|Battle of Baghdad|
|Part of the Mongol invasions|
Hulagu's army attacks Baghdad. The Mongol Empire emerged in the course of the 13th century by a series of conquests and invasions throughout Central and Western Asia, reaching Eastern Europe
(40,000 Armenian infantry,
12,000 Armenian cavalry,
and Mongol, Turkish, Persian and Georgian soldiers)
|Casualties and losses|
|Unknown but believed to be minimal||50,000 soldiers,|
The Battle of Baghdad in 1258 was a victory for the Mongol leader Hulagu Khan, a grandson of Genghis Khan. Events 904 - Sergius III comes out of retirement to take over the papacy from the deposed Antipope Christopher. Events 1355 - The St Scholastica's Day riot breaks out in Oxford, England, leaving 63 scholars and perhaps 30 locals dead Baghdad (بغداد) is the Capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate, with which it is also coterminous For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. The Mongol Empire ( Mongolyn Ezent Güren or mn Их Mонгол улс Ikh Mongol Uls; 1206–1368 was the largest contiguous Empire The Armeno-Mongol alliance occurred between the Christian kingdom of Cilician Armenia and the Mongol Empire (primarily the Ilkhanate) in the 13th and 14th This article is about the founder of the Ilkhanate For the head of the Chagatai khanate please see Qara Hülëgü Hulagu Khan, also known as Guo Kan (郭侃(1217-1277 was a famous general of Han Chinese descent that served the Mongolian Khans in their Western conquests and the conquest of Baiju was a Mongol commander in Persia (fl 1230-1260 also known as Bayju Noyon or Baichu) appointed by Ögedei Khan to succeed Kitbuqa Noyan (d 1260 ( Turkic: Kitbuga, Mongolian: Хитбух) was a Christian Turk belonging to the tribe of Al-Musta'sim Billah (Arabic المستعصم بالله (full name al-Musta'sim-Billah Abu-Ahmad Abdullah bin al-Mustansir-Billah) (1213 &ndash February 20 The Armenians (Հայեր Hayer) are a Nation and Ethnic group originating in the Caucasus and in the Armenian Highlands A large The Infantry is the oldest and most numerous of the Combat Arms in the Armed forces, and consists The Cavalry (from French cavalerie) is the second oldest of the Combat Arms, and as Soldiers or Warriors who fought mounted on The Turkish people (Türk Halkı also known as " Turks " ( Türkler) are defined mainly as being speakers of Turkish as a First language layout and formatting it should ensure no clashes with the top of the infobox The Georgians (ქართველები kartvelebi) are a Nation and Ethnic group originating in the Caucasus, the oldest group of the This article is about the founder of the Ilkhanate For the head of the Chagatai khanate please see Qara Hülëgü Hulagu Khan, also known as Genghis Khan ( or;, Chinggis Khaan, ʧiŋgɪs χaːŋ Činggis Qaɣan; 1162–1227 born (meaning "ironworker" was the Mongol founder Baghdad was captured, sacked, and burned. Baghdad (بغداد) is the Capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate, with which it is also coterminous
Baghdad was the capital of the Abbasid caliphate, an Islamic state in what is now Iraq, ruled by Al-Musta'sim, the Abbasid caliph. Baghdad (بغداد) is the Capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate, with which it is also coterminous For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. Al-Musta'sim Billah (Arabic المستعصم بالله (full name al-Musta'sim-Billah Abu-Ahmad Abdullah bin al-Mustansir-Billah) (1213 &ndash February 20 The Caliph is the Head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Shari'ah The Abbasid caliphs were the second of the Islamic dynasties, having defeated the Umayyads, who had ruled from the death of Ali in 661 until 751, when the first Abbasid acceded the throne . ‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib (a=علي بن أﺑﻲ طالب|t=ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib 13th Rajab, 24 BH – 21st Ramaḍān, 40 AH Events By Place Europe Perctarit and Godepert become co-rulers of the Lombards, following the death of their Events By Place Europe Pepin the Short is elected as king of the Franks by the Frankish nobility marking the end of the At Baghdad's peak it had a population of approximately one million residents, and an army that was 60,000 strong, though its power and influence had decreased by the mid-1200s. Once mighty, the Abbasids had lost control over much of the former Islamic empire and declined into a minor state. However, although the caliph was a figurehead, controlled by Mamluk or Turkic warlords, he still had great symbolic significance, and Baghdad was still a rich and cultured city.
The Mongol army, led by Hulagu (also spelled as Hulegu) Khan and the Chinese commander Guo Kan in vice-command, set out for Baghdad in November of 1257. This article is about the founder of the Ilkhanate For the head of the Chagatai khanate please see Qara Hülëgü Hulagu Khan, also known as Guo Kan (郭侃(1217-1277 was a famous general of Han Chinese descent that served the Mongolian Khans in their Western conquests and the conquest of Hulagu marched with what was probably the largest army ever fielded by the Mongols. By order of Mongke Khan, one in ten fighting men in the entire empire were gathered for Hulagu's army (Saunders 1971). Möngke Khan (Мөнх хаан also transliterated as Mongke Mongka Möngka Mangu or Mangku ( c The attacking army also had a large contingent of Christian forces. The main Christian force seems to have been the Georgians, who took a very active role in the destruction. The Georgians (ქართველები kartvelebi) are a Nation and Ethnic group originating in the Caucasus, the oldest group of the . According to Alain Demurger, Frankish troops from the Principality of Antioch also participated. Alain Demurger is a modern French Historian, and a leading specialist of the history of the Knights Templar and the The Principality of Antioch, including parts of modern-day Turkey and Syria, was one of the Crusader states created during the First Crusade  Also, Ata al-Mulk Juvayni describes about 1000 Chinese artillery experts, and Armenians, Georgians, Persian and Turks as participants in the Siege. Ala'iddin Ata-Malik Juvayni (1226 &ndash 1283 (Persian علاءالدين عطا ملك جويني was a Persian historian who wrote an account of the Mongol Empire 
Hulagu demanded surrender; the caliph refused, warning the Mongols that they faced the wrath of Allah if they attacked the caliph. Many accounts say that the caliph failed to prepare for the onslaught; he neither gathered armies nor strengthened the walls of Baghdad. David Nicolle states flatly that the Caliph not only failed to prepare, even worse, he greatly offended Hulagu Khan by his threats, and thus assured his destruction. David Nicolle is an Historian specialising in the Military history of the Middle Ages, with a particular interest in the Middle East. (Monke Khan had ordered his brother to spare the Caliphate if it submitted to the authority of the Mongol Khanate. )
Prior to laying siege to Baghdad, Hulagu easily destroyed the Lurs, and his reputation so frightened the Assassins (also known as the Hashshashin) that they surrendered their impregnable fortress of Alamut to him without a fight in 1256. Lors (also Lurs Persianلر are a branch of Iranian people living mostly in south-western Iran. The Hashshashin (also Hashishin, Hashashiyyin, Hashasheen or Assassins) were an offshoot of the Ismā'īlī sect of Shia Alamūt ( Persian الموت "Eagle Peak" often appearing in the folk etymological form قلعه الموت Qal‘atu l-Mūt "the Castle of Death" He then advanced on Baghdad.
Once near the city, Hulagu divided his forces, so that they threatened both sides of the city, on the east and west banks of the Tigris. The caliph's army repulsed some of the forces attacking from the west, but were defeated in the next battle. The attacking Mongols broke some dikes and flooded the ground behind the caliph’s army, trapping them. Much of the army was slaughtered or drowned.
Under Guo Kan's order, the Chinese counterparts in the Mongolian army then laid siege to the city, constructing a palisade and ditch, wheeling up siege engines and catapults. The siege started on January 29. Events 904 - Sergius III comes out of retirement to take over the papacy from the deposed Antipope Christopher. The battle was swift, by siege standards. By February 5 the Mongols controlled a stretch of the wall. Events 1576 - Henry of Navarre converts to Roman Catholicism in order to ensure his right to the throne of France. Al-Musta'sim tried to negotiate, but was refused.
On February 10 Baghdad surrendered. Events 1355 - The St Scholastica's Day riot breaks out in Oxford, England, leaving 63 scholars and perhaps 30 locals dead The Mongols swept into the city on February 13 and began a week of massacre, looting, rape, and destruction. Events 1258 - Baghdad falls to the Mongols, and the Abbasid Caliphate is destroyed
Many historical accounts detailed the cruelties of the Mongol conquerors.
Typically, the Mongols destroyed a city only if it had resisted them. Cities that capitulated at the first demand for surrender could usually expect to be spared. The destruction of Baghdad was to some extent a military tactic: it was supposed to convince other cities and rulers to surrender without a fight, and while that worked with Damascus, it failed with Mamluk Egypt, which was inspired to resist, and subsequently defeated the Mongols at the Battle of Ain Jalut in 1260 - a battle that saw the first real unavenged defeat of the Mongol Empire. Damascus ( دمشق,, also commonly known as الشام ash-Shām) is the capital and largest city of Syria. The Battle of Ain Jalut (or Ayn Jalut, in Arabic ar عين جالوت the "Eye of Goliath" or the "Spring of Goliath" took place on 3 September 1260 between
Baghdad was a depopulated, ruined city for several centuries and only gradually recovered some of its former glory.
Some historians believe that the Mongol invasion destroyed much of the irrigation infrastructure that had sustained Mesopotamia for many millennia. David Morgan is a professor of history at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Mesopotamia (from the Greek meaning "land between the rivers" is an area geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers largely corresponding Canals were cut as a military tactic and never repaired. So many people died or fled that neither the labor nor the organization were sufficient to maintain the canal system. It broke down or silted up. This theory was advanced by historian Svatopluk Souček in his 2000 book, A History of Inner Asia and has been adopted by authors such as Steven Dutch.
Other historians point to soil salination as the culprit in the decline in agriculture. Soil salinity is the salt content in the soil Salt affected soils are caused by excess accumulation of salts typically most pronounced at the soil surface  
One author, Reuvan Amitai-Preiss, has alleged that the Mongols were aided by Shi'a Muslims who bore a grudge against the Sunni Abbasids. But another, David Nicolle, alleged that most of the Shi'a who joined the invaders did so out of fear of being slaughtered, as all those who resisted were being killed. Any force that surrendered at once, as had virtually all of southern Persia and what is today northern Iraq, were allowed to live but, as Mongol vassals, had to provide troops for the invaders. Later, as Il-Khan, Hulagu, in organizing his domains, integrated these troops into his army more thoroughly, though the vast majority of his troops were Mongols -- one Mongol in ten had been drafted for his army -- and Turkic nomads who had submitted to the Mongols.
The year following the fall of Baghdad, Hulagu named the Persian Ata al-Mulk Juvayni governor of Baghdad, Lower Mesopotamia, and Khuzistan. Ala'iddin Ata-Malik Juvayni (1226 &ndash 1283 (Persian علاءالدين عطا ملك جويني was a Persian historian who wrote an account of the Mongol Empire Mesopotamia (from the Greek meaning "land between the rivers" is an area geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers largely corresponding Khūzestān (خوزستان is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. At the intervention of the Mongol Hulagu's Nestorian Christian wife Dokuz Khatun, the Christian inhabitants were spared. Doquz Khatun (also spelled Dokuz Khatun) was a Mongol Kerait princess of the 13th century who was married to the Mongol ruler Hulagu.  Hulagu offered the royal palace to the Nestorian Catholicus Mar Makikha, and ordered a cathedral to be built for him. Mar Makkikha II, was Patriarch of the Church of the East (sometimes incorrectly referred to as the Nestorian church from 1257 until his death in 1265 when he was replaced by