|Battle of Amiens|
|Part of World War I|
Amiens, the key to the west by Arthur Streeton, 1918. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All Sir Arthur Ernest Streeton (8 April 1867 &ndash 1 September 1943 was an Australian landscape painter
| Ferdinand Foch|
Sir Douglas Haig
Sir John Monash
Sir Arthur Currie
| Georg von der Marwitz|
|5 Australian divisions,|
4 Canadian divisions,
3 British divisions,
1 American division,
12 French divisions,
|25 active divisions,|
4 reserve divisions,
|Casualties and losses|
|22,200 dead, wounded, or missing||74,000 dead, wounded, missing, or captured|
|the battle of Amiens|
|Map of Australian troop movements|
|Map of the advance at the battle of Amiens |
The Battle of Amiens, which began on 8 August 1918, was the opening phase of the Allied offensive later known as the Hundred Days Offensive that ultimately led to the end of World War I. Year 1918 ( MCMXVIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Events 1220 - Sweden is defeated by Estonian tribes in the Battle of Lihula. Year 1918 ( MCMXVIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Events 2492 BC - Traditional date of the defeat of Bel by Hayk, progenitor and founder of the Armenian nation Amiens (amjɛ̃ is a city and commune in northern France, 120 km north of Paris. Picardy (Picardie is an historical Province of France, in the north of France. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The German Empire is the name commonly used in English to describe Germany from 1871 to 1918 when it was a semi- Constitutional monarchy: beginning with the Unification Ferdinand Foch OM GCB (2 October 1851 – 20 March 1929 was a French soldier military theorist and writer credited with possessing "the most original Field Marshal Douglas Haig 1st Earl Haig, KT, GCB, OM, GCVO, General Sir John Monash GCMG, KCB, VD ( 27 June 1865 – 8 October 1931) was an Australian Sir Arthur William Currie GCMG, KCB ( December 5, 1875 &ndash November 30, 1933) was a Canadian General Johannes Georg von der Marwitz ( 7 July 1856 &ndash 27 October 1929) was a Prussian Cavalry General, who Erich Friedrich Wilhelm Ludendorff (sometimes given incorrectly as von Ludendorff) (9 April 1865–20 December 1937 was a German Army officer, Generalquartiermeister Events 1220 - Sweden is defeated by Estonian tribes in the Battle of Lihula. Year 1918 ( MCMXVIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The Entente Powers (from Triple Entente) were the countries at war with the Central Powers during World War I. The Hundred Days Offensive was the final period of World War I, where the Allies launched a series of offensives against the Central Powers on the World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All Allied forces advanced over seven miles on the first day, one of the greatest advances of the war. A mile is a unit of Length, usually used to measure Distance, in a number of different systems including Imperial units United States The battle is also notable for its effects on both sides' morale and the large number of surrendering German forces. Surrender is when Soldiers, nations or other combatants stop fighting and become Prisoners of war, either as The German Empire is the name commonly used in English to describe Germany from 1871 to 1918 when it was a semi- Constitutional monarchy: beginning with the Unification This led Erich Ludendorff to famously describe the first day of the battle as "the black day of the German Army. Erich Friedrich Wilhelm Ludendorff (sometimes given incorrectly as von Ludendorff) (9 April 1865–20 December 1937 was a German Army officer, Generalquartiermeister " Amiens was one of the first major battles involving armoured warfare and marked the end of trench warfare on the Western Front; fighting becoming mobile once again until the armistice was signed on 11 November 1918. Armoured warfare or tank warfare is the use of Armoured fighting vehicles in Modern warfare. Trench warfare is a form of warfare where both combatants have fortified positions and fighting lines are static Following the outbreak of World War I in 1914 the German army opened the Western Front by first invading Luxembourg and Belgium, then gaining The armistice treaty between the Allies and Germany was signed in a railway carriage in Compiègne Forest on November 11, 1918 Events 308 - The Congress of Carnuntum: Attempting to keep peace within the Roman Empire, the leaders of the Tetrarchy declare Year 1918 ( MCMXVIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common
On 21 March 1918, the German Empire had launched Operation Michael, the first in a series of attacks planned to drive the Allies back along the length of the Western Front. Events 630 - Byzantine emperor Heraclius restores the True Cross to Jerusalem. Year 1918 ( MCMXVIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The German Empire is the name commonly used in English to describe Germany from 1871 to 1918 when it was a semi- Constitutional monarchy: beginning with the Unification The 1918 Spring Offensive or Kaiserschlacht ( Kaiser's Battle) and also known as the Ludendorff Offensive was a series of German attacks along the Michael was intended to defeat the right wing of the British Expeditionary Force, but lack of success before Arras ensured the ultimate failure of the offensive. The British Expeditionary Force ( BEF) was the British army sent to the Western Front in France and Belgium on the outbreak of Arras (Atrecht is the capital of the Pas-de-Calais department in northern France. A final effort was aimed at the town of Amiens, a vital railway junction, but the advance had been halted at Villers-Bretonneux by the Australians on 4 April. Amiens (amjɛ̃ is a city and commune in northern France, 120 km north of Paris. "Railroad" and "Railway" both redirect here For other uses see Railroad (disambiguation. Villers-Bretonneux is a commune in the Somme département in the Picardie region of France. Events 1581 - Francis Drake completes a circumnavigation of the world and is knighted by Elizabeth I.  Subsequent German offensives — Operation Georgette (9 April-11 April), Operation Blücher-Yorck (27 May), Operation Gneisenau (9 June) and Operation Marne-Rheims (15 July—17 July) — all made advances elsewhere on the Western Front, but failed to achieve a decisive breakthrough. The Battle of the Lys (also known as the Lys Offensive, the Battle of Estaires and the Batalha de La Lys in Portugal) was part Events 193 - Septimius Severus is proclaimed Roman Emperor by the army in Illyricum (in the Balkans) Events 491 - Flavius Anastasius becomes Byzantine Emperor, with the name of Anastasius I. This article is about the 1918 battle For other battles of the Aisne see Battle of the Aisne. Events 927 - Simeon the Great, Tsar of Bulgaria, dies 1120 - Richard III of Capua is anointed The 1918 Spring Offensive or Kaiserschlacht ( Kaiser's Battle) and also known as the Ludendorff Offensive was a series of German attacks along the Events 53 - Roman Emperor Nero marries Claudia Octavia 62 - Claudia Octavia commits The Second Battle of the Marne, or Battle of Reims ( July 15 to August 5, 1918) was the last major German offensive on the Western Front Events 1099 - First Crusade: Christian soldiers take the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem after the final Events 180 - Twelve inhabitants of Scillium in North Africa are executed for being Christians 
At the end of the Marne-Rheims offensive, Allied commander Maréchal Ferdinand Foch ordered a counteroffensive which led to the Second Battle of the Marne. The Marshal of France (Maréchal de France and pl Maréchaux de France is a military distinction in contemporary France, not a Military rank. Ferdinand Foch OM GCB (2 October 1851 – 20 March 1929 was a French soldier military theorist and writer credited with possessing "the most original A counterattack The Second Battle of the Marne, or Battle of Reims ( July 15 to August 5, 1918) was the last major German offensive on the Western Front The Germans, recognising their untenable position, withdrew from the Marne to the north. The Marne is a River in France, a right Tributary of the Seine in the area east and southeast of Paris.  Foch now tried to move the Allies back onto the offensive.
Foch disclosed his plan on 23 July 1918 following the German retreat that had begun on 20 July. Events 1632 - Three hundred colonists bound for New France depart from Dieppe France. Year 1918 ( MCMXVIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Events 1304 - Wars of Scottish Independence: Fall of Stirling Castle - King Edward I of England takes the last rebel stronghold The plan called for reducing the Saint-Mihiel salient (which would later see combat in the Battle of Saint-Mihiel) and liberating the railroad lines that ran through Amiens. Saint-Mihiel is a commune of the Meuse département, in northeastern France. Salient Salients can be formed in a number of ways An attacker can produce a salient in the defender's line by either intentionally making a Pincer movement around the The Battle of Saint-Mihiel was a World War I battle fought between September 12 - 15 1918 involving the American Expeditionary Force and 48000 French
The commander of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig, already had plans in place for an attack near Amiens. Please see " Field Marshal " for other countries which use this rank Field Marshal is the highest military rank of the United Kingdom Field Marshal Douglas Haig 1st Earl Haig, KT, GCB, OM, GCVO, When the British retreat had ended in April, the headquarters of British Fourth Army under General Sir Henry Rawlinson had taken over the front astride the Somme. The Fourth Army was a field Army of the British Expeditionary Force during the First World War. General Henry Seymour Rawlinson 1st Baron Rawlinson, GCB, GCSI, GCVO, KCMG (20 February 1864 &ndash 28 March 1925 known as North of the river were British III Corps under Lieutenant General Richard Butler, while south of the river were the Australian Corps under Sir John Monash. The British III Corps was formed in both World War I and World War II. The Australian Corps was a World War I army Corps that contained all five Australian infantry divisions serving on the Western Front General Sir John Monash GCMG, KCB, VD ( 27 June 1865 – 8 October 1931) was an Australian (On May 30, all the Australian infantry divisions were united under the Corps HQ, for the first time on the Western Front). Events 1416 - The Council of Constance, called by the Emperor Sigismund a supporter of Antipope John XXIII burns Jerome of Prague following The Australians had mounted a number of local counter-attacks which both revealed the suitability of the open and firm terrain south of the Somme for a larger offensive and also established and refined the methods which were to be used. 
Rawlinson had submitted Monash's proposals to Haig in July and Haig had forwarded them to Foch. At a meeting on July 24, Foch agreed to the plan but insisted that the French First Army, which held the front to the south of the British Fourth Army, should participate. Events 1132 - Battle of Nocera between Ranulf II of Alife and Roger II of Sicily. The First Army (Ire Armée was a field Army of France that fought during World War I and World War II. Rawlinson had opposed this as his and Monash's plans depended on the large-scale use of tanks to achieve surprise and make preliminary bombardment unnecessary. The French First Army lacked tanks and would be forced to bombard the German positions before the infantry advance began, thus removing the element of surprise. Eventually, it was agreed that the French would participate, but not launch their attack until 45 minutes after Fourth Army.  It was also agreed to advance the proposed date of the attack from August 10 to August 8, to strike the Germans before they had completed their withdrawal from the Marne salient. Events 612 BC - Killing of Sinsharishkun, King of Assyrian Empire Events 1220 - Sweden is defeated by Estonian tribes in the Battle of Lihula.
Rawlinson had already finalised his plans in discussion with his Corps commanders (Butler, Monash, Sir Arthur Currie of the Canadian Corps and Lieutenant General Charles Kavanagh of the Cavalry Corps) on July 21. Sir Arthur William Currie GCMG, KCB ( December 5, 1875 &ndash November 30, 1933) was a Canadian General The Canadian Corps was a World War I Corps formed from the Canadian Expeditionary Force in September 1915 after the arrival of the 2nd Canadian Events 356 BC - Herostratus sets fire to the Temple of Artemis in Ephesus, one of the Seven Wonders of the World The final plan for Fourth Army involved 1,386 guns and howitzers, making up 27 medium artillery brigades and 13 heavy batteries, in addition to the infantry divisions' artillery. Artillery (from French artillerie) is a military Combat Arm which employs any apparātus machine A howitzer is a type of Artillery piece that is characterized by a relatively short barrel and the use of comparatively small explosive charges to propel projectiles There were also to be 580 tanks.
The tactical methods had been tested by the Australians in a local counter-attack at the Battle of Hamel on July 4. The Battle of Hamel ( 4 July, 1918) was a planned attack launched by the Australian Corps of the Australian Imperial Force against German Events 836 - Pactum Sicardi, peace between the Principality of Benevento and the Duchy of Naples The German defenders of Hamel were deeply dug in, and their position commanded a very wide field of fire. Similar positions had resisted capture for two months in the Battle of the Somme. The Battle of the Somme, also known as the Somme Offensive, fought from July to November 1916 was among the largest battles of the First World War The Australians had used surprise rather than weight at Hamel. The artillery had opened fire only at the moment the infantry and tanks advanced, and the Germans were rapidly overrun. 
A key factor in the final plan was secrecy. There was to be no pre-battle bombardment, only artillery fire immediately prior to the advance of Australian, Canadian, and British forces.  The fire plan for Fourth Army's artillery was devised by Monash's senior artillery officer, Major General C. E. D. Budworth. Advances in artillery techniques and aerial photographic reconnaissance made it possible to dispense with "ranging shots" to ensure accurate fire. Budworth had produced a timetable which allowed every single German position to be hit at "zero hour", while a creeping barrage preceded the infantry. A barrage' is a line or barrier of exploding Artillery shells, created by the co-ordinated targeting of a large number of Guns firing continuously This method was similar to the Feuerwalze which the Germans themselves had used in their Spring Offensive, but its effectiveness was increased by the surprise achieved. The 1918 Spring Offensive or Kaiserschlacht ( Kaiser's Battle) and also known as the Ludendorff Offensive was a series of German attacks along the 
On a larger scale, the Allies had successfully moved the Canadian Corps of four infantry divisions to Amiens without them being detected by the Germans. A detachment from the Corps of two infantry battalions, a wireless unit and a casualty clearing station had been sent to the front near Ypres to bluff the Germans that the entire Corps was moving north to Flanders. Ypres ( French, generally used in English French ipʁ English ˈiːprə Ieper (official name in Dutch, pronounced /ˈiːpər/ or Ypern  The Corps was not fully in position until August 7. Events 322 BC - Battle of Crannon between Athens and Macedon following the death of Alexander the Great. To maintain secrecy, the Allies commanders pasted the notice "Keep Your Mouth Shut" into orders issued to the men, and never used the actual word "offensive". 
Although the Germans were still on the offensive in late July 1918, the Allied armies were growing in strength, as more American units arrived in France, and British reinforcements were transferred from the Mediterranean. Ottoman advance towards the Suez Canal The Ottoman Empire at the urging of their German ally chose to attack British and Egyptian forces in Egypt and shut the Suez Canal The German commanders realized in early August that their forces might be forced on the defensive, though Amiens was not considered to be a likely front. The Germans believed the French would probably attack the Saint-Mihiel front east of Reims, or in Flanders near Mount Kemmel, while they believed the British would attack along either the Lys or near Albert. Reims (alternative English spelling Rheims; riːmz in English and /ʁɛ̃s/ in French) is a city of the Champagne-Ardenne région of northern Albert is a commune of the Somme department in Picardy in northern France. The Allies had indeed mounted a number of local counter-offensives in these sectors, both to gain local objectives to improve their defensive positions and to distract attention from the Amiens sector. German forces began to withdraw from the Lys and other fronts in response to these theories. The Allies maintained equal artillery and air fire along their various fronts, moving troops only at night, and faking movements during the day to mask their actual intent.
The German front east of Amiens was held by their Second Army under General Georg von der Marwitz, with six divisions in line (and two facing the French 1st Army). Johannes Georg von der Marwitz ( 7 July 1856 &ndash 27 October 1929) was a Prussian Cavalry General, who There were only two divisions in immediate reserve. There was some concern among the Allies on August 6 when the German 27th Division actually attacked north of the Somme on part of the front on which the Allies planned to attack two days later. Events 1538 - Bogotá, Colombia, is founded by Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada. The 27th Division ( 27 Division) formally the 27th Division (2nd Royal Württemberg ( 27 The German division (a specially selected and trained Stosstruppen formation) penetrated roughly 800 yards (730 m) into the one-and-a-half mile front. This attack was made in retaliation for the repeated Australian trench raids south of the Somme which had gained many prisoners and affected the morale of the "Trench" divisions the Germans had stationed there.  The German division moved somewhat back to its original position on the morning of August 7, but the movement still required changes to the Allied plan. Events 322 BC - Battle of Crannon between Athens and Macedon following the death of Alexander the Great.
The battle began in dense fog at 4:20 AM on 8 August 1918. The following is a list of forces involved in the Battle of Amiens of World War I fought from August 8 to August 11, 1918. Fog is a cloud that is in contact with the ground Stratus clouds are usually the only clouds that touch the ground Events 1220 - Sweden is defeated by Estonian tribes in the Battle of Lihula. Year 1918 ( MCMXVIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common  Under Rawlinson's Fourth Army, the British III Corps attacked north of the Somme, the Australian Corps to the south of the river in the centre of Fourth Army's front, and the Canadian Corps to the south of the Australians. The French 1st Army under General Debeney opened its preliminary bombardment at the same time, and began its advance 45 minutes later, supported by a battalion of 72 Whippet tanks. The Medium Mark A Whippet was a British Tank of the First World War.  Although German forces were on the alert, this was largely in anticipation of possible retaliation for their incursion on the 6th and not because they had learned of the preplanned Allied attack. Although the two forces were within 500 yards (460 m) of one another, gas bombardment was very low, as the bulk of the Allied presence was unknown to the Germans. Chemical warfare involves using the toxic properties of Chemical substances to kill injure or incapacitate an enemy. The attack was so unexpected that German forces only began to return fire after five minutes, and even then at the positions where the Allied forces had assembled at the start of the battle and had long since left. 
In the first phase, seven divisions attacked: the British 18th (Eastern) and 58th (2/1st London), the Australian 2nd and 3rd, and the Canadian 1st, 2nd and 3rd. The British 18th (Eastern Division was a New Army division formed in September 1914 as part of the K2 Army Group The 2nd Division commands all the reserve brigades in Australia The Australian 3rd Division was a first formed in World War I, as part of the Australian Imperial Force. This article refers to the division raised in the First World War. The 2nd Canadian Division was an infantry formation that saw service in the First World War The 3rd Canadian Division was a formation of the Canadian Corps during the First World War. The Canadian and Australian attackers were supported by eight battalions of the Royal Tank Corps, with a paper strength of 216 Mark V and 72 Mark V*, with 48 unarmed tanks used as supply-carrying tractors. The British Mark I was the world's first combat Tank, entering service in the middle of World War I, born of the need to break the domination of trenches and The British Mark I was the world's first combat Tank, entering service in the middle of World War I, born of the need to break the domination of trenches and Parts of the American 33rd Division supported the British attackers north of the Somme.
The attackers captured the first German position, advancing about 4,000 yards (3,700 m) by about 7:30 AM.  In the centre, supporting units following the leading divisions attacked the second objective a further two miles (3 km) distant. Australian units reached their first objectives by 7:10 AM, and by 8:20 AM, the Australian 4th and 5th and the Canadian 4th divisions passed through the initial hole in the German line. The Australian 4th Division was formed in the First World War during the expansion of the Australian Imperial Force infantry brigades in February 1916 The 5th Division was an Australian Infantry division of World War I and World War II. The Canadian Corps - 4th Canadian Division – World War I: The 4th Canadian Division was formed in the Britain in April of 1916 from several existing  The third phase of the attack was assigned to infantry-carrying Mark V* tanks. The British Mark I was the world's first combat Tank, entering service in the middle of World War I, born of the need to break the domination of trenches and However, the infantry was able to carry out this final step unaided.  The Allies penetrated well to the rear of the German defences and cavalry now continued the advance, one brigade in the Australian sector and two cavalry divisions in the Canadian sector. A brigade is a Military unit Echelon: is RAF and armoured car fire kept the retreating Germans from rallying. A military armored (or armoured) car (see spelling differences) is a wheeled armored vehicle lighter than other armored fighting vehicles primarily 
The Canadian and Australian forces in the center advanced quickly, pushing the line 3 miles (4. 8 km) forward from its starting point by 11 AM. The speed of their advance was such that a party of officers and some divisional staff that were eating breakfast were captured.  A gap 15 miles (24 km) long was punched in the German line south of the Somme by the end of the day. There was less success north of the river, where the British III Corps had only a single tank battalion in support, the terrain was rougher and the German incursion of the 6th had disrupted some of the preparations. Although the attackers gained their first objectives, they were held up short of the Chipilly spur, a steep wooded ridge.
The British Fourth Army took 13,000 prisoners while the French captured a further 3,000. Total German losses were estimated to be 30,000 on 8 August. Events 1220 - Sweden is defeated by Estonian tribes in the Battle of Lihula.  The Fourth Army's casualties, British, Australian and Canadian infantry, were approximately 8,800, exclusive of tank and air losses and their French allies.
German Army Chief of Staff Paul von Hindenburg noted the Allies' use of surprise and that Allied destruction of German lines of communication had hampered potential German counter-attacks by isolating command positions. The chief of staff is the chief aide to the Commander of larger military Formations and Units It is sometimes the case that the chief of staff is more directly Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg ( known universally as Paul von Hindenburg ( ( October 2, 1847 &ndash August 2  The German general Erich Ludendorff described the first day of Amiens as the "Schwarzer Tag des deutschen Heeres" ("the black day of the German Army"), not because of the ground lost to the advancing Allies, but because the morale of the German troops had sunk to the point where large numbers of troops began to capitulate. Erich Friedrich Wilhelm Ludendorff (sometimes given incorrectly as von Ludendorff) (9 April 1865–20 December 1937 was a German Army officer, Generalquartiermeister Morale, also known as esprit de corps when discussing the morale of a group is an intangible term used for the capacity of people to maintain Belief in  Five German divisions had effectively been engulfed. Allied forces pushed, on average, seven miles (11 km) into enemy territory by the end of the day.  The Canadians gained 8 miles (13 km), Australians 7 miles (11 km), British 2 miles (3. 2 km), and the French 5 miles (8. 0 km).
The advance continued, though not with the spectacular results of the first day. The infantry had outrun the supporting artillery and the initial force of more than 500 tanks that played a large role in the Allied success.  The Germans on Chipilly Spur commanded a wide field of fire to the south of the Somme, and their flanking fire held up the Australian Corps until late on the 9th, when a small Australian party slipped across the river, and captured the village of Chipilly itself, together with a renewed attack by III Corps. On the Canadian front, congested roads and communication problems prevented the British 32nd Division being pushed forward rapidly enough to maintain the momentum of the advance. The British 32nd Division was a New Army division that was originally made up of battalions raised by public subscription or private patronage
On 10 August, there were signs that the Germans were pulling out of the salient from Operation Michael. Events 612 BC - Killing of Sinsharishkun, King of Assyrian Empire Salient Salients can be formed in a number of ways An attacker can produce a salient in the defender's line by either intentionally making a Pincer movement around the According to official reports, the Allies had captured nearly 50,000 prisoners and 500 guns by 27 August. Events 479 BC - Greco-Persian Wars: Persian forces led by Mardonius are routed by Pausanias, the Spartan  Even with the lessened armour the British drove 12 miles (19 km) into German positions by 13 August. Events 3114 BC - According to the Lounsbury correlation the start of the Maya calendar. 
The Battle of Amiens was a major turning point in the tempo of the war. The Germans had started the offensive with the Schlieffen Plan before the war devolved into trench warfare, the Race to the Sea slowed movement on the Western Front, and the German Spring Offensive earlier that year had once again given Germany the offensive edge on the Western Front. For the French counter-plan see Plan XVII The Schlieffen Plan was the German General Staff 's early 20th century overall strategic The Race to the Sea was a name given to a period of World War I when on the Western Front, the two sides were still engaged in mobile warfare The 1918 Spring Offensive or Kaiserschlacht ( Kaiser's Battle) and also known as the Ludendorff Offensive was a series of German attacks along the Armoured support helped the Allies tear a hole through trench lines, weakening once impregnable trench positions. The British Third army with no armored support had almost no effect on the line while the Fourth with less than a thousand tanks broke deep into German territory, for example.  Australian commander John Monash was knighted by King George V in the days following the battle. General Sir John Monash GCMG, KCB, VD ( 27 June 1865 – 8 October 1931) was an Australian Knight is the English term for a social position originating in the Middle Ages.
British war correspondent Philip Gibbs noted Amiens' effect on the war's tempo, saying on 27 August that "the enemy. A war correspondent is a Journalist who covers stories firsthand from a war zone. Sir Philip Gibbs ( May 1, 1877 - March 10, 1962) was an English journalist and novelist who served as one of five official British Events 479 BC - Greco-Persian Wars: Persian forces led by Mardonius are routed by Pausanias, the Spartan . . is on the defensive" and "the initiative of attack is so completely in our hands that we are able to strike him at many different places. " Gibbs also credits Amiens with a shift in troop morale, saying "the change has been greater in the minds of men than in the taking of territory. Morale, also known as esprit de corps when discussing the morale of a group is an intangible term used for the capacity of people to maintain Belief in On our side the army seems to be buoyed up with the enormous hope of getting on with this business quickly" and that "there is a change also in the enemy's mind. They no longer have even a dim hope of victory on this western front. All they hope for now is to defend themselves long enough to gain peace by negotiation. "