|Battle of the Granicus|
|Part of the Wars of Alexander the Great|
The Battle of the Granicus River
|Alexander the Great|
Clitus the Black
Memnon of Rhodes
22,000 heavy infantry
5,000 Greek hoplites
|Casualties and losses|
The Battle of the Granicus River in May 334 BC was the first of three major battles fought between Alexander the Great and the Persian Empire. Macedon or Macedonia ( Greek grc Μακεδονία grc-Latn Makedonía) was the name of a kingdom centered in the northern-most Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία The Achaemenid Empire or Achaemenid Persian Empire ( haχɒmaneʃijɒn (558–330 BC was the first of the Persian Empires to rule over significant portions of Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία Alexander the Great ( or, Mégas Aléxandros; July 20 356 BC June 10 or June 11 323 BC also known as Alexander III of Macedon (el Ἀλέξανδρος Γ' Parmenion (also Parmenio) (in Greek, Παρμενίων, ca 400&ndash Ecbatana, 330 BC was a Macedonian general in the service Cleitus the Black ( Κλείτος ο Μέλας) (ca 375 BC-328 BC was an officer of the Macedonian army led by Alexander the Great. Arsames (𐎠𐎼𐏁𐎠𐎶 Aršāma modern Persian: ارشام&lrm Greek:; &ndash ca Niphates is a mountain chain in Armenia that John Milton uses in Paradise Lost iii Spithridates (in Greek Σπιθριδάτης lived 4th century BC) was Satrap of Lydia and Ionia under the High king Mithridates (in Greek Mιθριδατης or Mιθραδατης killed 334 BC was a Persian of high rank and son-in-law of the king Darius III Codomannus Rhoesaces was the brother of Spithrobates, a Satrap of Ionia, both who fought and died against Alexander the Great at the Battle of Granicus Memnon of Rhodes (380 &ndash 333 BC was the commander of the Greek mercenaries working for the Persian king Darius III when Alexander the Great A peltast ( Ancient Greek: πελταστής was a type of Light infantry in Ancient Greece who often served as Skirmishers The Cavalry (from French cavalerie) is the second oldest of the Combat Arms, and as Soldiers or Warriors who fought mounted on A peltast ( Ancient Greek: πελταστής was a type of Light infantry in Ancient Greece who often served as Skirmishers The word hoplite ( Greek: hoplitēs; pl hoplitai) derives from hoplon ( plural hopla) meaning an item of armour or equipment thus 'hoplite' The Cavalry (from French cavalerie) is the second oldest of the Combat Arms, and as Soldiers or Warriors who fought mounted on Events By place Persian Empire The king of Caria, Pixodarus, dies and is succeeded by his son-in-law Orontobates. Alexander the Great ( or, Mégas Aléxandros; July 20 356 BC June 10 or June 11 323 BC also known as Alexander III of Macedon (el Ἀλέξανδρος Γ' The Persian Empire was a series of Iranian empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland and beyond in Western Asia Fought in Northwestern Asia Minor, near the site of Troy, it was here where Alexander defeated the forces of the Persian satraps of Asia Minor, including a large force of Greek mercenaries. Troy ( Greek: grc Τροία Troia, also, Ilion; Latin: Trōia, Īlium, Hittite: Wilusa or
The battle took place on the road from Abydos to Dascylium (near modern day Ergili, Turkey), at the crossing of the Granicus River (modern day Biga Çayı). Abydos (Greek Άβυδος an ancient city of Mysia, in Asia Minor, situated at Nara Burnu or Nagara Point on the best harbor on the Asiatic shore of Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches "Granicus" redirects here For the American rock band of the same name see Granicus (band. "Granicus" redirects here For the American rock band of the same name see Granicus (band.
Following the assassination of Alexander's father, Philip II of Macedon, and the subsequent consolidation of Alexander's Greek and Macedonian positions, he set out into Asia in 334 BC. Philip II of Macedon, ( Greek: Φίλιππος Β' ο Μακεδών &mdash φίλος = friend + ίππος = Horse Events By place Persian Empire The king of Caria, Pixodarus, dies and is succeeded by his son-in-law Orontobates.
He crossed the Hellespont from Sestos to Abydos, and advanced up the road to Dascylium, which is the capital of the Satrapy of Phrygia. See also Dardanelles Hellespont ( Turkish, Greek; ie "Sea of Helle" variously named in classical literature Hellespontium Pelagus Sestos was an ancient town of the Thracian Chersonese, the modern Gallipoli peninsula in European Turkey. In antiquity Phrygia (Φρυγία was a kingdom in the west central part of Anatolia, in what is now modern-day Turkey. The various satraps of the Persian empire united and offered battle on the banks of the Granicus River. A Greek mercenary, Memnon of Rhodes suggested a scorched-earth policy of burning the grain and supplies and retreating in front of Alexander, but his suggestion was rejected. Memnon of Rhodes (380 &ndash 333 BC was the commander of the Greek mercenaries working for the Persian king Darius III when Alexander the Great
Arrian, Diodorus, and Plutarch all mention the battle, with Arrian providing the most detail. For others with this name see Arrianus (disambiguation. Lucius Flavius Arrianus 'Xenophon' (ca Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus ( Greek: Μέστριος Πλούταρχος c The Persians placed their cavalry in front of their infantry, and drew up on the right (east) bank of the river. Historians differ significantly on the effectiveness of the Persian dispositions. Some consider it a tactical mistake on the Persian side, others feel it was an attempt to take advantage of their superior number of cavalry, while Sir William Tarn felt "the Persian leaders had in fact a very gallant plan; they meant if possible to strangle the war at birth by killing Alexander. "
Alexander's army met the Persians on the third day of May from Abydos. Alexander's second-in-command, Parmenion suggested crossing the river upstream and attacking at dawn the next day, but Alexander attacked immediately. Parmenion (also Parmenio) (in Greek, Παρμενίων, ca 400&ndash Ecbatana, 330 BC was a Macedonian general in the service This tactic caught the Persians off guard and they were stunned. The Macedonian line was arrayed with the heavy Phalanxes in the middle, and cavalry on either side. The Army of ancient Macedon is considered to be among the greatest military forces of the ancient world Alexander was with the Companions on the right flank. The Companions ( εταιροι hetairoi) were the Cavalry of the Macedonian army from the time of king Philip II of Macedon, and The Persians expect the main assault to come from Alexander's position and moved units from their center to that flank.
The battle started with a cavalry and light infantry feint from the Macedonian left, from Parmenion's side of the battle line. Traditionally light infantry (or skirmishers) were soldiers whose job was to provide a Skirmishing screen ahead of the main body of Infantry, harassing The Persians heavily reinforced that side, and the feint was driven back, but at that point, Alexander led the horse companions in their classic wedge-shaped charge, and smashed into the center of the Persian line. The Persians countercharged with a squadron of nobles on horse, and accounts show that in the melee, several high-ranking Persian nobles were killed by Alexander himself or his bodyguards, although Alexander was stunned by an axe-blow from a Persian nobleman named Spithridates. Before the noble could deal a death-blow, however, he was himself killed by Clitus the Black. Cleitus the Black ( Κλείτος ο Μέλας) (ca 375 BC-328 BC was an officer of the Macedonian army led by Alexander the Great. Alexander quickly recovered.
The Macedonian cavalry then turned left and started rolling up the Persian cavalry, which was engaged with the left side of the Macedonian line after a general advance. A hole opened in the recently vacated place in the battle line, and the Macedonian infantry charged through to engage the poor quality Persian infantry in the rear. At this, and with many of their leaders already dead, both flanks of the Persian cavalry retreated, seeing the collapse of the center. The infantry also routed, with many being cut down as they fled.
Total casualties for the Macedonians were between 300 and 400. The Persians had roughly 1,000 cavalry and 3,000 infantry killed, mostly in the rout. The Greek mercenaries, under the command of Memnon of Rhodes, who fought for the Persians were abandoned after the cavalry retreat. They attempted to broker a peace with Alexander but to no avail. As a result Alexander ordered his infantry, who until this point had played no role in the battle, to slaughter the mercenaries to a man. 18,000 mercenaries were killed and 2,000 enslaved and sent back to Macedonia in chains for hard labour.
Historian Peter Green has a different theory of the battle. According to Green, the riverbank was guarded by infantry, not cavalry, and Alexander's forces were badly mauled and forced to retire. Alexander then grudgingly accepted Parmenion's advice, crossed the river during the night in an uncontested location, and fought the battle at dawn the next day. The Persian army hurried to the location of Alexander's crossing, with the cavalry reaching the scene of the battle first before the slower infantry, and then the battle continued largely as described by the ancient sources. Green accounts for the differences between his theory and all the ancient accounts by suggesting that Alexander later covered up his initial failed crossing.
Alexander came close to dying in the battle. Mithridates, Rhoesaces, Spithridates and several other Persian leaders were killed. The Greek cities in Asia Minor were liberated by Alexander, and a beachhead was established so that further campaigns against the Persian empire could be accomplished. Darius III continued to leave the responsibility of battling against Alexander to his satraps, primarily those on the western front. Not until the Battle of Issus would Darius decide to confront the Macedonian conqueror in person. The Battle of Issus (or more commonly The Battle at Issus) occurred in southern Anatolia, in November 333 BC.
The Battle of Issus (or more commonly The Battle at Issus) occurred in southern Anatolia, in November 333 BC.