Germany that combined crafts and the fine arts, and was famous for the approach to design that it publicized and taught. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. It operated from 1919 to 1933. The Bauhaus school was founded by Walter Gropius in Weimar. Walter Adolph Georg Gropius ( May 18, 1883 &ndash July 5, 1969) was a German Architect and founder of Bauhaus In spite of its name, and the fact that its founder was an architect, the Bauhaus did not have an architecture department for the first several years of its existence. Bauhaus style became one of the most influential currents in Modernist architecture and modern design. This article is concerned with architectural aspects of Modernism; for the most recent developments in architecture see Contemporary architecture.  The Bauhaus had a profound influence upon subsequent developments in art, architecture, graphic design, interior design, industrial design and typography. Art refers to a diverse range of Human activities creations and expressions that are appealing to the Senses or Emotions of a human individual The term architecture (from Greek αρχιτεκτονικήarchitektoniki) can be used to mean a process a profession or documentation The term graphic design can refer to a number of artistic and professional disciplines which focus on visual communication and presentation Interior design is a practice concerned with anything that is found inside a space - walls windows doors finishes textures light furnishings and furniture Industrial design is an Applied art whereby the Aesthetics and Usability of mass-produced products may be improved for marketability and Typography is the art and techniques of arranging type, Type design, and modifying type Glyphs Type glyphs are created and modified using a variety The school existed in three German cities (Weimar from 1919 to 1925, Dessau from 1925 to 1932 and Berlin from 1932 to 1933), under three different architect-directors: Walter Gropius from 1919 to 1927, Hannes Meyer from 1927 to 1930 and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe from 1930 to 1933, when the school was closed by the Nazi regime. Weimar (ˈvaɪmaʁ is a City in Germany. It is located in the Bundesland of Thuringia (Thüringen north of the Thüringer Wald, Dessau is a town in Germany on the junction of the rivers Mulde and Elbe, in the Bundesland (Federal State of Saxony-Anhalt Berlin is the capital city and one of sixteen states of Germany. Walter Adolph Georg Gropius ( May 18, 1883 &ndash July 5, 1969) was a German Architect and founder of Bauhaus Hannes Meyer ( November 18, 1889 – July 19, 1954) was a Swiss Architect and second director of the Bauhaus in Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (ˈlʊdvɪç miːs faːn dɛʀ ˈʀoːɐ born Maria Ludwig Michael Mies ( March 27, 1886 &ndash August 17, 1969 Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers The changes of venue and leadership resulted in a constant shifting of focus, technique, instructors, and politics. When the school moved from Weimar to Dessau, for instance, although it had been an important revenue source, the pottery shop was discontinued. When Mies took over the school in 1930, he transformed it into a private school, and would not allow any supporters of Hannes Meyer to attend it."House of Building" or "Building School") is the common term for the , a school in
Defeat in World War One, the fall of the German monarchy and the abolition of censorship under the new, liberal Weimar Republic allowed an upsurge of radical experimentation in all the arts, previously suppressed by the old regime. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All The term Weimar Republic ( ˈvaɪmarɐ repuˈbliːk is used by historians to signify the democratic and Republican period of Germany from 1919 to 1933 Many Germans of left-wing views were influenced by the cultural experimentation that followed the Russian Revolution, such as constructivism. See also Russian Revolution (1905 The Russian Revolution of 1916 refers to a series of popular revolutions in Russia, and the events surrounding them Constructivism was an Artistic and architectural movement in Russia from 1919 onward which rejected the idea of " Art for art's sake " Such influences can be overstated: Gropius himself did not share these radical views, and said that Bauhaus was entirely unpolitical. Gropius is a German surname It may refer to The Gropius Brothers: Ferdinand Gropius (1796–1830 and George Gropius (1802–1842 publishers and managers  Just as important was the influence of the 19th century English designer William Morris, who had argued that art should meet the needs of society and that there should be no distinction between form and function. William Morris (24 March 1834 – 3 October 1896 was an English Architect, Furniture and Textile designer artist writer and socialist associated . Thus the Bauhaus style, also known as the International Style, was marked by the absence of ornamentation and by harmony between the function of an object or a building and its design.
The most important influence on Bauhaus was however modernism, a cultural movement whose origins lay as far back as the 1880s, and which had already made its presence felt in Germany before the World War, despite the prevailing conservatism. Modernism describes an array of Cultural movements rooted in the changes in Western society in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century The design innovations commonly associated with Gropius and the Bauhaus - the radically simplified forms, the rationality and functionality, and the idea that mass-production was reconcilable with the individual artistic spirit - were already partly developed in Germany before the Bauhaus was founded. Gropius is a German surname It may refer to The Gropius Brothers: Ferdinand Gropius (1796–1830 and George Gropius (1802–1842 publishers and managers The German national designers' organization Deutscher Werkbund was formed in 1907 by Hermann Muthesius to harness the new potentials of mass production, with a mind towards preserving Germany's economic competitiveness with England. The Deutscher Werkbund (German Work Federation was a German association of artists architects designers and industrialists Adam Gottlieb Hermann Muthesius ( April 20, 1861 - October 29, 1927) known as Hermann Muthesius, was a German Architect In its first seven years, the Werkbund came to be regarded as the authoritative body on questions of design in Germany, and was copied in other countries. Many fundamental questions of craftsmanship vs. mass production, the relationship of usefulness and beauty, the practical purpose of formal beauty in a commonplace object, and whether or not a single proper form could exist, were argued out among its 1870 members (by 1914).
The entire movement of German architectural modernism was known as Neues Bauen. The New Objectivity (a translation of the German Neue Sachlichkeit, sometimes also translated as New Sobriety is a name often given to the Modern architecture that emerged in Beginning in June 1907, Peter Behrens' pioneering industrial design work for the German electrical company AEG successfully integrated art and mass production on a large scale. For the Canadian writer see Peter Behrens (writer. For the German musician and member of Trio, see Peter Behrens (musician Industrial design is an Applied art whereby the Aesthetics and Usability of mass-produced products may be improved for marketability and AEG ( Allgemeine Elektrizitäts-Gesellschaft, General Electricity Company) was a German producer of Electronics and electrical equipment He designed consumer products, standardized parts, created clean-lined designs for the company's graphics, developed a consistent corporate identity, built the modernist landmark AEG Turbine Factory, and made full use of newly developed materials such as poured concrete and exposed steel. Behrens was a founding member of the Werkbund, and both Walter Gropius and Adolf Meier worked for him in this period. The Deutscher Werkbund (German Work Federation was a German association of artists architects designers and industrialists Walter Adolph Georg Gropius ( May 18, 1883 &ndash July 5, 1969) was a German Architect and founder of Bauhaus
The Bauhaus was founded at a time when the German zeitgeist ("spirit of the times") had turned from emotional Expressionism to the matter-of-fact New Objectivity. Zeitgeist ( pronounced) is a German language expression literally translated Zeit time; Geist spirit, meaning "the Expressionism is the tendency of an artist to distort reality for an Emotional effect it is a subjective art form The New Objectivity, or Neue Sachlichkeit (new dispassion was an art movement that arose in Germany in the early 1920s as an outgrowth of and in opposition to An entire group of working architects, including Erich Mendelsohn, Bruno Taut and Hans Poelzig, turned away from fanciful experimentation, and turned toward rational, functional, sometimes standardized building. Erich Mendelsohn ( 21 March 1887 &ndash 15 September 1953) was a German Jewish Architect, known for his Bruno Julius Florian Taut ( 4 May 1880, Königsberg, Germany &ndash 24 December 1938, Istanbul) was a prolific German Hans Poelzig ( 30 April, 1869 Berlin &ndash June 14, 1936 Berlin) was a German architect painter and set Beyond the Bauhaus, many other significant German-speaking architects in the 1920s responded to the same aesthetic issues and material possibilities as the school. They also responded to the promise of a "minimal dwelling" written into the new Weimar Constitution. For a detailed discussion of the English translation of Reich, see Reich. Ernst May, Bruno Taut, and Martin Wagner, among others, built large housing blocks in Frankfurt and Berlin. Ernst May ( 27 July 1886, Frankfurt am Main &mdash 11 September 1970, Hamburg) was a German architect and Martin Wagner may refer to Martin Wagner (artist, artist cartoonist and filmmaker Martin Wagner (footballer, German football player The acceptance of modernist design into everyday life was the subject of publicity campaigns, well-attended public exhibitions like the Weissenhof Estate, films, and sometimes fierce public debate. The Weissenhof Estate (or Weissenhof Settlement; in German Weißenhofsiedlung) is an estate
|Bauhaus and its Sites in Weimar and Dessau*|
|UNESCO World Heritage Site|
|Criteria||ii, iv, vi|
|Region†||Europe and North America|
|Inscription||1996 (20th Session)|
|* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.|
† Region as classified by UNESCO.
The school was founded by Gropius in Weimar in 1919 as a merger of the Grand Ducal School of Arts and Crafts and the Weimar Academy of Fine Art. A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex As of 2008 there are a total of 878 World Heritage Sites located in 145 "State Parties" Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex This is a list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Europe. Asia Minor, Cyprus, all of the Aegean Islands, the Canaries A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex Its roots lay in the arts and crafts school founded by the Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach in 1906 and directed by Belgian Art Nouveau architect Henry van de Velde. Wilhelm Ernst Karl Alexander Frederick Heinrich Bernhard Albert Georg Hermann ( 10 June 1876 - 24 April 1923) was the last Grand Duke of Art Nouveau ( nu vo anglicised /ˈɑːt nuːvəu/ ( French for 'new art' also known as Jugendstil ( German for 'youth style' is an international Henry Van de Velde ( 3 April 1863 &ndash 25 October 1957) was a Belgian painter architect and interior designer  When van de Velde was forced to resign in 1915 because he was Belgian, he suggested Gropius, Hermann Obrist and August Endell as possible successors. Hermann Obrist (born May 23 1863 at Kilchberg (near Zürich) Switzerland; died February 26 1927, Munich August Endell (or Endel, born April 12 1871, Berlin - April 15 1925, Berlin was a German Jugendstil Architect In 1919, after delays caused by the destruction of World War I and a lengthy debate over the ideological and socio-economic reconciliation of the fine arts and the applied arts (an issue which remained a defining one throughout the school's existence), Gropius was made the director of a new institution integrating the two called the Bauhaus. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All Fine art is any Art form developed primarily for Aesthetics rather than Utility. Applied art refers to the application of Design and Aesthetics to objects of function and everyday use  In the pamphlet for an April 1919 exhibition entitled "Exhibition of Unknown Architects", Gropius proclaimed his goal as being "to create a new guild of craftsmen, without the class distinctions which raise an arrogant barrier between craftsman and artist. " The early intention was for the Bauhaus to be a combined architecture school, crafts school, and academy of the arts. In 1919 Swiss painter Johannes Itten, German-American painter Lyonel Feininger, and German sculptor Gerhard Marcks, along with Gropius, comprised the faculty of the Bauhaus. Johannes Itten ( November 11, 1888 &ndash May 27, 1967) was a Swiss expressionist painter, designer teacher Lyonel Charles Feininger ( July 17 1871 – January 13 1956) was a German-American painter and caricaturist Gerhard Marcks ( February 18, 1889 &ndash November 13, 1981) was a German Sculptor, who is also well-known for his drawings By the following year their ranks had grown to include German painter, sculptor and designer Oskar Schlemmer and Swiss painter Paul Klee, joined in 1922 by Russian painter Wassily Kandinsky. Oskar Schlemmer ( September 4, 1888 – April 13, 1943) was a German painter, Sculptor and Designer Wassily Kandinsky (Russian Василий Кандинский first name pronounced as) ( – 13 December 1944 was a Russian painter, Printmaker A tumultuous year at the Bauhaus, 1922 also saw the move of Dutch painter Theo van Doesburg to Weimar to promote De Stijl ("The Style"), and a visit to the Bauhaus by Russian Constructivist artist and architect El Lissitzky 
From 1919 to 1922 the school was shaped by the pedagogical and aesthetic ideas of Johannes Itten, who taught the Vorkurs or 'preliminary course' that was the introduction to the ideas of the Bauhaus. Theo van Doesburg ( Utrecht, August 30, 1883 &ndash Davos, March 7, 1931) was a Dutch artist practicing in For the album by The White Stripes see De Stijl (album. De Stijl (in English, generally də ˈstaɪl after style; from the (Лазарь Маркович Лисицкий על ליסיצקי November 23 1890 – December 30 1941 better known as El Lissitzky (Эль Лисицкий was a  Itten was heavily influenced in his teaching by the ideas of Franz Cižek and Friedrich Wilhelm August Froebel an in respect to aesthetics by the work of the Blaue Reiter group in Munich as well as the work of Austrian Expressionist Oskar Kokoschka. Franz Cižek ( 12 June 1865 – 17 December 1946) was an Austrian genre and Portrait painter as well Friedrich Wilhelm August Froebel (also written Fröbel ( April 21, 1782 &ndash June 21, 1852) laid the foundation for modern Education Aesthetics or esthetics ( also spelled æsthetics) is commonly known as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values sometimes called Der Blaue Reiter ( The Blue Rider) was a group of artists from the Neue Künstlervereinigung München in Munich, Germany. Munich (München; Minga is the capital city of Bavaria, Germany. Oskar Kokoschka (1 March 1886 – 22 February 1980 was an Austrian Artist, Poet and Playwright, best known for his intense expressionistic The influence of German Expressionism favored by Itten was analogous in some ways to the fine arts side of the ongoing debate. Expressionism is the tendency of an artist to distort reality for an Emotional effect it is a subjective art form This influence culminated with the addition of Der Blaue Reiter founding member Wassily Kandinsky to the faculty and ended when Itten resigned in late 1922. Itten was replaced by the Hungarian designer László Moholy-Nagy, who rewrote the Vorkurs with a leaning towards the New Objectivity favored by Gropius, which was analogous in some ways to the applied arts side of the debate. László Moholy-Nagy (ˈlaːsloː ˈmohoiˌnɒɟ July 20, 1895 &ndash November 24 Although this shift was an important one, it did not represent a radical break from the past so much as a small step in a broader, more gradual socio-econimic movement that had been going on at least since 1907 when van de Velde had argued for a craft basis for design while Hermann Muthesius had begun implementing industrial prototypes. Adam Gottlieb Hermann Muthesius ( April 20, 1861 - October 29, 1927) known as Hermann Muthesius, was a German Architect 
Gropius was not necessarily against Expressionism, and in fact himself in the same 1919 pamphlet proclaiming this "new guild of craftsmen, with out the class snobbery," described "painting and sculpture rising to heaven out of the hands of a million craftsmen, the crystal symbol of the new faith of the future. " By 1923 however, Gropius was no longer evoking images of soaring Romanesque cathedrals and the craft-driven aesthetic of the "Völkisch movement," instead declaring "we want an architecture adapted to our world of machines, radios and fast cars. See also Romanesque architecture Romanesque architecture is the term that is used to describe the architecture of Europe which emerged in the late 10th century and evolved The völkisch movement is the German interpretation of the populist movement with a romantic focus on Folklore and the "organic" " Gropius argued that a new period of history had begun with the end of the war. He wanted to create a new architectural style to reflect this new era. His style in architecture and consumer goods was to be functional, cheap and consistent with mass production. To these ends, Gropius wanted to reunite art and craft to arrive at high-end functional products with artistic pretensions. The Bauhaus issued a magazine called Bauhaus and a series of books called "Bauhausbücher". Since the country lacked the quantity of raw materials that the United States and Great Britain had, they had to rely on the proficiency of its skilled labor force and ability to export innovative and high quality goods. Therefore designers were needed and so was a new type of art education. The school’s philosophy stated that the artist should be trained to work with the industry.
Weimar was in the German state of Thuringia, and the Bauhaus school received state support from the Social Democrat-controlled Thuringian state government. The Free State of Thuringia (Freistaat Thüringen is located in central Germany. In February 1924, the Social Democrats lost control of the state parliament to the Nationalists. The German National People's Party (Deutschnationale Volkspartei DNVP was a national-conservative party in Germany during the time of the Weimar Republic The Ministry of Education placed the staff on six-month contracts and cut the school's funding in half. They had already been looking for alternative sources of funding. Together with the Council of Masters Gropius announced the closure of the Bauhaus from the end of March 1925. After the Bauhaus moved to Dessau, a school of industrial design with teachers and staff less antagonistic to the conservative political regime remained in Weimar. This school was eventually known as the Technical University of Architecture and Civil Engineering, and in 1996 changed its name to Bauhaus University Weimar.
Gropius's design for the Dessau facilities was a return to the futuristic Gropius of 1914 that had more in common with the International style lines of the Fagus Factory than the stripped down Neo-classical of the Werkbund pavilion or the Völkisch Sommerfeld House. The Fagus Factory (German Fagus Fabrik or Fagus Werk is a shoe Last factory in Alfeld on the Leine in Germany an important example of early modern architecture Neoclassical architecture was an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century both as a reaction against the Rococo The völkisch movement is the German interpretation of the populist movement with a romantic focus on Folklore and the "organic"  The Dessau years saw a remarkable change in direction for the school. According to Elaine Hoffman, Gropius had approached the Dutch architect Mart Stam to run the newly-founded architecture program, and when Stam declined the position, Gropius turned to Stam's friend and colleague in the ABC group, Hannes Meyer. Mart Stam ( Aug 5 1899, Purmerend - Feb 21 1986, Zürich) was a Dutch architect urban planner and chair designer Meyer became director when Gropius resigned in February 1928, and brought the Bauhaus its two most significant building commissions, both of which still exist: five apartment buildings in the city of Dessau, and the headquarters of the Federal School of the German Trade Unions (ADGB) in Bernau. Meyer favored measurements and calculations in his presentations to clients, along with the use of off-the-shelf architectural components to reduce costs, and this approach proved attractive to potential clients. The school turned its first profit under his leadership in 1929.
But Meyer also generated a great deal of conflict. As a radical functionalist, he had no patience with the aesthetic program, and forced the resignations of Herbert Bayer, Marcel Breuer, and other longtime instructors. Herbert Bayer (1900 &ndash 1985 was an Austrian Graphic designer painter photographer and Architect. Marcel Lajos Breuer ( 21 May 1902 Pécs, Hungary &ndash 1 July 1981 New York City) Architect and As a vocal Communist, he encouraged the formation of a Communist student organization. The Communist Party of Germany ( German Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands &ndash KPD) was a major political party in Germany between 1918 In the increasingly dangerous political atmosphere, this became a threat to the existence of the Dessau school. Meyer was also compromised by a sexual scandal involving one of his students, and Gropius fired him in 1930.
Although neither the Nazi Party nor Hitler himself had a cohesive architectural policy before they came to power in 1933, Nazi writers like Wilhelm Frick and Alfred Rosenberg had already labeled the Bauhaus "un-German" and criticized its modernist styles, deliberately generating public controversy over issues like flat roofs. The, officially National Socialist German Workers' Party, ( abbreviated NSDAP) was a Political party in Germany between 1919 and 1945 Dr Wilhelm Frick (12 March 1877 16 October 1946 was a prominent Nazi official serving as Minister of the Interior of the Third Reich. (12 January 1893 16 October 1946 was an early and intellectually influential member of the Nazi Party. Increasingly through the early 1930s, they characterized the Bauhaus as a front for Communists and social liberals. Indeed, a number of Communist students loyal to Meyer moved to the Soviet Union when he was fired in 1930. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991
Even before the Nazis came to power, political pressure on Bauhaus had increased. But the Nazi regime was determined to crack down on what it saw as the foreign, probably Jewish influences of "cosmopolitan modernism. PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ " Despite Gropius's protestations that as a war veteran and a patriot his work had no subversive political intent, the Berlin Bauhaus was closed in April 1933. Mies van der Rohe was expelled from Germany. (The closure, and the response of Mies van der Rohe, is fully documented in Elaine Hochman's Architects of Fortune. ) Curiously, however, some Bauhaus influences lived on in Nazi Germany. When Hitler's chief engineer, Fritz Todt, began opening the new autobahn (highways) in 1935, many of the bridges and service stations were "bold examples of modernism" - among those submitting designs was Mies van der Rohe. Fritz Todt (4 September 1891 – 8 February 1942 was a German engineer and senior Nazi figure the founder of Organisation Todt. (German ˈaʊtoːbaːn plural Autobahnen; English /ˈɔːtəʊbɑːn/ is the German word for a major high- Speed Road restricted to motor 
The paradox of the early Bauhaus was that, although its manifesto proclaimed that the ultimate aim of all creative activity was building, the school did not offer classes in architecture until 1927. Chemnitz (1953–1990 Karl-Marx-Stadt ( Sorbian:Kamjenica is a City in Eastern Germany. The single most profitable tangible product of the Bauhaus was its wallpaper. During the years under Gropius (1919–1927), he and his partner Adolf Meyer observed no real distinction between the output of his architectural office and the school. So the built output of Bauhaus architecture in these years is the output of Gropius: the Sommerfeld house in Berlin, the Otte house in Berlin, the Auerbach house in Jena, and the competition design for the Chicago Tribune Tower, which brought the school much attention. Jena (pronunciation ˈjeːna is a university City in central Germany on the river Saale. The Tribune Tower is a Gothic building located at 435 North Michigan Avenue in Chicago, Illinois. The definitive 1926 Bauhaus building in Dessau is also attributed to Gropius. Apart from contributions to the 1923 Haus am Horn, student architectural work amounted to unbuilt projects, interior finishes, and craft work like cabinets, chairs and pottery.
In the next two years under Meyer, the architectural focus shifted away from aesthetics and towards functionality. There were major commissions: one by the city of Dessau for five tightly designed "Laubenganghäuser" (apartment buildings with balcony access), which are still in use today, and another for the headquarters of the Federal School of the German Trade Unions (ADGB) in Bernau bei Berlin. Template talkInfobox Union for usage --> The German Confederation of Trade Unions ( Deutscher Gewerkschaftsbund Bernau bei Berlin (English Bernau by Berlin) is a German town in the Barnim district Meyer's approach was to research users' needs and scientifically develop the design solution.
Mies van der Rohe repudiated Meyer's politics, his supporters, and his architectural approach. As opposed to Gropius's "study of essentials", and Meyer's research into user requirements, Mies advocated a "spatial implementation of intellectual decisions", which effectively meant an adoption of his own aesthetics. Neither Mies nor his Bauhaus students saw any projects built during the 1930s.
The popular conception of the Bauhaus as the source of extensive Weimar-era working housing is not accurate. Two projects, the apartment building project in Dessau and the Törten row housing also in Dessau, fall in that category, but developing worker housing was not the first priority of Gropius nor Mies. It was the Bauhaus contemporaries Bruno Taut, Hans Poelzig and particularly Ernst May, as the city architects of Berlin, Dresden and Frankfurt respectively, who are rightfully credited with the thousands of socially progressive housing units built in Weimar Germany. Dresden (etymologically from Old Sorbian Drežďany, meaning people of the riverside forest, Drježdźany is the Capital city of the German In Taut's case, the housing may still be seen in south-west Berlin, is still occupied, and can be reached by going easily from the U-Bahn stop Onkel Toms Hütte. Onkel Toms Hütte (Uncle Tom's Cabin is a Berlin U-Bahn station located in the Zehlendorf district on the.
The Bauhaus had a major impact on art and architecture trends in Western Europe, the United States, Canada and Israel (particularly in White City, Tel Aviv) in the decades following its demise, as many of the artists involved fled, or were exiled, by the Nazi regime. The White City ( Hebrew: העיר הלבנה ha-Ir ha-Levana) refers to a collection of 4000 Bauhaus or International style buildings built Tel Aviv, in fact, has been named to the list of world heritage sites by the UN due to its abundance of Bauhaus architecture ; it had some 4000 Bauhaus buildings erected from 1933 on. A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex
Gropius, Breuer, and Moholy-Nagy re-assembled in England during the mid 1930s to live and work in the Isokon project before the war caught up to them. The London -based Isokon firm was founded in 1929 to design and construct Modernist houses and flats and subsequently furniture and fittings for them Both Gropius and Breuer went to teach at the Harvard Graduate School of Design and worked together before their professional split. The Harvard Graduate School of Design (GSD is a graduate school at Harvard University offering degrees in Architecture, Landscape Architecture, and The Harvard School was enormously influential in America in the late 1920s and early 1930s, producing such students as Philip Johnson, I.M. Pei, Lawrence Halprin and Paul Rudolph, among many others. Philip Cortelyou Johnson (July 8 1906&ndash January 25 2005 was an influential American Architect. Ieoh Ming Pei ( (b April 26, 1917) commonly known by his initials I Lawrence Halprin (born July 1, 1916 in New York City) is a prolific and accomplished American landscape architect and educator For other people named Paul Rudolph see Paul Rudolph (disambiguation.
In the late 1930s, Mies van der Rohe re-settled in Chicago, enjoyed the sponsorship of the influential Philip Johnson, and became one of the pre-eminent architects in the world. Philip Cortelyou Johnson (July 8 1906&ndash January 25 2005 was an influential American Architect. Moholy-Nagy also went to Chicago and founded the New Bauhaus school under the sponsorship of industrialist and philanthropist Walter Paepcke. Institute of Design ( ID) at Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT originally founded as the New Bauhaus, is a graduate school teaching systemic human-centered Walter Paepcke (1896&ndash1960 was a US industrialist and philanthropist prominent in the middle-20th century Printmaker and painter Werner Drewes was also largely responsible for bringing the Bauhaus aesthetic to America and taught at both Columbia University and Washington University in St. Louis. Werner Drewes (1899-1985 was a German-American painter and Printmaker, born in 1899 in Canig, Germany. Columbia University is a private University in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. Herbert Bayer, sponsored by Paepcke, moved to Aspen, Colorado in support of Paepcke's Aspen projects at the Aspen Institute. Herbert Bayer (1900 &ndash 1985 was an Austrian Graphic designer painter photographer and Architect. The City of Aspen is a Home Rule Municipality that is the County seat and the most populous city of Pitkin County, Colorado, United The Aspen Institute is an international nonprofit organization founded in 1950 as the Aspen Institute of Humanistic Studies
One of the main objectives of the Bauhaus was to unify art, craft, and technology. The machine was considered a positive element, and therefore industrial and product design were important components. Vorkurs ("initial" or "preliminary course") was taught; this is the modern day "Basic Design" course that has become one of the key foundational courses offered in architectural and design schools across the globe. There was no teaching of history in the school because everything was supposed to be designed and created according to first principles rather than by following precedent.
One of the most important contributions of the Bauhaus is in the field of modern furniture design. Modern furniture refers to Furniture produced from the late 19th century through the present that is influenced by Modernism. The ubiquitous Cantilever chair by Dutch designer Mart Stam, using the tensile properties of steel, and the Wassily Chair designed by Marcel Breuer are two examples. A cantilever Chair has no back legs relying for support on the properties of the material from which it is made Mart Stam ( Aug 5 1899, Purmerend - Feb 21 1986, Zürich) was a Dutch architect urban planner and chair designer The Wassily Chair, also known as the Model B3 chair, was Designed by Marcel Breuer in 1925-26 while he was the head of the cabinet-making workshop at the Marcel Lajos Breuer ( 21 May 1902 Pécs, Hungary &ndash 1 July 1981 New York City) Architect and
The physical plant at Dessau survived World War II and was operated as a design school with some architectural facilities by the German Democratic Republic. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The German Democratic Republic ( GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik DDR; commonly known in English as East Germany) was a Socialist state This included live stage productions in the Bauhaus theater under the name of Bauhausbühne ("Bauhaus Stage"). After German reunification, a reorganized school continued in the same building, with no essential continuity with the Bauhaus under Gropius in the early 1920s . German reunification (Deutsche Wiedervereinigung took place twice after 1945 first in 1957 the Saarland was permitted to join the Federal Republic of Germany In 1979 Bauhaus-Dessau College started to organize postgraduate programs with participants from all over the world. This effort has been supported by the Bauhaus-Dessau Foundation which was founded in 1974 as a public institution.
American art schools have also rediscovered the Bauhaus school. The Master Craftsman Program at Florida State University bases its artistic philosophy on Bauhaus theory and practice. Florida State University (commonly referred to as Florida State or FSU) is a public Research University located in Tallahassee
Many outstanding artists of their time were lecturers at Bauhaus:
Ceiling with light fixtures for stage
The Studio wing
Mechanically opened windows
The Mensa (Dining room)
. . . .