it has 4 The City of New York The City and County of San Francisco is the fourth most populous city  Tourist numbers have recently fallen, but many continue still to visit and are returning to experience the beauty of Lebanon and Beirut. 
Panorama over Beirut
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