A basketball is an inflated spherical ball used in the game of basketball. BALL ( Biochemical Algorithms Library) is a C++ library containing common algorithms used in Biochemistry and Bioinformatics. Basketball is a team Sport in which two teams of five active players each try to score points against one another by propelling a ball through a 10 feet (3 m Basketballs typically range in size from very small promotional items possibly only a few inches in diameter to extra large balls nearly a foot in diameter used in training exercises to increase the skill of players. 
Nearly all basketballs have an inflatable inner rubber bladder, generally wrapped in layers of fiber and then covered with a tacky surface made either from leather (traditional), rubber, or a synthetic composite. Leather is a material created through the Tanning of hides and Skins of Animals primarily Cattlehide The Tanning process As in most inflatable balls, there is a small opening to allow the pressure to be increased or decreased.
The surface of the ball is nearly always divided by "ribs" that are recessed below the surface of the ball in a variety of configurations and are generally a contrasting color. A standard 29. 5 inch basketball has about 4118 pebbles, with the pebbles being at a diameter of 2. 5 millimeters. An orange surface with black ribs and a possible logo is the traditional color scheme of basketballs but they are sold in various colors. The colour orange occurs Black is the Color of objects that do not emit or Reflect Light in any part of the Visible spectrum; they absorb all such frequencies of
Balls are generally designated for indoor (generally made of leather or absorbent composites), or all-surface use (generally made of rubber or durable composites, also known as Indoor/Outdoor balls). Indoor balls tend to be considerably more expensive than all-surface balls due to cost of materials. In addition, brand new all-leather indoor balls must be "broken in" first to achieve optimal grip before use in competition. The abrasiveness of asphalt and the dirt and moisture generally present in an outdoor setting will usually ruin an indoor ball within a very short period of time, which is why an indoor/outdoor ball is recommended for recreational players.
Aside from the court and the baskets, the basketball is the only piece of equipment necessary to play the game of basketball. During the game, the ball must be bounced continuously (dribbling), thrown through the air to other players (passing) and towards the basket (shooting). Basketball is a team Sport in which two teams of five active players each try to score points against one another by propelling a ball through a 10 feet (3 m Basketball is a team Sport in which two teams of five active players each try to score points against one another by propelling a ball through a 10 feet (3 m Basketball is a team Sport in which two teams of five active players each try to score points against one another by propelling a ball through a 10 feet (3 m Therefore, the ball must be very durable and easy to hold on to. The basketball is also used to perform tricks (sometimes called freestyling), the most common of which are spinning the ball on the tip of one's index finger, dribbling in complex patterns, rolling the ball over one's shoulder, or performing aerobatic maneuvers with the ball while executing a slam dunk, most notably in the context of a slam dunk contest. A slam dunk (or simply a dunk) is a type of Basketball shot that is performed when a player jumps in the air and manually powers the ball downward through the basket The Slam Dunk Contest is an annual National Basketball Association (NBA competition held during the NBA All-Star Weekend.
In early December 1891, the chairman of the physical education department at the School for Christian Workers (now Springfield College) in Springfield, Massachusetts, instructed physical education teacher James Naismith, known to many as the maker-upperer of basketball, to invent a new game to entertain the school's athletes in the winter season. Year 1891 ( MDCCCXCI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Springfield is a City in and the County seat of Hampden County, Massachusetts, United States. James A Naismith (November 6 Naismith assembled his class of 18 young men, appointed captains of two nine-player teams, and set in motion the first ever basketball game, played with a peach and two garbage cans tacked to either end of the gymnasium. The first purpose-built basketballs were made from panels of leather stitched together with a rubber bladder inside. A cloth lining was added to the leather for support and uniformity (identity). A molded version of the early Basketball was invented in 1942. Year 1942 ( MCMXLII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. From 1967 through 1976, the American Basketball Association (ABA) used a distinctive red, white and blue basketball that is still seen from time to time. Year 1967 ( MCMLXVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. Year 1976 ( MCMLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The American Basketball Association ( ABA) was a professional Basketball league founded in 1967, and eventually merged in part with the National For many years, leather was the material of choice for basketball coverings, however in the late 1990s, composite materials were put forth and have rapidly gained acceptance in most leagues due to their superior performance in harsh game conditions. A survey in 2007 showed that there was approximately 300 million basketballs in america. Some basketball is played on trampolines.
Organized basketball leagues generally have very rigorous specifications for the balls to be used in official competition including weight, inflation pressure, bounce, circumference, color, and materials used. In the Physical sciences weight is a Measurement of the gravitational Force acting on an object The circumference is the distance around a closed Curve. Circumference is a kind of Perimeter. Most leagues use very similar specifications for their balls which are referred to as size 7 (for men's competition) and size 6 (for women's competition) by manufacturers. However the specific wording and policy on manufacturers vary between leagues. Here are the official specifications for three popular leagues:
Spalding was the first company to produce a basketball for official use. Spalding is a sporting goods company started in Chicago by Albert Spalding in 1876 Company founder A.G Spalding made the first dedicated basketball in the last years of the 19th century at the behest of James Naismith. Albert Goodwill Spalding ( Byron, Illinois September 2 1850 &ndash September 9 1915 in Point Loma, California) was a professional Baseball It has produced basketballs since that time and has produced the NBA’s official game ball since 1983. Year 1983 ( MCMLXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar) The company also produces a wide variety of balls for the consumer market, most notably its INFUSION ball which has a built in pump to maintain proper inflation.
In June, 2006 the NBA announced that Spalding would be introducing a new official game ball for play beginning in the 2006 season. According to the NBA, the new ball is composed of a new material that offers better grip, feel, and consistency than the current leather ball. In 1970, the ball was transitioned from a four panel to an eight panel ball, and the latest ball design is comprised of two interlocking, cross-shaped panels that Spalding calls Cross Traxxion. The material is a microfiber composite with moisture management that is supposed to provide better grip and feel. According to the NBA press release, the new composite material eliminates the need for a break-in period, and provides greater consistency from ball to ball. Despite the claims from the NBA and commissioner David Stern, there have been several complaints about the new basketball. Many players have complained that the new ball is slippery, hard to hold and that the increased friction has even caused cuts on player's hands. Many elite players have called for the NBA to bring back the old ball, even bringing a grievance to the National Labor Relations Board to revert to the original leather ball. The National Labor Relations Board (or NLRB) is an Independent agency of the United States Government charged with conducting Dallas Mavericks owner Mark Cuban asked several members of the University of Texas at Arlington physics department to test the balls. The Dallas Mavericks (also known as the Mavs) are the professional Basketball team of the National Basketball Association based in Dallas Texas Mark Cuban (born July 31, 1958 in Pittsburgh). He is the owner of the Dallas Mavericks, an NBA Basketball team, The University of Texas at Arlington, often referred to as UT Arlington or UTA, is a nationally recognized comprehensive doctoral/research university in What they found, is that the new ball, when dropped from a height of 5 feet, bounced an average of 4 inches lower than the old ball. They also determined that the composite ball is slower to absorb moisture than the previous leather ball. On December 11, 2006, NBA commissioner David Stern announced that the NBA would switch back to the old leather model starting at the beginning of 2007. Events 359 - Honoratus, the first known Prefect of the City of Constantinople, takes office Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. David Joel Stern (born on September 22, 1942 in New York City, New York) is the current commissioner of the National Basketball Association Beginning from the 2007-08 season, Spalding will be the official basketball supplier to the American Basketball Association. In 2007, Spalding became the Official Basketball Provider of the Ball4Real World Tour. Ball4Real was the name of a traveling Basketball exhibition and competition which made its debut in June 2007 
Wilson's top-of-the-line product is the SOLUTION ball, named for its ability to absorb moisture over the course of a game and retain its grip. The Wilson Sporting Goods Company is a sports equipment manufacturer based in Chicago, Illinois, and currently is a foreign Subsidiary of the Finnish The ball is the official ball of all NCAA postseason tournaments, most notably the men's and women's Division I tournaments, and is used by many NCAA teams during the season as well by many high school leagues. The National Collegiate Athletic Association ( NCAA, often pronounced "N-C-Double-A" is a voluntary association of about 1200 institutions conferences organizations The NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championship is a single elimination Tournament held each spring featuring 65 College basketball teams in the The NCAA Women's Division I Championship is an annual Basketball tournament for women Like Spalding, Wilson produces a variety of balls for the consumer market as well.
Through the 2006-07 season, it had the contract to provide balls for both Europe-wide competitions organised by ULEB, the Euroleague and ULEB Cup. The ULEB (acronym of the French Union des Ligues Européennes de Basket, in English Union of European Leagues of Basketball) was founded in 1991 with the EuroLeague WomenThe Euroleague (EL is one of the professional Basketball competitions in Europe, with teams from thirteen different European countries However, ULEB has now signed Nike as its ball provider. Nike Inc ('naɪki ( is a major publicly traded sportswear and equipment supplier based in the United States.  Molten's top-of-the line product is the GL7/GL6, a leather ball with a distinctive 12-panel design, a high-density cushioning foam below the surface and special soft rubber seams, a flatter pebbled finish providing increased contact area and a flattened seam between the panels (called a "Full-Flat Seam"). Molten also produces a wide variety of balls at all price points for the consumer market.
Rawlings has manufactured basketballs since 1902. Rawlings is a sports equipment manufacturing company in the United States. The company is known for producing a 10-panel ball (known as the TEN), along with traditional 8-panel balls. The TEN basketball is the official ball of the Amateur Athletic Union and the "Gus Macker", the largest 3-on-3 basketball tournament in the United States. Official NameAmateur Athletic Union of the United States Incorporated (AAU The Gus Macker 3-on-3 Basketball Tournament is a nationwide event for players of a variety of age and skill levels The United States of America —commonly referred to as the 
Nike, as noted earlier, now has the contract to produce balls for ULEB (including the Euroleague). Nike Inc ('naɪki ( is a major publicly traded sportswear and equipment supplier based in the United States. In the Philippines it is used in the NCAA and UAAP as the official ball of the tournament. All these competitions use the Nike 4005 Official Tournament Balls.