Battle of Changsha (September 17, 1939 – October 6, 1939) was the first attempt by Japan to take the city of Changsha, China, during the second Sino-Japanese War. Events 1176 - The Battle of Myriokephalon is fought 1462 - The Battle of Świecino (or Battle of Żarnowiec Year 1939 ( MCMXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 105 BC - Battle of Arausio: The Cimbri inflict the heaviest defeat on the Roman army of Gnaeus Mallius Maximus Year 1939 ( MCMXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. Changsha ( is the Capital city of Hunan, a province of south-central China, located on the lower reaches of Xiang river a branch of the China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National The Second Sino-Japanese War ( July 7, 1937 to September 9, 1945) was a major war fought between the Republic of China and the
The war had already reached a stalemate after two years of fighting. In early September, Japanese General Toshizo Nishio of the "Japanese Expeditionary Forces to China" and Lieutenant-General Seishiro Itagaki set out to capture Changsha, the provincial capital of Hunan. was general in the Imperial Japanese Army in World War II and a War Minister. ( is a province of China, located in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and south of Lake Dongting (hence the name Hunan, meaning The Japanese 101st and 106th Divisions were deployed on the western bank of the Gan River in northern Jiangxi, and the 5th, 3rd, 13th, and 33rd Divisions marched southward from southern Hubei to northern Hunan. The Gan River ( of southern China travels 885 km north through Jiangxi before flowing into Lake Poyang and thence into the Yangtze River. ( Postal map spelling: Kiangsi is a southern province of the People's Republic of China, spanning from the banks of the Yangtze River ( Postal map spelling: Hupeh) is a central province of the People's Republic of China. ( is a province of China, located in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and south of Lake Dongting (hence the name Hunan, meaning
Two of the primary motivating factors for the Japanese in launching the attack were the signing of a non-aggression pact by their German ally with their Soviet enemy, and their defeat by Soviet forces at Nomonhan. The Battle of Khalkhyn Gol (бои на реке Халхин-Гол Халхын голын байлдаан Japanese ノモンハン事件 Nomonhan jiken --i A large attack on Chinese would therefore restore moral. 
Altogether, it became obvious that the 100,000 strong Japanese force was to converge on Changsha. The Chinese strategy was to counter the enemy column in northern Jiangxi and then encircle the line on the path southward.
The Japanese launched the attacks on September 17, when their forces in northern Jiangxi attacked westward toward Henan. Japan Japan (Early September 1939 11th Army - Yasuji Okamura * 6th Division - Lt Events 1176 - The Battle of Myriokephalon is fought 1462 - The Battle of Świecino (or Battle of Żarnowiec However, the Japanese stretched too far out westward and were counter-attacked by Chinese forces from the south and the north, forcing them to retreat eastward.
On September 19, the Japanese then proceeded to attack the Chinese along the Sinchiang River. Events 335 - Dalmatius is raised to the rank of Caesar by his uncle Constantine I. Even though the use of poison gas was prohibited by the Geneva Protocol, the Japanese army employed it on Chinese positions. Chemical warfare involves using the toxic properties of Chemical substances to kill injure or incapacitate an enemy. The Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating Poisonous or other Gases and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare, usually called the Geneva Protocol On September 23 the Japanese drove the Chinese out of the Sinchiang river area, and the 6th and 13th Divisions crossed the river under artillery cover and advanced further south along the Milo River. Events 1122 - Concordat of Worms. 1459 - Battle of Blore Heath, the first major battle of the English
Heavy fighting continued after the 23rd and the Chinese retreated southward to attract the Japanese while supporting battalions arrived on the east and the west for encirclement maneuver. On September 29 the Japanese reached the outskirts of Changsha. Events 522 BC - Darius I of Persia kills the Magian usurper Gaumâta securing his hold as king of the Persian Empire. However, they were unable to conquer the city because their supply lines were cut off by the Chinese. By October 6 the Japanese forces at Changsha were decimated while the remnants retreated northward. Events 105 BC - Battle of Arausio: The Cimbri inflict the heaviest defeat on the Roman army of Gnaeus Mallius Maximus
Changsha was the first major city that did not fall to the Japanese advances. The commander, a colourful warlord ally of Chiang Kai-shek, Xue Yue soon gained prestige from his victories at Changsha. Chiang Kai-shek ( POJ: Chiúⁿ Kài-se̍k Jyutping: zoeng2gaai3sek6 GCB ( October 31, 1887 &ndash Xue Yue (薛岳 Pinyin: Xuē Yuè ( December 26, 1896 &ndash May 3, 1998) was one of Nationalist China's best generals Retaining the city allowed the Chinese to prevent the Japanese from consolidating their territories in the South of China.