In ontology, the study of being, being is anything that can be said to be, either transcendentally or immanently. In Philosophy, ontology (from the Greek, genitive: of being (part In Philosophy, the adjective transcendental and the noun transcendence convey three different but related primary meanings all of them derived from the word's literal Immanence, derived from the Latin in manere "to remain within" refers to philosophical and metaphysical theories of the divine as existing and acting within the mind
The nature of being varies by philosophy, giving different interpretations in the frameworks of Aristotle, materialism, idealism, existentialism, Islam, and Marxism. Aristotle (Greek Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC was a Greek philosopher a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. The Philosophy of materialism holds that the only thing that can be truly proven to exist is Matter, and is considered a form of Physicalism. In Western civilization, Idealism is the philosophy which maintains that the Ultimate nature of reality is ideal or based upon ideas values essences The so-called Existentialism is a philosophical doctrine which posits that individuals create the meaning and essence of their lives and that this essence follows from their existence For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Marxism is the political philosophy and practice derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.
Some philosophers deny that the concept of "being" has any meaning at all, since we only define an object's existence by its relation to other objects, and actions it undertakes. The term "I am" has no meaning by itself; it must have an action or relation appended to it. This in turn has led to the thought that "being" and nothingness are closely related, developed in existential philosophy. Nothing is a concept that describes the lack or absence of anything at all
Existentialist philosophers such as Sartre, as well as continental philosophers such as Hegel and Heidegger have also written extensively on the concept of being. Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (21 June 1905 &ndash 15 April 1980 commonly known simply as Jean-Paul Sartre (ʒɑ̃ pol saʁtʁə was a French Continental philosophy, in contemporary usage refers to a set of traditions of 19th and 20th century philosophy from mainland Europe Martin Heidegger ( September 26, 1889 &ndash May 26, 1976) (ˈmaɐ̯tiːn ˈhaɪ̯dɛgɐ was an influential German philosopher Hegel distinguishes between the being of objects (being in itself) and the being of people (Geist). Being in itself is the self-contained and fully realized Being of objects Geist ( German gaɪ̯st is a German word that does not translate very well into English Hegel, however, did not think there was much hope for delineating a "meaning" of being, because being stripped of all predicates is simply nothing.
Heidegger, in his quest to re-pose the original pre-Socratic questions of Being (of why is there something rather than nothing), wondered at how to meaningfully ask the question of the meaning of being, since it is both the greatest, as it includes everything that is, and the least, since no particular thing can be said of it. He distinguishes between different modes of beings: a privative mode is present-at-hand, whereas beings in a fuller sense are described as ready-to-hand. Martin Heidegger, the 20th-century German philosopher, introduced to the world a large body of work that represented Martin Heidegger, the 20th-century German philosopher, introduced to the world a large body of work that represented The one who asks the question of Being is described as Da-sein ("there/here-being") or being-in-the-world. Martin Heidegger, the 20th-century German philosopher, introduced to the world a large body of work that represented Sartre, popularly understood as misreading Heidegger (an understanding supported by Heidegger's essay "Letter on Humanism" which responds to Sartre's famous address, "Existentialism is a Humanism"), employs modes of being in an attempt to ground his concept of freedom ontologically by distinguishing between being-in-itself and being-for-itself.
The nature of "being" has also been debated and explored in Islamic philosophy, notably by Ibn Sina, Suhrawardi, and Mulla Sadra. Islamic philosophy is a branch of Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between Philosophy ( Reason) and the religious teachings TemplateInfobox Muslim scholars --> ( Persian /ابو علی الحسین ابن عبدالله ابن سینا (born Shahab al-Din Yahya as-Suhrawardi ( Persian شهاب الدين يحيى سهروردى, also known as Sohrevardi) was a Persian philosopher Sufi Sadr al-Din Moḥammad Shirazi also called Mulla Sadra ( also spelt Molla Sadra or Mollasadra or sadrol mote allehin; (c 
The question of the relation between being and consciousness, such as might be manifested in artificial intelligence, is a theme of science fiction, such as that raised in the I, robot series of stories by Isaac Asimov, and in the presentation of HAL-9000 in 2001: A Space Odyssey, both the novel by Arthur C. Clarke and the film by Stanley Kubrick. I Robot is a collection of nine Science fiction Short stories by Isaac Asimov, first published by Gnome Press in 1950 in an Isaac Asimov (c January 2 1920 &ndash April 6 1992 ˈaɪzək ˈæzɪmʌv originally Исаак Озимов but now transcribed into Russian as, was a Russian HAL 9000 ( Heuristically programmed ALgorithmic Computer is a fictional Computer in Arthur C 2001 A Space Odyssey is a science-fiction story produced in 1968 as both a film (directed by Stanley Kubrick) and a novel (written by Arthur C A novel (from Italian novella, Spanish novela, French nouvelle for "new" "news" or "short story Sir Arthur Charles Clarke, CBE (16 December 1917–19 March 2008 was a British Science fiction Author, Inventor, and
As far as we can discern, the sole purpose of human existence is to kindle a light of meaning in the darkness of mere being. - Carl Jung
Under the heading ‘Individuality in Thought and Desire’, Karl Marx, (German Ideology 1845), states,
"It depends not on consciousness, but on being; not on thought, but on life; it depends on the individual's empirical development and manifestation of life, which in turn depends on the conditions existing in the world. "