|Battle of Langside|
|Part of Civil war between Mary Queen of Scots and Regent Moray|
|Regent Moray||Mary Queen of Scots|
|Regent Moray and William Kirkaldy of Grange||Archibald Campbell, 5th Earl of Argyll|
|about 4000||about 6000|
|Casualties and losses|
The Battle of Langside, fought on May 13, 1568, was one of the more unusual contests in Scottish history, bearing a superficial resemblance to a grand family quarrel, in which a mother fought her brother who was defending the rights of her infant son. Events 1497 - Pope Alexander VI excommunicates Girolamo Savonarola. Langside is a District in the Scottish city of Glasgow. It is situated south of the River Clyde, and lies east of Shawlands, south Glasgow (ˈglæzgoʊ is the largest city in Scotland and third most populous in the United Kingdom James Stewart 1st Earl of Moray (c 1531 &ndash January 23, 1570) was Regent of Scotland from 1567 until his Assassination in 1570 Sir William Kirkcaldy of Grange (c 1520 - August 3, 1573) Scottish Politician and general was the eldest son of Sir James Archibald Campbell 5th Earl of Argyll (1532/1537 - 1573 was a leading figure in the politics of Scotland during the reign of Mary Queen of Scots and the early part Events 1497 - Pope Alexander VI excommunicates Girolamo Savonarola. In 1567 Mary Queen of Scots's short period of personal rule ended in recrimination, intrigue and disaster when she was forced to abdicate in favour of James VI, her infant son. James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625 was King of Scotland as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James Mary was sent into captivity in Loch Leven Castle, while her Protestant half-brother, James Stewart, Earl of Moray was appointed Regent on behalf of his nephew. Loch Leven Castle is a ruined Castle on an island in Loch Leven, in the Perth and Kinross region of Scotland. James Stewart 1st Earl of Moray (c 1531 &ndash January 23, 1570) was Regent of Scotland from 1567 until his Assassination in 1570 In early May 1568 Mary escaped, heading west to the country of the Hamiltons, high among her remaining supporters, with the determination to restore her rights as queen.
Mary's abdication had not been universally popular, even among sections of the Protestant nobility, and news of her escape was widely welcomed. With an escort of fifty horse led by Lord Claud Hamilton she arrived in Lanarkshire, soon to be joined by a wide-cross section of the nobility, including the Earls of Argyll, Cassillis, Rothes and Eglintion, the Lords Sommerville, Yester, Livingston, Herries, Fleming, Ross, numerous of the feudal barons such as Robert Lauder of The Bass, and many others who all assembled at the town of Hamilton with their followers and vassals. Claud Hamilton 1st Lord Paisley (c 1543 &ndash 1621 was a Scottish politician Lanarkshire ( Siorrachd Lannraig in Gaelic) officially the County of Lanark, was formerly a county of Scotland. Archibald Campbell 5th Earl of Argyll (1532/1537 - 1573 was a leading figure in the politics of Scotland during the reign of Mary Queen of Scots and the early part Robert Lauder of The Bass, (born before 1504 - died June 1576 was an important Noble in Haddingtonshire, Berwickshire, and Fife. Hamilton is a town in South Lanarkshire, in the west- Central Lowlands of Scotland. Within a few short days Mary had managed to gather a respectable force of some 6000 men.
It was openly declared that her abdication, and her consent to the coronation of James, had been extorted from her under threat of death. An act of council was then passed, declaring the whole process by which Moray had been appointed as Regent to be treasonable. A bond was drawn up by those present for her restitution, signed by eight earls, nine bishops, eighteen lords, twelve abbots and nearly one hundred barons.
It was Mary's intention to avoid battle if possible, retiring instead to Dumbarton Castle, still held for her by Lord Fleming. Dumbarton Castle ( Gaelic Dùn Breatainn d̪̊unˈb̊ɾʲɛhd̪̊ɪɲ ( has the longest recorded history of any stronghold in Great Britain. Here she would be in a virtually impregnable position, well-placed to receive the expected reinforcements from the north, and then recover her hold over the country by degrees. With the intention of by-passing Moray she marched to Rutherglen and then on a wide circuit past Glasgow, intending to move by way of Langside, Crookston and Paisley back towards the River Clyde, and then on to Dumbarton on the north side of the Clyde estuary. Rutherglen (pronounced ruh-ther-glen is a town in South Lanarkshire, Scotland. Langside is a District in the Scottish city of Glasgow. It is situated south of the River Clyde, and lies east of Shawlands, south Crookston is a residential suburb on the southwestern edge of the city of Glasgow, Scotland. Paisley (Pàislig is a town and former Burgh in the west- Central Lowlands of Scotland. The River Clyde ( Gaelic: Abhainn Chluaidh, avɪɲˈxɫ̪uəj is a major River in Scotland. Moray drew up his army on the moor close to the village of Langside, then several miles south of Glasgow but now well within the city. Kirkcaldy, keeping an eye on the enemy movements, noted that they were keeping to the south of the Clyde, the Regent's army being on the opposite bank. In response he ordered hackbutters (musketeers) to mount behind each of his horsemen, rapidly fording the river, and placing them among the cottages, hedges and gardens of the village, which bordered each side of a narrow lane, through which Mary's army must defile. Defile is a geographic term for a narrow pass or gorge between mountains or hills Meanwhile Moray continued to deploy the rest of the army, the vanguard under the command of the Earl of Morton leading the march across a nearby bridge. James Douglas jure uxoris 4th Earl of Morton (c 1525 &ndash June 2, 1581) was the last of the four Regents of Scotland during The whole army then deployed, the right around the village, and the left extending to the farm of Pathhead, the highest point of which is now known as Queen's Park. Situated on the south side of the city of Glasgow, in Scotland, Queen's Park ( Pairc na Banrighin in Gaelic) lies approximately two miles from No sooner was this complete than the Queen's vanguard, commanded by Lord Hamilton, began its advance through the village. The battle was now under way.
Mary's army was commanded by Argyll, who was to show little in the way of real military skill, seemingly hoping simply to push Moray aside by sheer force of numbers: it is even suggested in the sources that he fainted at one point, though this is almost certainly a rumour spread by his enemies. With her army now engaged the Queen stood some distance to the rear, close to Cathcart Castle on a mound since named as the Court Knowe. As Hamilton attempted to force a passage through Langside he was met by close fire from Grange's hackbutters. Many in the front ranks were killed, throwing the remainder back on those following, and adding to the general confusion. Hamilton pushed on, finally reaching the top of a hill, only to find the main enemy army drawn up in good order. Morton with the border pikemen advanced to intercept Mary's vanguard. Both sides now met in 'push of pike'. The forest of inter-locked spears was now so thick it is said that if those behind threw their discharged pistols at the enemy the weapons simply rested on the shafts as on a carpet, rather than falling to the ground.
Grange, whom Moray had allowed considerable leeway, continued to act with courage and distinction; ". . . the Regent committed unto the laird of Grange, the specil cair, as ane experienced captain, to oversee every danger, to ryd to every wing and encourage and mak help where the greatest heit was. " The battle was now at its height and the outcome still doubtful, until Grange saw that the right wing of the Regent's army-consisting of the barons of Renfrewshire-was beginning to lose ground. Renfrewshire ( Siorrachd Rinn Friù in Scottish Gaelic) is one of 32 Council areas of Scotland. He immediately galloped to the main battalion and brought reinforcements. This was done so effectively, and the counter-attack pressed with such force, that it broke the enemy ranks. Moray, who hitherto had stood on the defensive, repulsing Mary's cavalry, now charged at the main enemy battalion, the fight now joined all along the line. The Queen's men crumbled, the fugitives being closely pursued by a party of Highlanders. The Battle of Langside, which had lasted for some forty-five minutes, was over.
In all some 300 men had been killed, a figure that almost certainly would have been much higher but for Moray's decision to avoid further bloodshed by ordering a halt to the pursuit. Many prisoners of note were taken. Mary and her escort rode off, eventually arriving at Dundrennan Abbey in Galloway, some sixty miles to the south. Dundrennan Abbey, in Dundrennan, Scotland, near to Kirkcudbright, was a Cistercian monastery in the Romanesque architectural style established Galloway ( Gaelic: Gall-Ghaidhealaibh, əŋ ɡauɫ̪ɣəɫ̪əv or Gallobha, Lowland Scots Gallowa) is an area in southwestern From here she left for England, never to see Scotland again.