|The Beagle Conflict|
|Main Article:||Beagle conflict|
|1881–1970:||Beagle Channel cartography|
|1971–1977:||Beagle Channel Arbitration|
|1984:||Peace and Friendship Treaty of 1984|
The Beagle Conflict (Spanish: Conflicto del Beagle) was a border dispute between Argentina and Chile over the possession of the Picton, Lennox and Nueva islands and sea located south of Tierra del Fuego which took both countries to the brink of war in 1978. The region of the Beagle Channel, explored by Robert FitzRoy eighteen-thirties was one of the last ones to be colonized by Chile and Argentina On 1971 July 22 Salvador Allende and Alejandro Lanusse, Presidents of Chile and Argentina, signed an '''Arbitration Agreement of 1971''' formally submitting In 1971 Chile and Argentina sent their boundary dispute to binding Beagle Channel Arbitration. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. Chile, officially the Republic of Chile ( Spanish:) is a country in South America occupying a long and narrow Coastal strip wedged between the Picton Lennox and Nueva is a group of three islands (and their islets located on the extreme south of South America, in the Chilean commune of Cabo de Hornos Tierra del Fuego ( Spanish for " Land of Fire " in English tiˈɛərə dɛl ˈfweɪgoʊ] Spanish ˈtjerað̞elˈfweɰo is an Archipelago The Beagle conflict is seen as the main reason for Chilean support to the United Kingdom during the Falklands War of 1982. The Falklands War (Guerra de las Malvinas/Guerra del Atlántico Sur also called the Falklands Conflict/Crisis, was fought in 1982 between Argentina and the The dispute ended in the Peace and Friendship Treaty of 1984.
With a strategic location south of the Beagle Channel and with a congruent maritime extension of 30,000 square miles, including fishing and mineral (presumably oil) rights, and possible Antarctic Peninsula territorial claims, the zone had been in contention since the early 20th Century. The region of the Beagle Channel, explored by Robert FitzRoy eighteen-thirties was one of the last ones to be colonized by Chile and Argentina The region of the Beagle Channel, explored by Robert FitzRoy eighteen-thirties was one of the last ones to be colonized by Chile and Argentina The Beagle Channel is a strait separating islands of the Tierra del Fuego Archipelago in extreme southern South America. The Antarctic Peninsula is the northernmost part of the mainland of Antarctica, and almost the only part of that continent that extends outside the Antarctic Circle
Although the first agreement to limit weapons acquisitions dated from 1902, the two sides still had in 1984 nearly 50 boundary disputes along their common border of 5,308 kilometres, consequently making relations between them very cold. Year 1902 ( MCMII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting
1971 Chile and Argentina sign an agreement formally submitting the Beagle Channel issue to binding arbitration under auspices of Britain's Queen Elizabeth II. On 1971 July 22 Salvador Allende and Alejandro Lanusse, Presidents of Chile and Argentina, signed an '''Arbitration Agreement of 1971''' formally submitting See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands For the ship see RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Context States headed by Elizabeth II The court that was to decide the controversy was composed of five selected judges from the International Court of Justice at The Hague. The court of arbitration's final decision would be submitted to the British Crown, which was then to recommend acceptance or rejection of the award of the court but not to modify it. On May 2, 1977 the court ruled that the islands and all adjacent formations belonged to Chile. Also 1977 (album by Ash. Year 1977 ( MCMLXXVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays See the Report and decision of the Court of Arbitration.
1978, during the accelerated military mobilization appeared on the agenda other latent problems between Chile and Argentina: the west and east limit of the Strait of Magellan, navigation rights and the projection over the Antarctic.
According to definition of the east limit of the Strait of Magellan, Chile gets a "Beach" at the Atlantic Ocean or Argentina gets the right to co-regulate the navigation in the Strait
Two visions of west mouth of the Strait of Magellan. Cabo de Hornos redirects here for the Chilean commune see Cabo de Hornos Chile. The black line is the Chilean sight, the yellow line (a Delta) was the Argentine sight. A delta is a Landform where the mouth of a River flows into an Ocean, Sea, Estuary, Lake or another river The Boundary Treaty of 1881 established the free navigation through the strait
The nearness and the projection of the countries over the Antarctic can substantiate a claim over territories
The direct negotiations between Chile and Argentina began after the announcement of the binding arbitral award and finished with the Act of Motevideo on 9 January 1979, where both countries accept the papal mediation after Argentina aborted the Operation Soberanía. In 1971 Chile and Argentina sent their boundary dispute to binding Beagle Channel Arbitration. Chile, officially the Republic of Chile ( Spanish:) is a country in South America occupying a long and narrow Coastal strip wedged between the For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. In 1971 Chile and Argentina sent their boundary dispute to binding Beagle Channel Arbitration.
On 25 January 1978 Argentina rejected the award and attempted to military coerce Chile into negotiating a division of the islands that would produce a maritime boundary consistent with Argentine claims and began to challenge the Chilean commitment to defend the territory.
Both countries made important military deployments moving to the brink of open warfare. Frenzied diplomatic activity occurred alongside the military preparations. This was the most dangerous phase of the Beagle Conflict and there was a real possibility of open warfare.
On 22 December 1978 Argentina started the Operación Soberanía, but few hours later was aborted. The junta in Buenos Aires accepted the Pope's mediation. They would allow the Pope to mediate the dispute through the good offices of Cardinal Antonio Samoré, his special envoy. Antonio Cardinal Samoré ( December 4, 1905 &mdash February 3, 1983) was an Italian Prelate of the Roman
On January 9, 1979 the Act of Montevideo was signed in Uruguay pledging both sides to a peaceful solution and a return to the military situation of early 1977. Events 475 - Byzantine Emperor Zeno is forced to flee his capital at Constantinople. Year 1979 ( MCMLXXIX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1979 Gregorian calendar) There have been several treaties signed in Montevideo such as Treaty of Montevideo (1828: In a treaty signed on August 27, 1828, after Uruguay.(official full name in República Oriental del Uruguay;, Oriental Republic of Uruguay) is a country located in the southeastern part of South America
1980 Argentina rejected the Pope's proposal (already accepted by Chile).
The detention of prisoners on both sides of the border, the following border closing by Argentina, 28 April 1981, and the Argentine repudiation of the General Treaty on the Judicial Settlement of Disputes in January 1982 maintained the danger of war. Events 1192 - Assassination of Conrad of Montferrat (Conrad I King of Jerusalem, in Tyre, two days after his title Year 1981 ( MCMLXXXI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Six weeks before the Falklands War Argentina provoked the ARA Gurruchaga incident with Chile at Deceit Island. Cabo de Hornos redirects here for the Chilean commune see Cabo de Hornos Chile. .
In 1982, Argentina went to war against the United Kingdom in the Falklands War and again both countries deployed their respective militaries to the border. The Falklands War (Guerra de las Malvinas/Guerra del Atlántico Sur also called the Falklands Conflict/Crisis, was fought in 1982 between Argentina and the Year 1982 ( MCMLXXXII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar) The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The Falklands War (Guerra de las Malvinas/Guerra del Atlántico Sur also called the Falklands Conflict/Crisis, was fought in 1982 between Argentina and the
In 1982 Argentina still officially considered Chile an enemy. One of the reasons given for the absence of the Argentine Navy and higher numbers of soldiers during the Falklands War was to keep them in reserve in case they were needed against Chile. Chile denied support for Argentina at the TIAR due to its defensive nature while Argentina was the aggressor in this war, which prevented a later attack against Chile as a consequence of the Falklands war. The Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance (commonly known as the Rio Treaty, the Rio Pact, or by the Spanish-language acronym TIAR from Anglo-Chilean interests were deteriorated due to the Sheila Cassidy Affair, the use of British made Hawker Hunter aircraft during the Coup d'État in 1973, and the violations of human rights by the Pinochet regime. Sheila Cassidy (born 1937 is a British doctor known for her work in the hospice movement as a writer and as someone who by publicising her own history as a WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte (November During the war Chile provided the UK with ‘limited, but significant information’.
No significant reduction in tensions between Argentina and Chile occurred until the democratic government of Raúl Alfonsín took office in Argentina in December 1983. Raúl Ricardo Alfonsín Foulkes (born 13 March 1927 in Chascomús) is an Argentine politician who was the President of Argentina Year 1983 ( MCMLXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar)
Still isolated diplomatically due to the Falklands crisis, the Alfonsin administration made great efforts to stabilize the border situation.
Alfonsín called for a national plebiscite on 25. November 1984 and after 80 percent of the Argentine electorate voted to accept the Vatican-mediated compromise::
|Yes to compromise||82%||10,391,019|
|No to compromise||16%||2,105,663|
|blank or null ballots||1,1%|
The voting was close only in the territory of Tierra del Fuego, which includes the Argentine sector of the disputed Beagle Channel and has many military personnel. Tierra del Fuego ( Spanish for " Land of Fire " in English tiˈɛərə dɛl ˈfweɪgoʊ] Spanish ˈtjerað̞elˈfweɰo is an Archipelago The vote there was narrowly in favor of the treaty.
On 29 November, 1984 Argentina and Chile signed a protocol of agreement to a treaty at Vatican City giving the islands to Chile but maritime rights to Argentina. Year 1984 ( MCMLXXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1984 Gregorian calendar) Vatican City, officially the State of the Vatican City (Stato della Città del Vaticano is a Landlocked sovereign City-state whose territory
The Treaty of Peace and Friendship (Spanish: Tratado de Paz y Amistad) was ratified by Argentina on March 14, 1985 and by Chile on April 12, 1985.
The Treaty also includes the exact delimitation of the Strait of Magellan, exchange of navigation rights between the Strait of Magellan and the Beagle Channel and a comprehensive body of legislation for the Judicial Settlement of Disputes
In spite of having a common history when they fought together for their independence and the other neighbouring countries (for further reading, check José de San Martín and Bernardo O'Higgins), Argentina and Chile suffered very difficult moments in their relations during the twentieth century but never a war. The Straits of Magellan (rarely referred to as the Magellanic Straits) comprise a navigable sea route immediately south of mainland Chile and north of Isla Grande José Francisco de San Martín Matorras, also known as José de San Martín ( 25 February 1778 – 17 August 1850) was an Argentine Bernardo O'Higgins Riquelme ( August 20, 1778 &ndash October 24, 1842) South American independence leader was one of the commanders
During the 1990s, under the presidency of Carlos Menem in Argentina and Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle in Chile, they resolved almost all of their disputes, e. The 1990s collectively refers to the years between and including 1990 and 1999 Carlos Saúl Menem Akil (born July 2, 1930) was President of Argentina from July 8, 1989 to December 10, 1999 Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle (born June 24, 1942) is a Chilean politician and civil engineer. g. Laguna del Desierto and both countries began to work together both economically and militarily.
The mountain pass of Puyehue was renamed Cardenal Antonio Samoré Pass after Antonio Samoré one of the mediators from the Vatican state in the conflict. Cardenal Antonio Samoré Pass ( Spanish: Paso Cardenal Antonio Samoré) is a Mountain pass through the Andes along the border between Antonio Cardinal Samoré ( December 4, 1905 &mdash February 3, 1983) was an Italian Prelate of the Roman
In 2005 the Chilean movie Mi Mejor Enemigo (English: My best enemy. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. My Best Enemy ( Spanish: Mi mejor enemigo) is a 2005 Chilean Argentine / Spanish dark Comedy film directed by English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States - the title is a oxymoron) was released. The film recreates the story of a simple recruit in late 1978 when both countries were on the brink of war.
Leon Gieco created the song "Sólo le pido a Dios" (I only Ask of God) 1978 as a response to the warmongering in Argentina. Raúl Alberto Antonio Gieco, better known as León Gieco (born on November 20 1951 on a farm near Cañada Rosquín in northern Three years later, during the Falklands War, the Argentine Junta used the song against the Falklands War after the invasion.
The arms race at both sides of the border after the Argentine Refusal of the decision of the Court of Arbitration caused huge costs for the economy of the countries, until after the Falklands War:
|defense spending*||487||566||713||951||1. 128||949|
|percentage of the GNP||3. 5||3. 5||4. 1||4. 6||5. 2|
|defense spending*||2. 702||2. 225||2. 339||2. 641||2. 126||2. 241|
|percentage of the GNP||2. 2||2. 0||2. 3||2. 5||2. 0|
* Costs in Millons of USA Dollars 1979. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The dollar (often represented by the Dollar sign: "$" is the name of the official Currency in several countries dependencies and other