|Republic of Bashkortostan (English)|
Республика Башкортостан (Russian)
Башҡортостан Республикаһы (Bashkir)
Location of the Republic of Bashkortostan in Russia
|Coat of Arms||Flag|
Coat of arms of Bashkortostan
Flag of Bashkortostan
|Anthem: National Anthem of the Republic of Bashkortostan|
|Established||March 23, 1919|
- Rank within Russia
|Population (as of the 2002 Census)|
- Rank within Russia
28. Heraldry in its most general sense encompasses all matters relating to the duties and responsibilities of officers of arms. A flag is a piece of Cloth, often flown from a pole or mast, generally used Symbolically for signaling or identification A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history traditions and struggles of its people recognized either by a nation's Ufa (Уфа́ Өфө Öfö; Уфа|Ufa Ӗпхӳ Ephü) is the capital of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia. Events 1174 - Jocelin, Abbot of Melrose, is elected Bishop of Glasgow. Year 1919 ( MCMXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Russia is a Federation which consists of 83  subjects. These subjects are of equal federal rights in the sense that they have equal This article is about an administrative division of the federal government of Russia Russia is divided into twelve economic regions (экономи́ческие райо́ны ekonomicheskiye rayony, sing The Russian Federation is divided into 83  federal subjects (constituent units 21 of which are Republics. Volga (Privolzhsky Federal District (Приво́лжский федера́льный о́круг tr Urals economic region (Ура́льский экономи́ческий райо́н tr Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. Square Kilometre ( US spelling square kilometer) symbol km2, is a decimal multiple of the SI unit of Russia 's area is about 17 million square kilometers (65 million sq Russian Census of 2002 (Всеросси́йская пе́репись населе́ния 2002 го́да was the first Census of the Russian Federation carried 6 inhab. / km²
|Official languages||Russian, Bashkir|
|Prime minister||Rail Sarbayev|
|Legislative body||State Assembly—Kurultai|
|Constitution||Constitution of the Republic of Bashkortostan|
Republic of Bashkortostan (Russian: Респу́блика Башкортоста́н; Bashkir: Башҡортостан Республикаһы) or Bashkiria (Башки́рия) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). Russian ( transliteration:,) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages The Bashkir language is a Turkic language. Speakers The 2002 population census showed under 1000000 native speakers of the Bashkir language living in Murtaza Gubaydullovich Rakhimov (Муртаза́ Губайду́ллович Рахи́мов Мортаҙа Ғөбәйҙулла улы Рәхимов is the President of the A legislature is a type of representative Deliberative assembly with the power to create amend and change Laws The law created by a legislature is called Legislation The term basic law is used in some places as an alternative to " Constitution " implying it is a temporary but necessary measure without formal enactment A website (alternatively web site or Web site, a back-construction from the Proper noun World Wide Web) is a collection of Web pages Russian ( transliteration:,) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages The Bashkir language is a Turkic language. Speakers The 2002 population census showed under 1000000 native speakers of the Bashkir language living in Russia is a Federation which consists of 83  subjects. These subjects are of equal federal rights in the sense that they have equal Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending A republic is a State or Country that is not led by a hereditary Monarch, but in which the people (or at least a part of its people have impact on its It is located between the Volga river and the Ural mountains. Riphean redirects here For the time period see Riphean stage The Ural Mountains (Ура́льские го́ры Uralskiye Its capital is Ufa. Ufa (Уфа́ Өфө Öfö; Уфа|Ufa Ӗпхӳ Ephü) is the capital of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia.
The direct romanization of the republic's name in Russian is Respublika Bashkortostan or Bashkiriya, and the romanization of the republic's name in Bashkir is Bašqortostan Respublikahy. The Romanization of the Russian alphabet is the process of transliterating the Russian language from the Cyrillic alphabet and
People lived on the territory of modern Bashkortostan from time immemorial. Time immemorial is a phrase meaning time extending beyond the reach of Memory, record or Tradition. First settlements were set up in early paleolithic period. The term Paleolithic (or Palaeolithic) (from Greek παλαιός palaios, " Old " and λίθος Lithos, "stone" But it was the bronze age which served as a spur to populate this territory. The term Bronze Age refers to a period in human cultural development when the most advanced Metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use included techniques for When people of Abashevo culture started settling here, they possessed high skills in manufacturing bronze tools, weapons, and decorations. Abashevo culture is a later Bronze Age (ca 17th&ndash16th centuries BC Archaeological culture found in the valleys of the Volga and Kama River They were the first to establish permanent settlements in the Southern Urals. Riphean redirects here For the time period see Riphean stage The Ural Mountains (Ура́льские го́ры Uralskiye The ethnonym Bashkirs first became known in the 9th century.
In the 10th century, the religion of Islam started to spread among Bashkirs, and in the 14th century it became a dominant religion. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Up to the 16th century the territory of modern Bashkortostan was divided between Kazan and Siberia Khanates and Nogai Horde. The Kazan Khanate (Казан ханлыгы|Qazan xanlığı|قازان خانليغى Russian: Казанское ханство tr: Kazanskoe khanstvo Siberia Khanate is an anachronistic rendering of its actual name Khanate of Sibir, a Tatar Khanate in the later Russian Siberia The Nogai Horde was a confederation of Turkic nomads that occupied the Pontic-Caspian steppe from about 1500 until pushed south by the Russians during the 17th century The tribes that lived there were headed by bi (tribal heads). After Kazan felt to Ivan the Terrible in 1554–1555, representatives of western and north-western Bashkir tribes approached the Tsar with a request to voluntarily join the Muscovy. Kazan (Каза́нь Казан tt Qazan) is the capital city of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia, and one of Russia's largest cities The siege of Kazan in 1552 was the final battle of Russo-Kazan Wars. The Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое княжество Московское was a medieval Russian polity centered on Moscow between 1340 and
Starting from the second half of the 16th century, Bashkiria's territory began taking shape as a part of the Russian state. In 1798 the Spiritual Assembly of Russia Muslims was established—an indication that the tsarist Government recognized the rights of Bashkirs, Tatars, and other Muslim nations to profess Islam and perform religious rituals. The Bashkirs, a Turkic people, live in Russia, mostly in the republic of Bashkortostan. Tatars ( Tatar: Tatarlar/Татарлар sometimes spelled Tartars, are a Turkic -speaking ethnic group or multiple ethnic groups Ufa Governorate (guberniya), with a center in Ufa, was formed in 1865—another step towards territorial identification. Guberniya (губе́рния) (also gubernia, guberniia, gubernya) was a major administrative subdivision of Imperial Russia, usually Ufa (Уфа́ Өфө Öfö; Уфа|Ufa Ӗпхӳ Ephü) is the capital of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia.
After the Russian revolution, Bashkir Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (ASSR) within the Russian SFSR was established in 1919, firstly as Little Bashkortostan, but then all Ufa Governorate was incorporated to the newly established republic. See also Russian Revolution (1905 The Russian Revolution of 1916 refers to a series of popular revolutions in Russia, and the events surrounding them The Bashkir Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was an Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the former Soviet Union. During the Soviet period, Bashkiria was granted broad autonomous rights—the first among other Russian regions. The administrative structure of the Bashkir ASSR was based on principals similar to those of other autonomous republics of Russia.
The year 1932 was the starting point when the extraction of Bashkir crude oil began. At the end of 1943, large crude oil deposits (Tuymazy oil-field) were discovered. During the World War II, Bashkiria turned into one of the major regions of the Soviet Union to accommodate plants and factories evacuated from Western Russia, as well as great masses of people; all while providing the country with weaponry, fuel, and food-stuff. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including After the war, a good number of industries were further developed in Bashkiria, such as mining, machine building and especially oil-refining. Bashkiria's industry became a solid basis for further economic growth of all European outlying territories of Russia.
On October 11, 1990 the Supreme Soviet of the Republic adopted the Declaration on state sovereignty of the Bashkir SSR. Events 1138 - A massive earthquake struck Aleppo, Syria. 1531 - Huldrych Zwingli is killed Year 1990 ( MCMXC) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar) On February 25, 1992 the Bashkir SSR was renamed the Republic of Bashkortostan. Events 138 - The Emperor Hadrian adopts Antoninus Pius, effectively making him his successor Year 1992 ( MCMXCII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar)
On March 31, 1992 a Federative Compact "On separation of authorities and powers among federal organs of power of the Russian Federation and the organs of power of the Republic of Bashkortostan" was signed. Events 307 - After divorcing his wife Minervina, Constantine marries Fausta, the daughter of the retired Roman Emperor On August 3, 1994 a Compact "On separation of authorities and mutual delegating of powers among the organs of power of the Russian Federation and the organs of power of the Republic of Bashkortostan" was signed. Events 8 - Roman Empire General Tiberius defeats Dalmatians on the river Bathinus. Year 1994 ( MCMXCIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar)
The head of government in Bashkortostan is the President, who is elected for a four-year term. According to the Constitution, the President of the Republic of Bashkortostan guarantees rights and liberties of a person and a citizen, protects economic and political interests of the Republic of Bashkortostan, and secures legitimacy, law and order on its territory.
As of 2007, the president is Mortaza Ghöbäydulla uly Räximev (Murtaza Rakhimov), who was elected on December 17, 1993. Murtaza Gubaydullovich Rakhimov (Муртаза́ Губайду́ллович Рахи́мов Мортаҙа Ғөбәйҙулла улы Рәхимов is the President of the Events 546 - Gothic War (535–554: The Ostrogoths of King Totila Year 1993 ( MCMXCIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar) Prior to the elections, Rakhimov was the Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the Republic—the highest post at that time. Rakhimov was re-elected in December of 2003 in a poll condemned by the OSCE for exhibiting "elements of basic fraud. "
The Republic's parliament is the State Assembly—Kurultai, popularly elected every five years. TalkParliament#Screen-size. -->A  parliament is a Legislature, especially in those The one-chamber State Assembly has 120 deputies.
The Republic's Constitution was adopted on December 24, 1993. Events 563 - The Byzantine church Hagia Sophia in Constantinople is dedicated for the second time after being destroyed by Earthquakes Article 1 of the Constitution stipulates that Bashkortostan is a sovereign state within Russia, it has all the state power in full volume beyond the limits of authority of the Russian Federation and the powers of the Russian Federation concerning the aspect of joint authority of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Bashkortostan. The Republic of Bashkortostan is a full-fledged subject of the Russian Federation on equal and agreed bases.
The relations of the Republic of Bashkortostan and the Russian Federation are at present based on the articles of the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the Constitution of the Republic of Bashkortostan, the Federative Compact (with amendments), the Agreement on Separation of authorities and powers and mutual delegating of powers among the organs of state power of the Republic of Bashkortostan.
The judicial power of the Republic is in the hands of courts: the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court, the Court of Appeals, district Courts, and justices of the peace.
In full accord with universally recognized principles of international law, articles of European Charter on local self-government and the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the Republic of Bashkortostan ensures in its Constitution that local self-government is recognized and guarantied on the republic territory.
The Republic of Bashkortostan resolves all the issues of its administrative-territorial structure on its own. The list of districts and towns of the republican importance, municipalities as well as the order of establishing, amending and changing borders of municipalities and their names are stipulated by the Republic of Bashkortostan law "On administrative-territorial structure of the Republic of Bashkortostan and territory of municipalities".
Much of Bashkortostan's economy depends on its oil processing industry, which is a left-over from Soviet times and has seen little investment since the collapse of the Soviet Union. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Most of the industry, nominally privatized, has in fact been granted to the factions close to the president's family.
More than one half of Bashkortostan's industry is based in Ufa, the republic's capital. Ufa (Уфа́ Өфө Öfö; Уфа|Ufa Ӗпхӳ Ephü) is the capital of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia.
|Gross regional product||214. 8||279. 7||n/a||billion roubles|
|Industrial production volume||161. 7||192. 1||354||billion roubles|
|Construction||1,408||1,471. 5||1508. 4||th. m. ²|
|Agricultural produce||50. 1||52. 1||57. 2||billion roubles|
|Investments into fixed capital||52. 1||53. 7||62. 4||billion roubles|
|Accumulated foreign investments||71. 7||97. 6||157. 1||million US$|
|Foreign trade turnover||2646||3045. 3||3840. 6||million US$|
|Export||2303. 4||2724. 4||3525. 9||million US$|
|Import||342. 3||320. 9||314. 7||million US$|
|Wholesale trade turnover||117. 7||118. 1||151. 2||billion roubles|
Bashkortostan contains part of the southern Urals and the adjacent plains. Riphean redirects here For the time period see Riphean stage The Ural Mountains (Ура́льские го́ры Uralskiye
Bashkortostan is located in the Yekaterinburg Time Zone (YEKT/YEKST). Yekaterinburg Time ( YEKT) is the Time zone 5 hours ahead of UTC ( UTC+5) and 2 hours ahead of Moscow Time (MSK+2 UTC offset is +0500 (YEKT)/+0600 (YEKST).
There are over 13,000 rivers in the republic. Many rivers are parts of deepwater transportation system of European Russia; they provide access to ports of the Baltic and the Black seas. The Baltic Sea is a Brackish inland sea located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N Latitude and from 20°E to 26°E Longitude. The Black Sea is an inland Sea bounded by southeastern Europe, the Caucasus and the Anatolian peninsula ( Turkey
Major rivers include:
There are 2,700 lakes and reservoirs in the republic. Belaya River or Aghidhel (Бе́лая Ағиҙел Агыйдел|Ağidel is a River in the Bashkortostan and Tatarstan, Russian Ufa River (Уфа Ҡариҙел Qaridhel, literalyy The Black Idel) is a River in the Urals, Chelyabinsk Oblast, Sakmara River (Сакмара Һаҡмар Haqmar) is a River in Russia that flows for 760 kilometers (470 miles Ik River (Ик Ык|Iq Ыҡ is a river in Russia flowing through the Republics of Bashkortostan and Tatarstan, and through Orenburg Oblast Yuryuzan River (Юрюза́нь Yuryuzán'; Йүрүҙән Yürüdhän) is a River in the Republic of Bashkortostan and Chelyabinsk Sim River (Сим is a River in Chelyabinsk Oblast and the Republic of Bashkortostan in Russia. The Syun (Сөн Сюнь Сөн|Sön is a river in Bashkortostan and Tatarstan, Russian Federation, a left-bank Tributary of the Major lakes and reservoirs include:
The republic contains part of the southern Urals, which stretch from the northern to the southern border. The highest mountains include:
The Republic of Bashkortostan is one of the richest territories of Russia in mineral resources. Mount Yamantaw (гора Ямантау is in the Ural Mountains, Bashkortostan, Russia. There are some 3,000 mineral resources deposits here. Bashkortostan is rich in crude oil reserves, and was one of the principal centers of oil extraction in the Soviet Union. Petroleum ( L petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Other major resources are natural gas, coal, ferrous metal ores, manganese, chromite, iron ores, non-ferrous metals ores (lead, tungsten), non-metallic ores (rock crystal, phluorite, islandic spar, surphur pyrites, barite, silicates, silica, asbestos, talcum), deposits of precious and semi-precious stones and natural stones (malachite, jade, granite). Natural gas is a Gaseous Fossil fuel consisting primarily of Methane but including significant quantities of Ethane, Propane, An ore is a volume of rock containing components or Minerals in a mode of occurrence that renders it valuable for mining Manganese (ˈmæŋgəniːz is a Chemical element, designated by the symbol Mn. Chromite is iron magnesium chromium oxide (Fe MgCr2O4 It is an Oxide Mineral belonging to the Spinel group Characteristics Lead has a dull luster and is a dense, Ductile, very soft highly Tungsten (ˈtʌŋstən also known as wolfram (/ˈwʊlfrəm/ is a Chemical element that has the symbol W and Atomic number 74 Quartz (from German) is the most abundant Mineral in the Earth 's Continental crust (although Feldspar is more common in Baryte ( Ba[[Sulfur S]] O 4 is a Mineral consisting of Barium sulfate. For the Artificial intelligence Androids of the 1990s Science fiction series Space Above and Beyond, see Silicate (AI The Chemical compound silicon dioxide, also known as silica or silox (from the Latin " Silex " is an Oxide Asbestos is a group of Minerals with long thin fibrous Crystals The word "asbestos" (῾ἀσβεστος is derived from a Greek adjective Talc (derived from the Persian via Arabic talq) is a Mineral composed of Hydrated Magnesium Silicate with Malachite is a carbonate mineral normally known as "copper carbonate" with the formula Cu 2 CO3[[hydroxide Jade is an Ornamental stone. The term jade is applied to two different rocks that are made up of different Silicate minerals. Granite (ˈɡrænɪt is a common and widely occurring type of intrusive, Felsic, igneous rock.
The republic has enough mineral resources to provide its power and fuel complex as well as petro-chemical, chemical, agro-industrial complex, ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy, glass-making and ceramic branches with raw materials.
Bashkortostan is one of the major raw materials bases for Russia non-ferrous metallurgy. Metallurgy is a domain of Materials science that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their The republic has good deposits of lignite with high degree of bituminosity. Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, or Rosebud coal by Northern Pacific Railroad, is a soft brown fuel with characteristics that put it somewhere This lignite can be used for obtaining a variety of different chemical products like mountain wax and resins, surface-active substances, gummy fertilizers, and other stimulants for plants growth. Fertilizers ( also spelt fertiliser are chemical compounds given to Plants to promote growth they are usually applied either through the soil for uptake by plant Mining-chemical raw materials (rock salt, lime, phosphorites, barytes, etc. Halite is the Mineral form of Sodium chloride, Na[[chlorine Cl]] commonly known as rock salt. Lime is a general term for various naturally occurring Minerals and materials derived from them in which Carbonates Oxides and Hydroxides of A phosphorite or phosphate rock is a non-detrital Sedimentary rock which contains high amounts of Phosphate bearing minerals Baryte ( Ba[[Sulfur S]] O 4 is a Mineral consisting of Barium sulfate. ) are quite substantial, and are utilized in the republic economy.
Bashkortostan is also rich in woods. The total territory covered with forests is about 62,000 km² . More than one third of the republic territory is covered with woods. The following types of trees dominate: birch tree, conifers, lime, oak, and maple. Birch is the name of any Tree of the genus Betula ( Bé-tu-la) in the family Betulaceae, closely related to the Tilia is a Genus of about 30 species of Trees native throughout most of the temperate Northern Hemisphere, in Asia (where the greatest The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of about 400 species of Trees and Shrubs in the Genus Quercus (from Latin Acer ( maple) is a Genus of Trees or Shrubs They are variously classified in a family of their own the Aceraceae, or The general stock of timber according to some evaluation is 717. 9 million m³. Bashkortostan forests have special sanctuaries and national parks. They cover more than 10,000 km².
Bashkortostan is also rich in springs and sources of mineral, medicinal, and drinking water. In many places mineral water is often colloquially used to mean Carbonated water (which is usually carbonated mineral water as opposed to tap water
According to the 2002 Census the ‘national composition’ was • Russian 36. Russian Census of 2002 (Всеросси́йская пе́репись населе́ния 2002 го́да was the first Census of the Russian Federation carried The Russian people (Русские— Russkie) are an East Slavic Ethnic group, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries 32% • Bashkir 29. The Bashkirs, a Turkic people, live in Russia, mostly in the republic of Bashkortostan. 76% • Tatar 24. Tatars ( Tatar: Tatarlar/Татарлар sometimes spelled Tartars, are a Turkic -speaking ethnic group or multiple ethnic groups 14% • Chuvash 2. 86% • Mari 2. 58% • Ukrainian 1. Ukrainians (Українці Ukrayintsi,) are an East Slavic Ethnic group primarily living in Ukraine, or more broadly— Citizens 35% • Mordovian 0. 63% • Udmurt 0. The Udmurts are a people who speak the Udmurt language. Through history they have been known in Russian as Chud Otyatskaya (чудь отяцкая 55% • Belarusians 0. Belarusians or Belorussians (Беларусы Biełarusy previously also spelled Belarussians, Byelorussians and Belorusians, also 42% • Armenian 0. The Armenians (Հայեր Hayer) are a Nation and Ethnic group originating in the Caucasus and in the Armenian Highlands A large 21% • German 0. This article is about the German diaspora See Germans for the German ethnicity in general 20% • Uzbek 0. The Uzbeks (Self designation sg O‘zbek, pl O‘zbeklar) are a Turkic people of Central Asia. 13% • Azeri 0. This article is about Azeris in Russia For Azeris in general see the respective article 12% • Kryashen 0. Keräşen Tatars ( керәшеннәр|Keräşennär Keräşen orthography кряшенняр татары-кряшены is a sub-group of the Volga Tatars, frequently 11% • Kazakh 0. The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Kazakh: Қазақтар qɑzɑqtɑr Russian: Казахи the English name is transliterated 10% • Tajik 0. Tajik ( - Tādjīk; UniPers: Tâjik; Cyrillic: Тоҷик is a term generally applied to Persian-speaking people of 07% • Jewish 0. PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ 06% • and various other groups of less than two thousand persons each. An additional 0. 11% of the inhabitants declined to state their nationality on the census questionnaire.  Historical figures are shown below:
|census 1926||census 1939||census 1959||census 1970||census 1979||census 1989||census 2002|
|Bashkirs||625,845 (23. The Bashkirs, a Turkic people, live in Russia, mostly in the republic of Bashkortostan. 5%)||671,188 (21. 2%)||737,744 (22. 1%)||892,248 (23. 4%)||935,880 (24. 3%)||863,808 (21. 9%)||1,221,302 (29. 8%)|
|Russians||1,064,707 (39. The Russian people (Русские— Russkie) are an East Slavic Ethnic group, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries 9%)||1,281,347 (40. 6%)||1,418,147 (42. 4%)||1,546,304 (40. 5%)||1,547,893 (40. 3%)||1,548,291 (39. 3%)||1,490,715 (36. 3%)|
|Tatars||621,158 (23. Tatars ( Tatar: Tatarlar/Татарлар sometimes spelled Tartars, are a Turkic -speaking ethnic group or multiple ethnic groups 3%)||777,230 (24. 6%)||768,566 (23. 0%)||944,505 (24. 7%)||940,436 (24. 5%)||1,120,702 (28. 4%)||990,702 (24. 1%)|
|Chuvash||84,886 (3. 2%)||106,892 (3. 4%)||109,970 (3. 3%)||126,638 (3. 3%)||122,344 (3. 2%)||118,509 (3. 0%)||117,317 (2. 9%)|
|Mari||79,298 (3. 0%)||90,163 (2. 9%)||93,902 (2. 8%)||109,638 (2. 9%)||106,793 (2. 8%)||105,768 (2. 7%)||105,829 (2. 6%)|
|Ukrainians||76,710 (2. Ukrainians (Українці Ukrayintsi,) are an East Slavic Ethnic group primarily living in Ukraine, or more broadly— Citizens 9%)||99,289 (3. 1%)||83,594 (2. 5%)||76,005 (2. 0%)||75,571 (2. 0%)||74,990 (1. 9%)||55,249 (1. 3%)|
|Others||113,232 (4. 2%)||132,860 (4. 2%)||129,686 (3. 9%)||122,737 (3. 2%)||115,363 (3. 0%)||111,045 (2. 8%)||123,222 (3. 0%)|
Spoken languages: Russian (~100%), Tatar (34%), Bashkir (26%). Russian ( transliteration:,) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages The Tatar language (,, Татар теле, Татарча) is a Turkic Language spoken by the Tatars. The Bashkir language is a Turkic language. Speakers The 2002 population census showed under 1000000 native speakers of the Bashkir language living in 
It is believed by some Tatars that the 2002 Census misrepresented the numbers of Tatars and Bashkirs in favor of the latter . The reality is that ethnic identity in northwestern Bashkortostan is extremely fluid, and many people in that region have changed their ethnic identification, usually under pressure from the authorities of Bashkortostan which are trying to artificially increase the ratio of ethnic Bashkirs within the population of the republic. 
Adherants of Islam account about 30% of the population with the rest primarily Orthodox Christians. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. The term Orthodox Christianity may refer to The Eastern Orthodox Church: the Eastern Christian churches of Byzantine
The Republic of Bashkortostan possesses high scientific and technical potential. About 60 scientific organizations are active in Bashkortostan. Fundamental and applied scientific research work is under way at 12 Institutes UFA Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 29 Institutes of different branches of industry as well as design bureaus and organizations, chairs of Universities and Colleges.
The system of popular upbringing and teaching among Bashkir people took shape for centuries and its reflected in folklore, national customs, and traditions. When Islam spread in Bashkiria in the 10th century, the school education began to emerge gradually—religious schools were set under the supervision of mosques (maktabeh and madrasah).
Currently the Republic of Bashkortostan is the subject of the Russian Federation with versatile network of educational establishment. 12 higher educational establishments operate in the republic as well as 16 branches of leading Russian Universities and Colleges. Specialists graduate from them in about 200 trades and professions.
Education is primarily in Russian, Bashkir, and Tatar. Russian ( transliteration:,) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages The Bashkir language is a Turkic language. Speakers The 2002 population census showed under 1000000 native speakers of the Bashkir language living in The Tatar language (,, Татар теле, Татарча) is a Turkic Language spoken by the Tatars.
Folklore singing and dancing companies, a network of national theaters, museums, and libraries are on the rise; annual folk festivals became a tradition here.
Bashkortostan holds a leading position among all other Russian federal subjects on a number of museums, public libraries, book stocks, and municipal clubs.
The republic has seven Bashkir, four Russian, and two Tatar State Drama Theaters, the State Opera and Ballet Theater, the National Symphony Orchestra, "Bashkortostan" film-studio, thirty philharmonic collectives. The Bashkir state Folk dance ensemble named after F. Gaskarov is well-known.
The fame of Bashkir school of dancing is world renowned—many of the students get high international awards at competitions in Russia and other countries. World-renowned ballet dancer Rudolf Nureyev, as a child, was encouraged to dance in Bashkir folk performances and began his dancing career in Ufa. Rudolf Khametovich Nureyev ( Tatar: Rudolf Xämät ulı Nuriev, Russian: Рудольф Хаметович Нуриев
Three state programs in the cultural sphere have been adopted: