Baroque architecture, starting in the early 17th century in Italy, took the humanist Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical, theatrical, sculptural fashion, expressing the triumph of absolutist church and state. As a means of recording the passage of Time, the 17th Century was that Century which lasted from 1601 - 1700 in the Gregorian calendar Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Renaissance architecture is the architecture of the period between the early 15th and early 17th centuries in different regions of Europe in which there was a New architectural concerns for color, light and shade, sculptural values and intensity characterize the Baroque. Baroque art redirects here Please disambiguate such links to Baroque painting, Baroque sculpture, etc But whereas the Renaissance drew on the wealth and power of the Italian courts, and was a blend of secular and religious forces, the Baroque was, initially at least, directly linked to the Counter-Reformation, a movement within the Catholic Church to reform itself in response to the Protestant Reformation. The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere The Counter-Reformation (also Catholic Reformation denotes the period of Catholic revival from the pontificate of Pope Pius IV in 1560 to the close of the The Protestant Reformation was a reform movement in Europe that began in 1517 though its roots lie further back in time The Council of Trent (1545–1563) is usually given as the beginning of the Counter-Reformation. The Council of Trent was the 19th Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church.
The Baroque played into the demand for an architecture that was on the one hand more accessible to the emotions and, on the other hand, a visible statement of the wealth and power of the Church. The new style manifested itself in particular in the context of new religious orders, like the Theatines and the Jesuits, which aimed to improve popular piety. The Theatines or the Congregation of Clerks Regular of the Divine Providence are a male Religious order of the Catholic Church, with the post-nominal initials The Society of Jesus ( Latin: Societas Iesu, SJ and SI or SJ, SI) is a Catholic religious order By the middle of the 17th century, the Baroque style had found its secular expression in the form of grand palaces, first in France—as in the Château de Maisons (1642) near Paris by François Mansart—and then throughout Europe. The Château de Maisons (now Château de Maisons-Laffitte) designed by François Mansart from 1630 to 1651 is a prime example of French baroque architecture Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city François Mansart ( January 13, 1598 in Paris - September 23, 1666 in Paris) was a French Architect
Michelangelo's late Roman buildings, particularly St. Peter's Basilica, may be considered precursors of Baroque architecture, as the design of the latter achieves a colossal unity that was previously unknown. Giacomo della Porta (c 1533 &ndash 1602 was an Italian architect and sculptor who worked for many important buildings in Rome including St For the school see Gesu School. The Church of the Gesù (dʒeˈzu in Italian, Chiesa del Sacro Nome di Gesù, or Santa Susanna (Italian - Chiesa di Santa Susanna alle Terme di Diocleziano) is a church on the Quirinal in Rome, with a Titulus at its site that Carlo Maderno ( 1556 - January 30 1629) was an Italian - Swiss Architect, born in Ticino, who is remembered as Sicilian Baroque is the distinctive form of Baroque architecture that took hold on the island of Sicily Catania ( Greek: &ndash Katánē; Latin: Catăna and Catĭna; Arabic: Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni Two biographies were published of him during his lifetime One of them by Giorgio Vasari, proposed that he was the pinnacle of all The Basilica of Saint Peter (Basilica Sancti Petri officially known in Italian as the Basilica di San Pietro in Vaticano and commonly known as St His pupil Giacomo della Porta continued this work in Rome, particularly in the façade of the Jesuit church Il Gesu, which leads directly to the most important church façade of the early Baroque, Santa Susanna by Carlo Maderno. Giacomo della Porta (c 1533 &ndash 1602 was an Italian architect and sculptor who worked for many important buildings in Rome including St A facade or façade (fəˈsɑːd is generally one side of the exterior of a Building, especially the front but also sometimes the sides and rear The Society of Jesus ( Latin: Societas Iesu, SJ and SI or SJ, SI) is a Catholic religious order For the school see Gesu School. The Church of the Gesù (dʒeˈzu in Italian, Chiesa del Sacro Nome di Gesù, or Santa Susanna (Italian - Chiesa di Santa Susanna alle Terme di Diocleziano) is a church on the Quirinal in Rome, with a Titulus at its site that Carlo Maderno ( 1556 - January 30 1629) was an Italian - Swiss Architect, born in Ticino, who is remembered as In the 17th century, the Baroque style spread through Europe and Latin America, where it was particularly promoted by the Jesuits. As a means of recording the passage of Time, the 17th Century was that Century which lasted from 1601 - 1700 in the Gregorian calendar
Important features of Baroque architecture include:
Though the tendency has been to see Baroque architecture as a European phenomenon, one must not forget that it coincided with—and is integrally enmeshed with—the rise of European colonialism. Weingarten Abbey or St Martin's Abbey ( Reichsabtei Weingarten) is a Benedictine monastery on the Martinsberg ( St The putto (pl putti) is a figure of a pudgy Human baby, almost always male often naked and having wings found especially in Italian Renaissance Wood is hard fibrous lignified structural tissue produced as secondary Xylem in the stems of Woody plants notably trees but also shrubs Gilding is the art of applying a thin layer of gold simulated gold or other metal to a surface The term plaster can refer to plaster of Paris Lime plaster, or Cement plaster. Stucco or render is a material made of an aggregate, a binder, and water Marble is a nonfoliated Metamorphic rock resulting from the Metamorphism of Limestone, composed mostly of Calcite (a crystalline form of Faux painting or Faux finishing are terms used to describe a wide range of decorative painting techniques Fresco (plural either frescos or frescoes) is any of several related Painting types done on Plaster on walls or Trompe-l'œil, which can also be spelled without the hyphen in English ( French: "trick the eye" tʁɔ̃p lœj is an Art technique involving extremely Painting (pān'tīng in Art, is the practice of applying Color to a Surface (support base such as e The term architecture (from Greek αρχιτεκτονικήarchitektoniki) can be used to mean a process a profession or documentation Bavaria ( German:, with an area of 70553 Km² (27241 square miles and almost 12 The " Czech lands " (České země is an auxiliary term used mainly to describe the combination of Bohemia, Moravia and Czech Silesia. Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland Ukrainian Baroque or Cossack Baroque is an architectural style that emerged in Ukraine during the Hetmanate era in the 17th and 18th centuries Marian columns are religious monuments built in honour of the Virgin Mary, often in thanksgiving for the ending of a plague or for some other help As a Christian Ecclesiastical term Catholic —from the Greek adjective, meaning "general" or "universal"—is described A pandemic (from Greek παν pan all + δήμος demos people is an Epidemic of Infectious disease that spreads through See Colony and Colonization for examples of colonialism which do not refer to Western colonialism Colonialisms required the development of centralized and powerful governments with Spain and France, the first to move in this direction.  Colonialism brought in huge amounts of wealth not only in the silver that was extracted from the mines in Bolivia, Mexico and elsewhere, but also in the resultant trade in commodities, such as sugar and tobacco. The need to control trade routes, monopolies and slavery controlled primarily by the French during the 17th century, created an almost endless cycle of wars between the colonial powers: the French Religious Wars, the Thirty Years' War (1618 and 1648), Franco–Spanish War (1653), the Dutch War (1672–1678) and so on. For the Mauritanian Thirty Years' War see Char Bouba war. For the band see The 30 Years War. The initial mismanagement of colonial wealth by the Spaniards lead them into bankruptcy in the 16th century (1557 and 1560), recovering only slowly in the following century. This explains why the Baroque style, though enthusiastically developed in Spain, was to a large extent, in Spain, an architecture of surfaces and façades, unlike in France and Austria where we see the construction of numerous huge palaces and monasteries. In contrast to Spain, the French, under Jean-Baptiste Colbert (1619–1683), the minister of finance, had begun to industrialize their economy and thus were able to become initially at least the prime benefactors of the flow of wealth. Jean-Baptiste Colbert ( August 29, 1619 — September 6, 1683) served as the French minister of finance from 1665 to 1683 under While this was good for the building industries and the arts, the new wealth created an inflation, the likes of which had never been experienced before. Basically, the rich became richer and the poor became poorer. Rome was known just as much for its new sumptuous churches as for its vagabonds. 
The sacred architecture of the Baroque period had its beginnings in the Italian paradigm of the basilica with crossed dome and nave. The word paradigm ( Greek:παράδειγμα (paradigmacomposite from para- and the verb δείχνυμι "to show" as a whole -roughly- meaning "example" The Latin word basilica (derived from Greek, Basiliké Stoà, Royal Stoa) was originally used to describe a Roman In Romanesque and Gothic Christian Abbey, Cathedral Basilica and church Architecture, the nave is the One of the first Roman structures to break with the Mannerist conventions exemplified in the Gesù, was the church of Santa Susanna, designed by Carlo Maderno. Mannerism is a period of European art which emerged from the later years of the Italian High Renaissance around 1520. For the school see Gesu School. The Church of the Gesù (dʒeˈzu in Italian, Chiesa del Sacro Nome di Gesù, or Santa Susanna (Italian - Chiesa di Santa Susanna alle Terme di Diocleziano) is a church on the Quirinal in Rome, with a Titulus at its site that Carlo Maderno ( 1556 - January 30 1629) was an Italian - Swiss Architect, born in Ticino, who is remembered as The dynamic rhythm of columns and pilasters, central massing, and the protrusion and condensed central decoration add complexity to the structure. There is an incipient playfulness with the rules of classic design, still maintaining rigor. They had domed roofs.
The same emphasis on plasticity, continuity and dramatic effects is evident in the work of Pietro da Cortona, illustrated by San Luca e Santa Martina (1635) and Santa Maria della Pace (1656). Pietro da Cortona, byname of Pietro Berrettini ( November 1 1596 - May 16, 1669) was an Italian artist and architect of High Baroque Santa Maria della Pace is one of the churches in Rome, not far from Piazza Navona. The latter building, with concave wings devised to simulate a theatrical set, presses forward to fill a tiny piazza in front of it. Other Roman ensembles of the period are likewise suffused with theatricality, dominating the surrounding cityscape as a sort of theatrical environment.
Probably the best known example of such an approach is trapezoidal Saint Peter's Square, which has been praised as a masterstroke of Baroque theatre. Saint Peter's Square, or Saint Peter's Piazza ( Italian: Piazza San Pietro) is located directly in front of St The square is shaped by two colonnades, designed by Gian Lorenzo Bernini on an unprecedented colossal scale to suit the space and provide emotions of awe. "Bernini" redirects here For people named Bernini see Bernini (surname. Bernini's own favourite design was the polychromatic oval church of Sant'Andrea al Quirinale (1658), which, with its lofty altar and soaring dome, provides a concentrated sampling of the new architecture. Sant'Andrea al Quirinale is the church of the Jesuit seminary on the Quirinal Hill in Rome. His idea of the Baroque townhouse is typified by the Palazzo Barberini (1629) and Palazzo Chigi-Odescalchi (1664), both in Rome. Palazzo Barberini is a palace in Rome, on the piazza of the same name in Rione Trevi.
Bernini's chief rival in the papal capital was Francesco Borromini, whose designs deviate from the regular compositions of the ancient world and Renaissance even more dramatically. Sant'Ivo alla Sapienza is a church in Rome. The church is considered a masterpiece of Roman Baroque church architecture built in 1642 - 1660 Francesco Borromini, byname of Francesco Castelli (b Bissone, Ticino, September 25, 1599; Rome, August 3, Francesco Borromini, byname of Francesco Castelli (b Bissone, Ticino, September 25, 1599; Rome, August 3, Acclaimed by later generations as a revolutionary in architecture, Borromini condemned the anthropomorphic approach of the 16th century, choosing to base his designs on complicated geometric figures (modules). Borromini's architectural space seems to expand and contract when needed, showing some affinity with the late style of Michelangelo. Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni Two biographies were published of him during his lifetime One of them by Giorgio Vasari, proposed that he was the pinnacle of all His iconic masterpiece is the diminutive church of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, distinguished by a corrugated oval plan and complex convex-concave rhythms. San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane (also called San Carlino) is a church in Rome, commissioned in 1634 designed by architect Francesco Borromini (1599-1667 A later work, Sant'Ivo alla Sapienza, displays the same antipathy to the flat surface and playful inventiveness, epitomized by a corkscrew lantern dome. Sant'Ivo alla Sapienza is a church in Rome. The church is considered a masterpiece of Roman Baroque church architecture built in 1642 - 1660
Following the death of Bernini in 1680, Carlo Fontana emerged as the most influential architect working in Rome. Carlo Fontana (1634 or 1638 - 1714 was an Italian architect who was in part responsible for the classicizing direction taken by Late Baroque Roman architecture Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 His early style is exemplified by the slightly concave façade of San Marcello al Corso). San Marcello al Corso is a church in Rome, devoted to Pope Marcellus I. Fontana's academic approach, though lacking in the dazzling inventiveness of his Roman predecessors, exerted substantial influence on Baroque architecture both through his prolific writings and through a number of architects whom he trained and who would disseminate the Baroque idioms throughout 18th-century Europe.
The 18th century saw the capital of Europe's architectural world transferred from Rome to Paris. The 18th century lasted from 1701 to 1800 in the Gregorian calendar, in accordance with the Anno Domini / Common Era numbering system Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city The Italian Rococo, which flourished in Rome from the 1720s onward, was profoundly influenced by the ideas of Borromini. Rococo is a style of 18th century French art and Interior design. The most talented architects active in Rome — Francesco de Sanctis (Spanish Steps, 1723) and Filippo Raguzzini (Piazza Sant'Ignazio, 1727) — had little influence outside their native country, as did numerous practitioners of the Sicilian Baroque, including Giovanni Battista Vaccarini, Andrea Palma, and Giuseppe Venanzio Marvuglia. Francesco de Sanctis ( March 28, 1817 &ndash December 29, 1883) was an Italian literary critic considered the most important scholar The Spanish Steps ( Italian: Scalinata della Trinità dei Monti) are a set of steps in Rome, Italy, climbing a steep slope between the Filippo Raguzzini (c 1680 - 1771 was an Italian architect of the eighteenth century late- Baroque or Rococo period mostly active in Rome. Sicilian Baroque is the distinctive form of Baroque architecture that took hold on the island of Sicily Giovanni Battista Vaccarini (February 3 1702 - March 11 1768 was a Sicilian Architect, notable for his work in the Baroque style in his homeland during Andrea Palma was an 18th century Sicilian Architect, born in Palermo, working in the Baroque style Giuseppe Venanzio Marvuglia (1729 – 1814 was an Italian architect
The last phase of Baroque architecture in Italy is exemplified by Luigi Vanvitelli's Caserta Palace, reputedly the largest building erected in Europe in the 18th century. Filippo Juvarra, ( March 7, 1678 - January 31, 1736) was an Italian Architect and Scene Luigi Vanvitelli ( May 12, 1700, Naples &ndash March 1 1773, Caserta) was an Italian engineer and architect The Palace of Caserta, in Italian Reggia di Caserta, is a former royal residence Indebted to contemporary French and Spanish models, the palace is skilfully related to the landscape. At Naples and Caserta, Vanvitelli practiced a sober classicizing academic style, with equal attention to aesthetics and engineering, a style that would make an easy transition to Neoclassicism. Aesthetics or esthetics ( also spelled æsthetics) is commonly known as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values sometimes called Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the decorative and
In the north of Italy, the monarchs from the House of Savoy were particularly receptive to the new style. The House of Savoy (Casa Savoia was formed in the early eleventh century in the historical Savoy region They employed a brilliant triad of architects—Guarino Guarini, Filippo Juvarra and Bernardo Vittone—to illustrate the grandiose political ambitions and the newly acquired royal status of their dynasty. Camillo-Guarino Guarini ( 7 January 1624 &ndash 6 March 1683) was an Italian architect of the Piedmontese Baroque Filippo Juvarra, ( March 7, 1678 - January 31, 1736) was an Italian Architect and Scene Bernardo Antonio Vittone (1702 - October 19 1770 was an Italian architect of the Rococo period active mainly in his natal region of the Piedmont.
Guarini was a peripatetic monk who combined many traditions (including that of Gothic architecture) to create irregular structures remarkable for their oval columns and unconventional façades. See also Gothic art Gothic architecture is a style of Architecture which flourished during the high and late medieval period. Building upon the findings of contemporary geometry and stereotomy, Guarini elaborated the concept of architectura obliqua, which approximated Borromini's style in both theoretical and structural audacity. Guarini's Palazzo Carignano (1679) may have been the most flamboyant application of the Baroque style to the design of a private house in the 17th century. Palazzo Carignano is a historical building in the centre of Turin which currently houses the Museum of the Risorgimento.
Fluid forms, weightless details and airy prospects of Juvarra's architecture anticipated the art of Rococo. Rococo is a style of 18th century French art and Interior design. Although his practice ranged well beyond Turin, Juvarra's most arresting designs were created for Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia. Victor Amadeus II, Italian Vittorio Amedeo II ( May 14 1666 - October 31 1732) was the Duke of Savoy (1675-1730 The visual impact of his Basilica di Superga (1717) derives from its soaring roofline and masterful placement on a hill above Turin. The Basilica of Superga is a church in the vicinity of Turin. Rustic ambience encouraged a freer articulation of architectural form at the royal hunting lodge of the Palazzina di Stupinigi (1729). The Palazzina di caccia of Stupinigi is one of the Residences of the Royal House of Savoy, part of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites list Juvarra finished his short but eventful career in Madrid, where he worked on the royal palaces at La Granja and Aranjuez.
Among the many who were profoundly influenced by the brilliance and diversity of Juvarra and Guarini none was more important than Bernardo Vittone. Bernardo Antonio Vittone (1702 - October 19 1770 was an Italian architect of the Rococo period active mainly in his natal region of the Piedmont. This Piedmontese architect is remembered for an outcrop of flamboyant Rococo churches, quatrefoil in plan and delicate in detailing. Rococo is a style of 18th century French art and Interior design. His sophisticated designs often feature multiple vaults, structures within structures and domes within domes.
The centre of Baroque secular architecture was France, where the open three wing layout of the palace was established as the canonical solution as early as the 16th century. French Baroque and Classicism French Baroque is a form of Baroque architecture that evolved in France during the reigns of Louis XIII (1610-43 Louis The Château de Maisons (now Château de Maisons-Laffitte) designed by François Mansart from 1630 to 1651 is a prime example of French baroque architecture François Mansart ( January 13, 1598 in Paris - September 23, 1666 in Paris) was a French Architect This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. But it was the Palais du Luxembourg by Salomon de Brosse that determined the sober and classicizing direction that French Baroque architecture was to take. The Palais du Luxembourg in the VIe arrondissement of Paris, north of the Jardin du Luxembourg, is where the French Senate meets Salomon de Brosse (1571 Verneuil-sur-Oise, France &ndash 9 December 1626, Paris) was the most influential early 17th-century For the first time, the corps de logis was emphasized as the representative main part of the building, while the side wings were treated as hierarchically inferior and appropriately scaled down. Corps de logis is the architectural term which refers to the principal block of a large usually classical, Castle, Mansion or Palace The medieval tower has been completely replaced by the central projection in the shape of a monumental three-storey gateway.
De Brosse's melding of traditional French elements (e. g. lofty mansard roofs and complex roofline) with extensive Italianate quotations (e. A Mansard or Mansard roof in Architecture refers to a style of Hip roof characterized by two slopes on each of its four sides with the lower slope being g. ubiquitous rustication, derived from Palazzo Pitti in Florence) came to characterize the Louis XIII style. The Palazzo Pitti, in English sometimes called the Pitti Palace, is a vast mainly Renaissance Palace in Florence ( Italian: Firenze Florentia and Fiorenza) is the Capital City of the Italian region of Tuscany The Louis XIII style or Louis Treize was a fashion in French Art and Architecture, especially effecting the visual and Probably the most accomplished formulator of the new manner was François Mansart, a tireless perfectionist credited with introducing the full Baroque to France. François Mansart ( January 13, 1598 in Paris - September 23, 1666 in Paris) was a French Architect In his design for Château de Maisons (1642), Mansart succeeded in reconciling academic and Baroque approaches, while demonstrating respect for the gothic-inherited idiosyncrasies of the French tradition. The Château de Maisons (now Château de Maisons-Laffitte) designed by François Mansart from 1630 to 1651 is a prime example of French baroque architecture
The Château of Maisons (illustration) demonstrates the ongoing transition from the post-medieval chateaux of the 16th century to the villa-like country houses of the 18th. For other senses of this word see Château (disambiguation. A château (plural châteaux) is a Manor house or residence The structure is strictly symmetrical, with an order applied to each story, mostly in pilaster form. A pilaster is a slightly-projecting flattened Column built into or applied to the face of a wall The frontispiece, crowned with a separate aggrandized roof, is infused with remarkable plasticity and the whole ensemble reads like a three-dimensional whole. Mansart's structures are stripped of overblown decorative effects, so typical of contemporary Rome. Italian Baroque influence is muted and relegated to the field of decorative ornamentation.
The next step in the development of European residential architecture involved the integration of the gardens in the composition of the palace, as is exemplified by Vaux-le-Vicomte), where the architect Louis Le Vau, the designer Charles Le Brun and the gardener André Le Nôtre complemented each other. The Château de Vaux-le-Vicomte is a classical French Chateau located in Maincy, near Melun, 55 km southeast of Paris in the Seine-et-Marne Louis Le Vau (1612 – October 11 1670) was a French Classical Architect who worked for Louis XIV of France. Charles Le Brun (24 February 1619 - 22 February 1690 was a French painter and art theorist, one of the dominant artists in 17th century France. André Le Nôtre ( March 12, 1613 &ndash September 15 1700) was a Landscape architect and the gardener of King Louis XIV From the main cornice to a low plinth, the miniature palace is clothed in the so-called "colossal order", which makes the structure look more impressive. The creative collaboration of Le Vau and Le Nôtre marked the arrival of the "Magnificent Manner" which allowed to extend Baroque architecture outside the palace walls and transform the surrounding landscape into an immaculate mosaic of expansive vistas.
The same three artists scaled this concept to monumental proportions in the royal hunting lodge and later main residence at Versailles). The Palace of Versailles, or simply Versailles, is a royal Château in Versailles, in France 's Île-de-France region On a far grander scale, the palace is a hypertrophied and somewhat repetitive version of Vaux-le-Vicomte. It was both the most grandiose and the most imitated residential building of the 17th century. Mannheim, Nordkirchen and Drottningholm were among many foreign residences for which Versailles provided a model. Mannheim is a City in Germany. With 327318 inhabitants it is the second-largest city in the state of Baden-Württemberg after the capital Stuttgart Nordkirchen is a municipality in the district of Coesfeld, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. The Drottningholm Palace is the private residence of the Swedish royal family.
The final expansion of Versailles was superintended by Jules Hardouin-Mansart, whose key design is the Dome des Invalides), generally regarded as the most important French church of the century. Jules Hardouin-Mansart (Paris April 16, 1646 &ndash Marly-le-Roi, France May 11, 1708) was a French Architect whose Les Invalides in Paris, France, is a complex of buildings in the city's 7th arrondissement containing Museums and monuments all relating Hardouin-Mansart profited from his uncle's instruction and plans to instill the edifice with an imperial grandeur unprecedented in the countries north of Italy. The majestic hemispherical dome balances the vigorous vertical thrust of the orders, which do not accurately convey the structure of the interior. The younger architect not only revived the harmony and balance associated with the work of the elder Mansart but also set the tone for Late Baroque French architecture, with its grand ponderousness and increasing concessions to academicism. Academic art is a style of Painting and Sculpture produced under the influence of European academies or universities
The reign of Louis XV saw a reaction against the official Louis XIV style in the shape of a more delicate and intimate manner, known as Rococo. Louis XV (15 February 1710 &ndash 10 May 1774 ruled as King of France and of Navarre from 1 September 1715 until his death in 1774 Rococo is a style of 18th century French art and Interior design. The style was pioneered by Nicolas Pineau, who collaborated with Hardouin-Mansart on the interiors of the royal Château de Marly. Nicolas Pineau (1684 — 1754 was a French carver and ornamental designer one of the leaders who initiated the exuberant asymmetrical phase of the high Rococo. The Château de Marly was located in what has become Marly-le-Roi, the commune that existed at the edge of the royal park Further elaborated by Pierre Le Pautre and Juste-Aurèle Meissonier, the "genre pittoresque" culminated in the interiors of the Petit Château at Chantilly (c. Juste Aurèle Meissonier (1695-1750 was a French Goldsmith, sculptor, painter, Architect, and Furniture designer. The Château de Chantilly is a historic Château located in the town of Chantilly, France. 1722) and Hôtel de Soubise in Paris (c. The Hôtel de Soubise is a city Mansion Entre cour et jardin, located at 60 Rue des Francs-Bourgeois, in the IIIe arrondissement of 1732), where a fashionable emphasis on the curvilinear went beyond all reasonable measure, while sculpture, paintings, furniture, and porcelain tended to overshadow architectural divisions of the interior.
Valletta, the capital city of Malta, was laid out in 1566 to fortify the Knights of Rhodes, who had taken over the island when they were driven from Rhodes by Islamic armies. Valletta ( Belt Valletta or Città Umilissima) is the capital city of Malta. Malta, officially the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta is a European Microstate, comprising an Archipelago of three islands The Knights Hospitaller (also known as the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of St The city, designed by Francesco Laparelli on a grid plan, and built up over the next century, remains a particularly coherent example of Baroque urbanism. Its massive fortifications, which were considered state of the art, until the modern age, are also largely intact. Valletta became a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1980. A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex
There is little Baroque about Dutch architecture of the 17th century. Dutch Baroque is a variety of Baroque architecture that flourished in the Dutch Republic and its colonies during the Dutch Golden Age of the 17th century The architecture of the first republic in Northern Europe was meant to reflect democratic values by quoting extensively from classical antiquity. Like contemporary developments in England, Dutch Palladianism is marked by sobriety and restraint. PLEASE DO NOT ADD AN INFO BOX TO THIS PAGE --> Palladian architecture is a European style of Architecture derived from the designs of the Italian Two leading architects, Jacob van Campen and Pieter Post, used such eclectic elements as giant-order pilasters, gable roofs, central pediments, and vigorous steeples in a coherent combination that anticipated Wren's Classicism. Jacob van Campen ( February 2 1596, Haarlem - September 13 1657, Amersfoort) was a Dutch artist and architect Pieter Jansz Post (baptised May 1 1608, Haarlem &ndash buried May 8 1669, The Hague) was a Dutch
The most ambitious constructions of the period included the seats of self-government in Amsterdam (1646) and Maastricht (1658), designed by Campen and Post, respectively. A city hall or town hall is the chief administrative building of a City or Town 's administration and usually houses the city or Amsterdam (pronounced) is the capital and largest city of the Netherlands, located in the province of North Holland in the west Maastricht ( Dutch; Limburgish and city dialect Mestreech; French: Maestricht or Maëstricht; Spanish: On the other hand, the residences of the House of Orange are closer to a typical burgher mansion than to a royal palace. The House of Orange-Nassau (in Dutch: Huis van Oranje-Nassau) a branch of the German House of Nassau, has played a central role in the political life Two of these, Huis ten Bosch and Mauritshuis, are symmetrical blocks with large windows, stripped of ostentatious Baroque flourishes and mannerisms. Huis ten Bosch ( English: "House in the Woods" is one of the four official residences of the Dutch Royal Family, located in The Hague in The Royal Picture Gallery Mauritshuis ( English: "Maurice's House" is an Art museum in The Hague, the Netherlands. The same austerely geometrical effect is achieved without great cost or pretentious effects at the stadholder's summer residence of Het Loo. Palacehetloojpg|thumb|The palace as seen from the gardens]] The former royal residence Het Loo near Apeldoorn, Netherlands, was built starting in 1684
The Dutch Republic was one of the great powers of 17th-century Europe and its influence on European architecture was by no means negligible. "United Netherlands" redirects here For the "Kingdom of the United Netherlands" see United Kingdom of the Netherlands. A great power is a Nation or State that has the ability to exert its influence on a global scale Dutch architects were employed on important projects in Northern Germany, Scandinavia and Russia, disseminating their ideas in those countries. The Dutch colonial architecture, once flourishing in the Hudson River Valley and associated primarily with red-brick gabled houses, may still be seen in Willemstad, Netherlands Antilles. The Hudson River, called Muh-he-kun-ne-tuk, the Great Mohegan by the Iroquois, or as the Lenape Native Americans called it in Unami Willemstad is the territorial Capital of the Netherlands Antilles.
Baroque Architecture in the Southern Netherlands developed rather differently than in the Protestant North. ||-||-||-||} Antwerp ( Dutch:, French: Anvers) is a City and Municipality in Belgium and the capital of the After the Twelve Years' Truce the Southern Netherlands remained in Catholic hands, ruled by the Spanish Habsburg Kings. The Twelve Years' Truce was the name given later to the 12-year period of Ceasefire within the Eighty Years' War in the Netherlands from March Important architectural projects were set up in the spirit of the Counter Reformation. The Counter-Reformation (also Catholic Reformation denotes the period of Catholic revival from the pontificate of Pope Pius IV in 1560 to the close of the Flemish architects such as Wenceslas Cobergher were trained in Italy and their works were inspired by architects such as Jacopo Barozzi da Vignola and Giacomo della Porta. Flanders (Vlaanderen Flandre Flandern is a geographical region located in parts of present day Belgium, France, and the Netherlands. Wenceslas Cobergher, sometimes called Wenzel Coebergher ( 1560 - November 23, 1634) was a Flemish Renaissance architect Giacomo (or Jacopo) Barozzi (or Barocchio) da Vignola, often simply called Vignola ( October 1 1507 - July Giacomo della Porta (c 1533 &ndash 1602 was an Italian architect and sculptor who worked for many important buildings in Rome including St Cobergher's most major project was the Basilica of Our Lady of Scherpenheuvel which he designed as the center of a new town in a the form of a heptagon. Scherpenheuvel-Zichem is a Municipality located in the province of Flemish Brabant, Flemish Region, Belgium, encompassing the towns of Averbode Construction A regular heptagon is not constructible with Compass and straightedge but is constructible with a marked Ruler and compass The influence of the painter Pieter Paul Rubens on architecture was very important. With his book "I Palazzi di Genova" he introduced novel Italian models for the conception of profane buildings and decoration in the Southern Netherlands. The Courtyard and Portico of his own house in Antwerp (Rubenshuis) are good examples of his architectural activity. The Rubenshuis ("Rubens House" is the former home and studio of Peter Paul Rubens ( 1577 - 1640) in Antwerp. He also took part in the decoration of the Antwerp Jesuit Church (now Carolus-Borromeuskerk) were he introduced a lavish Baroque decoration, integrating sculpture and painting in the architectural program.
Baroque aesthetics, whose influence was so potent in mid-17th century France, made little impact in England during the Protectorate and the first Restoration years. English Baroque is a casual term sometimes used to refer to the developments in English architecture that were parallel to the evolution of Baroque architecture in Sir Christopher Wren ( 20 October 1632 &ndash 25 February 1723) was a 17th century English Designer, Astronomer In British history, the Protectorate was the period 1653&ndash1659 during which the Commonwealth of England Scotland and Ireland was governed by a Lord The English Restoration, or simply The Restoration began in 1660 when the English monarchy, Scottish monarchy and Irish monarchy were restored For a decade between the death of Inigo Jones in 1652 and Christopher Wren's visit to Paris in 1665 there was no English architect of the accepted premier class. Iñigo Jones ( July 15, 1573 &ndash June 21, 1652) is regarded as the first significant British architect, and the first to bring Sir Christopher Wren ( 20 October 1632 &ndash 25 February 1723) was a 17th century English Designer, Astronomer Unsurprisingly, general interest in European architectural developments was slight.
It was Wren who presided over the genesis of the English Baroque manner, which differed from the continental models by clarity of design and subtle taste for classisism. Following the Great Fire of London, Wren rebuilt fifty-three churches, where Baroque aesthetics are apparent primarily in dynamic structure and multiple changing views. This article is about the Great Fire of 1666 For other great fires in London see Early fires of London or Second Great Fire of London. His most ambitious work was St Paul's Cathedral, which bears comparison with the most effulgent domed churches of Italy and France. St Paul's Cathedral, is the Anglican Cathedral on Ludgate Hill, in the City of London, and the seat of the Bishop of London. In this majestically proportioned edifice, the Palladian tradition of Inigo Jones is fused with contemporary continental sensibilities in masterly equilibrium. PLEASE DO NOT ADD AN INFO BOX TO THIS PAGE --> Palladian architecture is a European style of Architecture derived from the designs of the Italian Less influential were straightforward attempts to engraft the Berniniesque vision onto British church architecture (e. g. by Thomas Archer in St. John's, Smith Square, 1728). Thomas Archer (1668&ndash1743 was an English Baroque Architect, whose work is somewhat overshadowed by that of his contemporaries Sir John Vanbrugh and St John's Smith Square is a church in the middle of Smith Square, Westminster, London.
Although Wren was also active in secular architecture, the first truly Baroque country house in England was built to a design by William Talman at Chatsworth, starting in 1687. The English country house is generally accepted as a large House or Mansion, once in the ownership of an individual who also usually owned another Great William Talman (1650&ndash1719 was an English architect and landscape designer Chatsworth House is a large Country house at Chatsworth, Derbyshire, England 3½ miles north east of Bakewell. The culmination of Baroque architectural forms comes with Sir John Vanbrugh and Nicholas Hawksmoor. Sir John Vanbrugh (pronounced "Van'-bru" (24 January 1664? – 26 March 1726 was an English Architect and Dramatist, perhaps best known Nicholas Hawksmoor (probably 1661 - 25 March 1736) was a British Architect born to a humble family in Nottinghamshire Each was capable of a fully developed architectural statement, yet they preferred to work in tandem, most notably at Castle Howard (1699) and Blenheim Palace (1705). Castle Howard is a Stately home in North Yorkshire, England 15 miles (24 km north of York. Blenheim Palace  is a large and Monumental country house situated in Woodstock, Oxfordshire, England.
Although these two palaces may appear somewhat ponderous or turgid to Italian eyes, their heavy embellishment and overpowering mass captivated the British public, albeit for a short while. Castle Howard is a flamboyant assembly of restless masses dominated by a cylindrical domed tower which would not be out of place in Dresden or Munich. Dresden (etymologically from Old Sorbian Drežďany, meaning people of the riverside forest, Drježdźany is the Capital city of the German Munich (München; Minga is the capital city of Bavaria, Germany. Blenheim is a more solid construction, where the massed stone of the arched gates and the huge solid portico becomes the main ornament. Vanbrugh's final work was Seaton Delaval Hall (1718), a comparatively modest mansion yet unique in the structural audacity of its style. Seaton Delaval Hall is a Country house in Northumberland, England, United Kingdom, between Seaton Sluice and Seaton It was at Seaton Delaval that Vanbrugh, a skillful playwright, achieved the peak of Restoration drama, once again highlighting a parallel between Baroque architecture and contemporary theatre. Despite his efforts, Baroque was never truly to the English taste and well before his death in 1724 the style had lost currency in Britain.
During the golden age of the Swedish Empire, the architecture of Nordic countries was dominated by the Swedish court architect Nicodemus Tessin the Elder and his son Nicodemus Tessin the Younger. Sweden was between 1611 and 1718 one of the Great powers of Europe Nicodemus Tessin the Elder (Nicodemus Tessin den äldre (born 1615 in Stralsund; died 1681 in Stockholm) was an important Swedish Architect. Count Nicodemus Tessin the Younger ( May 23 1654 - April 10 1728) was a Swedish Baroque Architect Their aesthetic was readily adopted across the Baltic, in Copenhagen and Saint Petersburg. Copenhagen (ˌkəʊpənˈheɪgən ˌkəʊpənˈhɑːgən ˈkəʊpənˌheɪgən ˈkəʊpənˌhɑːgən kʰøb̥ənˈhɑʊ̯ˀn kʰøb̥m̩ˈhɑʊ̯ˀn is the capital and largest city Saint Petersburg ( tr: Sankt-Peterburg,) is a city and a federal subject of Russia located on the Neva River
Born in Germany, Tessin the Elder endowed Sweden with a truly national style, a well-balanced mixture of contemporary French and medieval Hanseatic elements. His designs for the royal manor of Drottningholm seasoned French prototypes with Italian elements, while retaining some peculiarly Nordic features, such as the hipped roof (säteritak). The Drottningholm Palace is the private residence of the Swedish royal family.
Tessin the Younger shared his father's enthusiasm for discrete palace façades. Amalienborg Palace ( Danish: Amalienborg, aˈmaːˀliə̯nbɔːˀʀ is the winter home of the Danish royal family, and is located in Copenhagen Copenhagen (ˌkəʊpənˈheɪgən ˌkəʊpənˈhɑːgən ˈkəʊpənˌheɪgən ˈkəʊpənˌhɑːgən kʰøb̥ənˈhɑʊ̯ˀn kʰøb̥m̩ˈhɑʊ̯ˀn is the capital and largest city His design for the Stockholm Palace draws so heavily on Bernini's unexecuted plans for the Louvre that one could well imagine it standing in Naples, Vienna, or Saint Petersburg. The Stockholm Palace ( Swedish: Stockholms slott) is the Official residence and major royal palace of the Swedish monarch. The Louvre Museum (Musée du Louvre located in Paris is the world's most visited art museum a historic monument and a national museum of France Another example of the so-called International Baroque, based on Roman models with little concern for national specifics, is the Royal Palace of Madrid. The same approach is manifested is Tessin's polychrome domeless Kalmar Cathedral, a skillful pastiche of early Italian Baroque, clothed in a giant order of paired Ionic pilasters.
It was not until the mid-18th century that Danish and Russian architecture emancipated from Swedish influence. A milestone of this late period is Nicolai Eigtved's design for a new district of Copenhagen centred on the Amalienborg Palace). Nicolai Eigtved, also known as Niels Eigtved, ( June 4 or June 22, 1701 - June 7, 1754) Danish Architect Copenhagen (ˌkəʊpənˈheɪgən ˌkəʊpənˈhɑːgən ˈkəʊpənˌheɪgən ˈkəʊpənˌhɑːgən kʰøb̥ənˈhɑʊ̯ˀn kʰøb̥m̩ˈhɑʊ̯ˀn is the capital and largest city Amalienborg Palace ( Danish: Amalienborg, aˈmaːˀliə̯nbɔːˀʀ is the winter home of the Danish royal family, and is located in Copenhagen The palace is composed of four rectangular mansions for the four greatest nobles of the kingdom, arranged across the angles of an octagonal square. The restrained façades of the mansions hark back to French antecedents, while their interiors contain some of the finest Rococo decoration in Northern Europe.
In the Holy Roman Empire, the Baroque period began somewhat later. The Holy Roman Empire ( HRE; German Heiliges Römisches Reich (HRR, Latin Sacrum Romanum Imperium (SRI was a union of territories in Although the Augsburg architect Elias Holl (1573–1646) and some theoretists, including Joseph Furttenbach the Elder already practised the Baroque style, they remained without successors due to the ravages of the Thirty Years' War. Augsburg is an independent City in the south-west of Bavaria. Elias Holl (* February 28 1573 in Augsburg; † January 6 1646 in Augsburg was the most important Architect of the german For the Mauritanian Thirty Years' War see Char Bouba war. For the band see The 30 Years War. From about 1650 on, construction work resumes, and secular and ecclesiastical architecture are of equal importance. During an initial phase, master-masons from southern Switzerland and northern Italy, the so-called magistri Grigioni and the Lombard master-masons, particularly the Carlone family from Val d'Intelvi, dominated the field. However, Austria came soon to develop its own characteristic Baroque style during the last third of the 17th century. Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach was impressed by Bernini. Fischer von Erlach links here For other uses see Fischer von Erlach (disambiguation. "Bernini" redirects here For people named Bernini see Bernini (surname. He forged a new Imperial style by compiling architectural motifs from the entire history, most prominently seen in his church of St. Charles Borromeo in Vienna. The Karlskirche ( German for St Charles's Church) is a church situated on the south side of Karlsplatz, Vienna. Johann Lucas von Hildebrandt also had an Italian training. Johann Lukas von Hildebrandt ( 14 November 1668 - 16 November 1745)was an Italian -trained Austrian Architect He developed a highly decorative style, particularly in façade architecture, which exerted strong influences on southern Germany.
Frequently, the Southern German Baroque is distinguished from the Northern German Baroque, which is more properly the distinction between the Catholic and the Protestant Baroque.
In the Catholic South, the Jesuit church of St. Michael in Munich was the first to bring Italian style across the Alps. Prague (ˈprɑːg Praha (ˈpraɦa see also other names) is the Capital and Largest city of the Czech Republic. The former Jesuit church of St Michael in Munich is the largest Renaissance church north of the Alps Munich (München; Minga is the capital city of Bavaria, Germany. However, its influence on the further development of church architecture was rather limited. A much more practical and more adaptable model of church architecture was provided by the Jesuit church in Dillingen): the wall-pillar church, i. e. a barrel-vaulted nave accompanied by large open chapels separated by wall-pillars. A barrel vault, also known as a tunnel vault or a wagon vault, is an architectural element formed by the extrusion of a single curve (or pair of curves in the case As opposed to St. Michael's in Munich, the chapels almost reach the height of the nave in the wall-pillar church, and their vault (usually transverse barrel-vaults) springs from the same level as the main vault of the nave. The chapels provide ample lighting; seen from the entrance of the church, the wall-pillars form a theatrical setting for the side altars. The wall-pillar church was further developed by the Vorarlberg school, as well as the master-masons of Bavaria. Vorarlberg is the westernmost state ( Land) of Austria. Though it is the second smallest in terms of area ( Vienna is the smallest it borders Bavaria ( German:, with an area of 70553 Km² (27241 square miles and almost 12 The wall-pillar church also integrated well with the hall church model of the German late Gothic age. A hall church is a church with Nave and side Aisles of approximately equal height often united under a single immense roof The wall-pillar church continued to be used throughout the 18th century (e. g. even in the early neo-classical church of Rot an der Rot Abbey), and early wall-pillar churches could easily be refurbished by re-decoration without any structural changes, e. Rot an der Rot Abbey (also referred to as Roth, Münchroth, Münchenroth, Mönchroth or Mönchsroth) was a Premonstratensian g. the church at Dillingen.
However, the Catholic South also received influences from other sources, e. g. the so-called radical Baroque of Bohemia. The radical Baroque of Christoph Dientzenhofer and his son Kilian Ignaz Dientzenhofer, both residing at Prague, was inspired by examples from northern Italy, particularly by the works of Guarino Guarini. Christoph Dientzenhofer (Kryštof Dientzenhofer (born 7 July 1655 in St Kilian Ignaz Dientzenhofer (Kilián Ignác Dientzenhofer ( 1 September 1689 &ndash December 18 1751) was a Bohemian ref> architect Prague (ˈprɑːg Praha (ˈpraɦa see also other names) is the Capital and Largest city of the Czech Republic. Camillo-Guarino Guarini ( 7 January 1624 &ndash 6 March 1683) was an Italian architect of the Piedmontese Baroque It is characterized by the curvature of walls and intersection of oval spaces. While some Bohemian influence is visible in Bavaria's most prominent architect of the period, Johann Michael Fischer, e. Johann Michael Fischer (born 18 February 1692, Burglengenfeld, Upper Palatinate; died 6 May 1766 in Munich) g. in the curved balconies of some of his earlier wall-pillar churches, the works of Balthasar Neumann are generally considered to be the final synthesis of Bohemian and German traditions. ( January 27, 1687 - August 19, 1753) was a German military engineer and Architect who developed a refined brand of
Protestant sacred architecture was of lesser importance during the Baroque, and produced only a few works of prime importance, particularly the Frauenkirche in Dresden. The Dresdner Frauenkirche ("Church of Our Lady" is a Lutheran church in Dresden, Germany. Dresden (etymologically from Old Sorbian Drežďany, meaning people of the riverside forest, Drježdźany is the Capital city of the German Architectural theory was more lively in the north than in the south of Germany, e. g. Leonhard Christoph Sturm's edition of Nikolaus Goldmann, but Sturm's theoretical considerations (e. g. on Protestant church architecture) never really made it to practical application. In the south, theory essentially reduced to the use of buildings and elements from illustrated books and engravings as a prototype.
Palace architecture was equally important both in the Catholic South and the Protestant North. After an initial phase when Italian architects and influences dominated (Vienna, Rastatt), French influence prevailed from the second decennium of the 18th century onwards. Vienna ( in Wien; see also other names) is the Capital of Austria, and is also one of the nine States of Austria. Rastatt is a city in the District of Rastatt, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. The French model is characterized by the horseshoe-like layout enclosing a cour d'honneur (courtyard) on the town side (chateau entre cour et jardin), whereas the Italian (and also Austrian) scheme presents a block-like villa. The principal achievements of German Palace architecture, often worked out in close collaboration of several architects, provide a synthesis of Austro-Italian and French models. The most outstanding palace which blends Austro-Italian and French influences into a completely new type of building is the residence at Würzburg. Würzburg (ˈvʏɐ̯ʦbʊɐ̯k is a city in the region of Franconia which lies in the northern tip of Bavaria, Germany While its general layout is the horseshoe-like French plan, it encloses interior courtyards. Its façades combine Lucas von Hildebrandt's love of decoration with French-style classical orders in two superimposed stories; its interior features the famous Austrian "imperial staircase", but also a French-type enfilade of rooms on the garden side, inspired by the "apartement semi-double" layout of French castles. An enfilade, in Architecture, is a suite of rooms formally aligned with each other
The first Baroque church in Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth was the Corpus Christi Church in Niasviž, Belarus (1587). The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, officially the Commonwealth of the Crown of the Polish Kingdom and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania also known as the Most Serene Republic Belarus ( Belarusian Беларусь / Biełaruś is a Landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the north and east It also holds a distinction of being the first domed basilica with Baroque façade in the world and the first Baroque piece of art in Eastern Europe.
The royal patronage was emanating from Warsaw, the new capital of the Commonwealth. Klimontów is a Village in Sandomierz County, Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship, in south-central Poland. Warsaw (Warszawa; also known by other names) is the Capital and Largest city of Poland. The King's residence at the Royal Castle, reconstructed between 1596 and 1619, served as a model for magnates eager to imitate the court architecture, for example, in Voivode Denhoff's residence in Kruszyna (1630), which had only two towers, Lubomirski's castle in Łańcut (1629-1641) and Rzeszów Castle (1682). The Royal Castle in Warsaw (Zamek Królewski w Warszawie is a Royal palace and official residence of the Polish monarchs, located at the Plac Zamkowy in Dönhoff (German or Denhoff (Polish (sometimes also Doenhoff) was a German nobility family a branch of which moved to the Polish-Lithuanian Lubomirski (plural Lubomirscy) is the surname of a Polish Szlachta (nobility family Łańcut ( Landshut לאַנצוט- Lantzet, Hebrew: לאנצ'וט-Lanchut is a Town in south-eastern Poland, with 18000 inhabitants Rzeszów (Ряшiв Reichshof Resovia ריישע- Reisha) is a city in south-eastern Poland with a population of 170722 (2008 granted a town charter in 1354 A suburban palace for King Władysław IV Vasa—Villa Regia, was built by Giovanni Trevano in a beautiful garden in 1637–41. This article is about the 17th century king of Poland For another person sometimes mentioned as Wladislaw IV of Poland in works of reference see the 14th century Władysław The Kazimierzowski Palace or Kazimierz Palace (Pałac Kazimierzowski is a building in Warsaw, Poland, adjacent to the Royal Route, at Giovanni Battista Trevano (died 1644 was an Italian architect from Lombardy who worked in Poland as royal architect for King Sigismund III Vasa, of the The magnates throughout Poland competed with the kings. The monumental castle Krzyżtopór in Ujazd, built for Krzysztof Ossoliński in the style palazzo in fortezza between 1627 and 1644, had several courtyards surrounded by massive star-shaped fortifications as well as Niasviž Castle, Castle in Pidgirtsy, Kazanowski Palace and Koniecpolski Palace in Warsaw, Bishop's Palace in Kielce, Nowy Wiśnicz Castle, Radziwiłł Palace in Vilnius and Biržai Castle. Krzyżtopór (also known as Krzysztopor is a Castle located in the village of Ujazd, Iwaniska commune Opatów County, Świętokrzyskie Ujazd is a town in Strzelce County in Opole Voivodeship of Poland. The Kazanowski Palace (Pałac Kazanowskich also known as the Radziejowski Palace, was a large palace in Warsaw, occupying the place where the Charitable Center Presidential Palace (also known as Pałac Prezydencki, Pałac Koniecpolskich, Lubomirskich, Radziwiłłów, or Pałac Namiestnikowski Kielce is a city in central Poland with 202609 inhabitants (2006 Nowy Wiśnicz ] (ווישניצא Vishnitsa) is a small town in Bochnia County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, Poland, with 2724 inhabitants Radziwiłł Palace (Radvilų rūmai is a Late Renaissance palace in the Old Town of Vilnius, Lithuania. Biržai Castle is a Castle in Biržai, Lithuania. Construction of the earth bastion-type castle started in 1586 by the order of Mikalojus Kristupas
Sculptures that profusely decorated churches, castles, and palaces were made out of stucco, stone, brown marble from Chęciny or black marble from Dębnik near Kraków. Marble is a nonfoliated Metamorphic rock resulting from the Metamorphism of Limestone, composed mostly of Calcite (a crystalline form of Chęciny is a town in Kielce County, Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship, Poland, with 4252 inhabitants (2006 Kraków, in English also spelled Krakow or Cracow (ˈkrækaʊ M-W: krăk'ou krāk'ō is one of the largest and oldest cities in Poland Many of them were captured, looted, and destroyed by the Swedes and Brandenburgians between 1655 and 1657, it has never been restored.
The most representative and sumptuous Baroque residence was erected after the Deluge: Wilanów Palace, Sandomierski Palace, Lubomirski bathing pavilion, Marywil, Saxon Palace, Branicki Palace in Warsaw, Sapieha Palace and Slushko Palace in Vilnius, Branicki Palace in Białystok, Potocki Palace in Radzyń Podlaski, Czartoryski Palace in Puławy, Leszczyński Palace in Rydzyna and Raczyński Palace in Rogalin among others. Branicki Palace (Pałac Branickich in Białystok, is together with its park and other buildings one of the most precious monuments of Polish national culture Białystok Lublin Voivodeship Białystok (also known by alternative names) is the largest City in northeastern Poland. The Palace of Versailles, or simply Versailles, is a royal Château in Versailles, in France 's Île-de-France region Podlachia, Podlesia, or Podlasie is a historical region in the eastern part of Poland and western Belarus. The Deluge ( Polish: Potop, full Polish name is Potop Szwedzki Deluge''' is the name commonly assigned in the History Wilanów Palace (Pałac w Wilanowie Pałac Wilanowski in Wilanów, Warsaw is together with its park and other buildings one of the most precious monuments of The Brühl Palace (Pałac Brühla otherwise known as Sandomierski Palace standing at Piłsudski Square. The Łazienki Palace (Pałac Łazienkowski also called the Palace on the Water (Pałac na Wodzie and the Palace on the Isle (Pałac na Wyspie is a Neoclassical Marywil Łódź Voivodeship Marywil (from French Ville de Marie) was a large commercial centre in Warsaw, occupying roughly the place where the Grand Theatre The Saxon Palace ( Polish: Pałac Saski) was one of the most distinctive buildings in prewar Warsaw, Poland. The Branicki Palace (Pałac Branickich is a notable 18th-century Magnate 's Mansion in Warsaw, Poland. Sapieha Palace (Sapiegų rūmai also known as Sapiega Palace is a High Baroque Palaces in Sapiegos str Slushko Palace (Sluškų rūmai Pałac Słuszków in Vilnius, Lithuania is a Baroque palace situated on Neris River bank in the Old Town Branicki Palace (Pałac Branickich in Białystok, is together with its park and other buildings one of the most precious monuments of Polish national culture Białystok Lublin Voivodeship Białystok (also known by alternative names) is the largest City in northeastern Poland. Potocki is the surname of a Polish Szlachta (nobility family History The Potocki family is a great artistocratic family originated from Radzyń Podlaski is a town in eastern Poland, about 60 km north of Lublin, with 16140 inhabitants (2004 Czartoryski ( Polish plural Czartoryscy) is the Surname of a Polish - Lithuanian Magnate family also known as the Familia Puławy Subcarpathian Voivodeship Puławy is a town in eastern Poland, in Lublin Province, on the Wisła and Kurówka Rivers According to Leszczyński, plural Leszczyńscy is the Surname of a Polish noble family Rydzyna Łódź Voivodeship Rydzyna (Reisen is a Polish town that was the seat of king Stanisław Leszczyński during Leszczyński's first short reign Rogalin is a village in Poland, near Poznań, situated on the Warta river
In Warsaw, which before WW2 was filled with Baroque residences, churches and houses, and where Tylman van Gameren was active, survived few important buildings—Krasiński Palace, Ostrogski Palace, Kotowski Palace, St. Kazimierz Church, Bernardines church in Czerniaków and Late-Baroque Visitationist Church and Holy Cross Church. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The Krasiński Palace (Pałac Krasińskich otherwise known as Palace of the Republic — Pałac Rzeczypospolitej) is a Baroque Palace Ostrogski Palace, otherwise known as Ostrogski Castle (Pałac Ostrogskich or Zamek Ostrogskich is a large manor in the city centre of Warsaw, at Tamka Kotowski Palace (Pałac Kotowskich was a 17th-century palace in Warsaw, Poland. St Kazimierz Church ( Polish: in full Warszawski kościół Sakramentek pod wezwaniem św Kościół Opieki św Józefa w Warszawie or Kościół Wizytek w Warszawie (Church of St Church of the Holy Cross (Kościół św Krzyża also Kościół świętokrzyski) is a Roman Catholic place of worship in downtown Warsaw.
In the early 17th century, the Baroque style spread over the Commonwealth. Important Baroque churches include the Waza Chapel in the Wawel Cathedral, the SS. Wawel Cathedral &ndash the Cathedral Basilica of Sts Stanisław and Vaclav &ndash is Poland 's national sanctuary located on Wawel Hill in Kraków Peter and Paul, St. Anna and the Visitationist church in Kraków, St Peter and St Paul's Church, St Casimir's Chapel of the Vilnius Cathedral and St Casimir's Church in Vilnius, Pažaislis monastery in Kaunas the Dominican and St George Church in Lwów, the Jesuit church in Poznań, the Xavier Cathedral in Hrodno, the Royal Chapel of St. Mary's Co-Cathedral in Gdańsk, Jasna Góra Monastery and Święta Lipka in Masuria. Kraków, in English also spelled Krakow or Cracow (ˈkrækaʊ M-W: krăk'ou krāk'ō is one of the largest and oldest cities in Poland St Peter and St Paul's Church of Vilnius (Šv apaštalų Petro ir Povilo bažnyčia is a Roman Catholic church located in Antakalnis neighbourhood of Vilnius Cathedral (Vilniaus Šv Stanislovo ir Šv Vladislovo arkikatedra bazilika is the main Roman Catholic Cathedral of Lithuania. Pažaislis monastery and church (Pažaislio vienuolynas form the largest Monastery complex in Lithuania, and the most magnificent example of Italian Baroque Kaunas ( ˈkoʊnəs is the second largest City in Lithuania and a former temporary capital. The Dominican church and monastery (Домініканський костел і монастир Kościół i klasztor Dominikanów we Lwowie in Lviv, Ukraine is St George's Cathedral (Собор святого Юра translit Lviv ( Ukrainian: Львів, L’viv, Lwów Lemberg Львов L'vov; see also other names) is a major city in western Poznań Lublin Voivodeship This article is about the city in Poland St Mary's Church ( Polish: Bazylika Mariacka, German: Marienkirche) or properly Basilica of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Gdańsk ( Polish pronunciation; 'Danzig', Gduńsk Gedania Dantiscum is the City at the centre of the fourth-largest Metropolitan area in Poland Jasna Góra links here For other places with that name see Jasna Góra (disambiguation.
The style was adopted by Lithuanian magnates the most prominent examples of it being Sapieha Palace (1697) and Slushko Palace (1700) and in its capital Vilnius, designed and decorated by Italian master Pietro Perti. Pažaislis monastery and church (Pažaislio vienuolynas form the largest Monastery complex in Lithuania, and the most magnificent example of Italian Baroque Kaunas ( ˈkoʊnəs is the second largest City in Lithuania and a former temporary capital. Lithuania, officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika is a Country in Eastern often referred to as Northern Europe or in the Sapieha Palace (Sapiegų rūmai also known as Sapiega Palace is a High Baroque Palaces in Sapiegos str Slushko Palace (Sluškų rūmai Pałac Słuszków in Vilnius, Lithuania is a Baroque palace situated on Neris River bank in the Old Town Giovanni Pietro Perti or Peretti (b 1648 in Muggio, Switzerland - d Architects such as Johann Christoph Glaubitz were instrumental in forming the so-called distinctive "Vilnius Baroque" style, which spread throughout the region. Johann Christoph Glaubitz (ca 1700 &ndash 30 March 1767) was a Lithuanian Architect of German descent
By the end of the century, Polish Baroque influences crossed the Dnipro into the Cossack Hetmanate, where they gave birth to a particular style of Orthodox architecture, known as the Cossack Baroque. For the rocket see Dnepr rocket. For other uses see Dnieper (disambiguation. The Hetmanate or officially Viysko Zaporozke (Гетьманщина Het’manshchyna; Військо Запорозьке Viys’ko Zaporoz’ke Ukrainian Baroque or Cossack Baroque is an architectural style that emerged in Ukraine during the Hetmanate era in the 17th and 18th centuries Such was its popular appeal that every medieval church in Kyiv and the Left-Bank Ukraine was redesigned according to the newest fashion. Kiev, also known as Kyiv ( Ukrainian:, Kyiv, ˈkɪjiw Russian:, Kiyev; see also Cities' alternative names) is the Left-bank Ukraine ( Livoberezhna Ukrayina; Levoberezhnaya Ukraina; Lewobrzeżna Ukraina is a historic name of the part of Ukraine on the left (East
In the Kingdom of Hungary the first great Baroque building was the Jesuit Church of Nagyszombat built by Pietro Spozzo in 1629-37 modelling the Church of the Gesu in Rome. Fertőd is a town located in the Győr-Moson-Sopron county of Hungary, not far from Austria. The Kingdom of Hungary (short form Hungary) was a considerable state in Central Europe that existed from 1001 to 1918 then from 1919 to 1946 Trnava ( Nagyszombat Tyrnau Tyrnavia is a city in western Slovakia, 47 km to the north-east of Bratislava, on the Trnávka river For the school see Gesu School. The Church of the Gesù (dʒeˈzu in Italian, Chiesa del Sacro Nome di Gesù, or Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 Jesuits were the main propagators of the new style with their churches in Győr (1634-1641), Kassa (1671-1684), Eger (1731-1733) and Székesfehérvár (1745-1751). The Society of Jesus ( Latin: Societas Iesu, SJ and SI or SJ, SI) is a Catholic religious order Győr (ˈɟøːr, known under alternative names) is the most important city of northwest Hungary, the capital of Győr-Moson-Sopron county and lies Eger is also the German name for the Czech town of Székesfehérvár (ˈseːkɛʃfɛˈheːrvaːr, colloquial Fehérvár Stuhlweißenburg İstolni Belgrad is a city in central Hungary, located around southwest of The reconstruction of the territories devastated by the Ottomans was carried out in Baroque style in 18th century. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish Intact Baroque townscapes can be found in Győr, Székesfehérvár, Eger, Veszprém, Esztergom and the Castle District of Buda. Győr (ˈɟøːr, known under alternative names) is the most important city of northwest Hungary, the capital of Győr-Moson-Sopron county and lies Székesfehérvár (ˈseːkɛʃfɛˈheːrvaːr, colloquial Fehérvár Stuhlweißenburg İstolni Belgrad is a city in central Hungary, located around southwest of Eger is also the German name for the Czech town of Veszprém ( German: Weißbrunn, Croatian: Vesprim Besprim Slovak: Vesprím, Serbian: Vesprim Esztergom (known by alternative names) is a City in northern Hungary, about 50 km north-west of the Capital Budapest. Buda Castle ( Hungarian: Budai Vár, Turkish: Budin Kalesi) is the historical Castle of the Hungarian kings in Budapest, Buda ( German: Ofen, Croatian: Budim, Slovak / Czech: Budín, Serbian: Будим or The most important Baroque palaces in Hungary were the Royal Palace in Buda, Grassalkovich Castle in Gödöllő and Esterházy Castle in Fertőd. Buda Castle ( Hungarian: Budai Vár, Turkish: Budin Kalesi) is the historical Castle of the Hungarian kings in Budapest, Fertőd is a town located in the Győr-Moson-Sopron county of Hungary, not far from Austria. Smaller Baroque castles of the Hungarian aristocracy are scattered all over the country. Hungarian Baroque shows the double influence of Austrian and Italian artistic tendencies as many German and Italian architects worked in the country. The main characteristics of the local version of the style were modesty, lack of excessive decoration and some "rural" flavour, especially in the works of the local masters. Important architects of the Hungarian Baroque were András Mayerhoffer, Ignác Oraschek and Márton Wittwer. Franz Anton Pilgram also worked in the Kingdom of Hungary, for example on the great Premonstratensian monastery of Jászó. The Norbertines, also known as the Premonstratensians (OPraem and in Britain and Ireland as the White Canons (from the colour of Jasov (Jossau is a small Town and Municipality in Košice-okolie District in the Kosice Region of Eastern Slovakia In the last decades of the 18th century Neo-Classical tendencies became dominant. The two most important architects of that period were Menyhért Hefele and Jakab Fellner. Jakab Fellner (Fellenthali Fellner Jakab (Nikolsburg 1722 July 25
Two representative Baroque structures in Transylvania (now part of Romania) are the Brukenthal Palace in Sibiu and the former Bishopric Palace in Oradea, state museums. Transylvania (Ardeal or ro ''Transilvania'' Erdély, see also other denominations) is a Central European region located in the eastern half of the Carpathian Romania ( dated: Rumania, Roumania Sibiu (si'biw Hermannstadt Nagyszeben Сибињ/Sibinj הערמאנשטאדט ( Hermanshtadt) or סזעבען ( Szeben)) is one of the largest cities in Oradea (pronunciation in Romanian:, Hungarian: Nagyvárad, colloquially also Várad, German: Großwardein, former
In Russia, Baroque architecture passed through three stages - the early Moscow Baroque, with elegant white decorations on red-brick walls of rather traditional churches, the mature Petrine Baroque, mostly imported from the Low Countries, and the late Rastrelliesque Baroque, in the words of William Brumfield, "extravagant in design and execution, yet ordered by the rhythmic insistence of massed columns and Baroque statuary. See also The movie Russian Ark, an innovative single shot walkthrough with period reenactments spanning three hundred years of court meetings Palace Square or Dvortsovaya Ploshchad, connecting Nevsky Prospekt with Palace Bridge leading to Vasilievsky Island, is the central City Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Naryshkin Baroque, also called Moscow Baroque, or Muscovite Baroque, is the name given to a particular style of architecture and decoration which was Petrine Baroque is a name applied by art historians to a style of Baroque architecture and decoration favoured by Peter the Great and employed to design buildings Rastrelli is an Italian Surname and may refer to Carlo Bartolomeo Rastrelli; Francesco Bartolomeo Rastrelli. "
Nothwithstanding a prodigality of sensually rich surface decoration associated with Baroque architecture of the Iberian Peninsula, the royal courts of Madrid and Lisbon generally favoured a more sober architectural vocabulary distilled from 17th-century Italy. Madrid (pronounced in English in Spanish and colloquially in Spain) is the Capital and largest city of Spain. Lisbon (Lisboa liʒˈboɐ is the Capital and largest city of Portugal. The royal palaces of Madrid, La Granja, Aranjuez, Mafra and Queluz were designed by architects under strong influence of Bernini and Juvarra. The Mafra National Palace is a monumental Baroque and Italianized Neoclassical palace-monastery located in Mafra, Portugal. The Queluz National Palace ( Palácio Nacional de Queluz) is a Portuguese 18th-century palace located at In the realm of church architecture, Guarini's design for Sta. Maria della Divina Providenza in Lisbon was a pace-setter for structural audacity in the region (even though it was never built). The first fully Baroque church in Portugal was the Church of Santa Engrácia), in Lisbon, designed by royal architect João Antunes. The Church of Santa Engrácia ( Portuguese: Igreja de Santa Engrácia, pron.
By the mid-18th century, northern Portuguese architects had absorbed the concepts of Italian Baroque to revel in the plasticity of local granite in such projects as the surging 75-metre-high Torre dos Clérigos in Porto). The Raio Palace, in portuguese Palácio do Raio, it's a Palace in Braga, Portugal. Braga (ˈBrag-uh a city and municipality in northwestern Portugal, is the capital of the district of Braga, the oldest archdiocese The Clérigos Church, pron. 'klɛɾiguʃ ( Portuguese: Igreja dos Clérigos, Church of the Clergy) is a Baroque church in The foremost centre of the national Baroque tradition was Braga, whose buildings encompass virtually every important feature of Portuguese architecture and design. Braga (ˈBrag-uh a city and municipality in northwestern Portugal, is the capital of the district of Braga, the oldest archdiocese The Baroque shrines and palaces of Braga are noted for polychrome ornamental patterns, undulating rooflines, and irregularly shaped window surrounds.
Brazilian architects also explored plasticity in form and decoration, though they rarely surpassed their continental peers in ostentation. São João del-Rei also spelled São João del Rey or São João del Rei is a historical city in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Aleijadinho (b Antônio Francisco Lisboa; 1730 or 1738 &ndash November 18, 1814) was a Colonial Brazil -born sculptor and The Mafra National Palace is a monumental Baroque and Italianized Neoclassical palace-monastery located in Mafra, Portugal. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. Johann Friedrich Ludwig (1670 - 1752 known in Portugal as João Frederico Ludovice was a German born Architect and Goldsmith. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld The churches of Mariana and the Rosario at Ouro Preto are based on Borromini's vision of interlocking elliptical spaces. Mariana is the oldest city in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Vila Rica do Ouro Preto (from Portuguese, Rich Village of the Black Gold is a city in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, a former colonial Mining At São Pedro dos Clérigos, Recife), a conventional stucco-and-stone façade is enlivened by "a high scrolled gable squeezed tightly between the towers". Recife ( heˈsifi is the fifth largest Metropolitan area in Brazil and the capital of the state of Pernambuco. 
Even after the Baroque conventions passed out of fashion in Europe, the style was long practised in Brazil by Aleijadinho, a brilliant and prolific architect in whose designs hints of Rococo could be discerned. Aleijadinho (b Antônio Francisco Lisboa; 1730 or 1738 &ndash November 18, 1814) was a Colonial Brazil -born sculptor and His church of Bom Jesus de Matozinhos at Congonhas is distinguished by a picturesque silhouette and dark ornamental detail on a light stuccoed façade. There is another settlement called Congonhas in Minas Gerais state north of Belo Horizonte (see Congonhas do Norte) and yet another in Santa Catarina state Although Aleijadinho was originally commissioned to design São Francisco de Assis, São João del Rei his designs were rejected, and were displaced to the church of São Francisco in Ouro Preto instead. São João del-Rei also spelled São João del Rey or São João del Rei is a historical city in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.
As Italian Baroque influences penetrated across the Pyrenees, they gradually superseded in popularity the restrained classicizing approach of Juan de Herrera, which had been in vogue since the late 16th century. Spanish Baroque is a strand of Baroque architecture that evolved in Spain and its provinces and former colonies notably Spanish America and Belgium The Pyrenees (Pirineos French: Pyrénées; Catalan: Pirineus; Occitan: Pirenèus; Aragonese: Perinés Juan de Herrera (b Movellán ( Cantabria) Spain 1530 - d Madrid, Spain 1593 was a Spanish Architect, mathematician As early as 1667, the façades of Granada Cathedral (by Alonso Cano) and Jaen Cathedral (by Eufrasio López de Rojas) suggest the artists' fluency in interpreting traditional motifs of Spanish cathedral architecture in the Baroque aesthetic idiom. Granada Cathedral ( Cathedral of the Incarnation) is a Cathedral in Granada, in the Autonomous Region of Andalusia, Alonzo Cano or Alonso Cano ( 19 March 1601 – 3 September 1667) was a Spanish painter, Architect Jaén (جيان: Jayyān is a city in south-central Spain, the name is probably derived from the Arabic word Jayyan (crossroads of caravans
In contrast to the art of Northern Europe, the Spanish art of the period appealed to the emotions rather than seeking to please the intellect. The Churriguera family, which specialized in designing altars and retables, revolted against the sobriety of the Herreresque classicism and promoted an intricate, exaggerated, almost capricious style of surface decoration known as the Churrigueresque. The Churriguera family consisted of at least two generations of Spanish sculptors and architects originally from Barcelona, but who had their greatest impact in Salamanca Churrigueresque refers to a Spanish Baroque style of elaborate sculptural architectural ornament which emerged as a manner of stucco decoration in Spain in the late Within half a century, they transformed Salamanca into an exemplary Churrigueresque city. Geography The city lies on a mountain by the Tormes River which is crossed by a bridge 150 m long built on 26 arches fifteen of which are of Roman origin, while Among the highlights of the style, interiors of the Granada Charterhouse offer some of the most impressive combinations of space and light in 18th-century Europe. Granada Charterhouse is a Carthusian Monastery ( cartuja in Spanish in Granada, Spain. Integrating sculpture and architecture even more radically, Narciso Tomé achieved striking chiaroscuro effects in his Transparente for the Toledo Cathedral. Chiaroscuro ( Italian for light-dark) is a term in Art for a contrast between light and dark The Cathedral of Saint Mary of Toledo, also called Primate Cathedral of Toledo, is a church in Spain.
The development of the style passed through three phases. Between 1680 and 1720, the Churriguera popularized Guarini's blend of Solomonic columns and composite order, known as the "supreme order". Camillo-Guarino Guarini ( 7 January 1624 &ndash 6 March 1683) was an Italian architect of the Piedmontese Baroque The Solomonic column, also called Barley-sugar column, is a helical Column, characterized by a spiraling twisting shaft like a corkscrew The composite order is a mixed order, combining the Volutes of the Ionic order with the leaves of the Corinthian order. Between 1720 and 1760, the Churrigueresque column, or estipite, in the shape of an inverted cone or obelisk, was established as a central element of ornamental decoration. The years from 1760 to 1780 saw a gradual shift of interest away from twisted movement and excessive ornamentation toward a neoclassical balance and sobriety.
Two of the most eye-catching creations of Spanish Baroque are the energetic façades of the University of Valladolid (Diego Tomé, 1719) and Hospicio de San Fernando in Madrid (Pedro de Ribera, 1722), whose curvilinear extravagance seems to herald Antonio Gaudi and Art Nouveau. Leuven ( French: Louvain, often used in English German: Löwen) is the capital of the province of Flemish Brabant in the The University of Valladolid is a university in the city of Valladolid in the Valladolid province of the autonomous region of Castile-Leon, in Spain Madrid (pronounced in English in Spanish and colloquially in Spain) is the Capital and largest city of Spain. Art Nouveau ( nu vo anglicised /ˈɑːt nuːvəu/ ( French for 'new art' also known as Jugendstil ( German for 'youth style' is an international In this case as in many others, the design involves a play of tectonic and decorative elements with little relation to structure and function. The focus of the florid ornamentation is an elaborately sculptured surround to a main doorway. If we remove the intricate maze of broken pediments, undulating cornices, stucco shells, inverted tapers and garlands from the rather plain wall it is set against, the building's form would not be affected in the slightest.
In the wealthy Southern Netherlandish domain of the Spanish kings, Flanders, florid decorative detailing was more tightly knit to the structure, thus precluding concerns of superfluity. Flanders (Vlaanderen Flandre Flandern is a geographical region located in parts of present day Belgium, France, and the Netherlands. A remarkable convergence of Spanish, French and Dutch Baroque aesthetics may be seen in the Abbey of Averbode (1667). Averbode Abbey is a Premonstratensian monastery situated near Diest in the Archdiocese of Mechelen in Belgium. Another characteristic example is the Church of St. Michel at Louvain), with its exuberant two-storey façade, clusters of half-columns, and the complex aggregation of French-inspired sculptural detailing. Leuven ( French: Louvain, often used in English German: Löwen) is the capital of the province of Flemish Brabant in the
Six decades later, a Flemish architect, Jaime Borty Milia, was the first to introduce Rococo to Spain (Cathedral of Murcia, west façade, 1733). Rococo is a style of 18th century French art and Interior design. The Cathedral Church of Saint Mary in Murcia (Spanish Iglesia Catedral de Santa María en Murcia) commonly called the Cathedral of Murcia, is an important landmark The greatest practitioner of the Spanish Rococo style was a native master, Ventura Rodríguez, responsible for the dazzling interior of the Basilica of Our Lady of the Pillar in Saragossa (1750). Ventura Rodríguez Tizón ( July 14, 1717 – September 26, 1785) was a Spanish Architect and artist The Basilica-Cathedral of Our Lady of the Pillar (in Spanish Catedral-Basílica de Nuestra Señora del Pilar) is a Roman Catholic church in the city of Zaragoza Zaragoza, also called Saragossa in English, is the capital city of the Zaragoza province and of the autonomous community and former
The combination of the Native American and Moorish decorative influences with an extremely expressive interpretation of the Churrigueresque idiom may account for the full-bodied and varied character of the Baroque in the American and Asian colonies of Spain. Even more than its Spanish counterpart, American Baroque developed as a style of stucco decoration. Twin-towered façades of many American cathedrals of the 17th century had medieval roots and the full-fledged Baroque did not appear until 1664, when a Jesuit shrine on Plaza des Armas in Cusco was built. ||} Cusco (also spelled Cuzco, and in the local Quechua language as Qusqu 'qos Even then, the new style hardly affected the structure of churches.
The Peruvian Baroque was particularly lavish, as evidenced by the monastery of San Francisco at Lima (1673). Lima is the Capital and largest city of Peru. It is located in the valleys of the Chillón, Rímac and Lurín rivers on a coast overlooking While the rural Baroque of the Jesuit Block and Estancias of Córdoba in Córdoba, Argentina, followed the model of Il Gesu, provincial "mestizo" (crossbred) styles emerged in Arequipa, Potosí and La Paz. The Jesuit Block and Estancias of Córdoba ( Spanish: Manzana Jesuítica y Estancias de Córdoba) are a former Jesuit reduction built by missionaries Córdoba, abbreviated as CBA, is a city located near the geographical center of Argentina, in the foothills of the Sierras Chicas mountains on the For the Cactus Genus, see Oreocereus. Arequipa is the capital of the Arequipa Region in southern Peru Potosí is a city the capital of the department of Potosí in Bolivia. Nuestra Señora de La Paz is the administrative Capital of Bolivia, as well as the departmental capital of La Paz Department. In the 18th century, architects of the region turned for inspiration to the Mudejar art of medieval Spain. Mudéjar is the name given to the Moors or Muslims of Al-Andalus, who remained in Christian territory after the Reconquista but were The late Baroque type of Peruvian façade first appears in the Church of Our Lady of La Merced, Lima). Similarly, the Church of La Compañia, Quito) suggests a carved altarpiece with its richly sculpted façade and a surfeit of spiral salomónica. Quito, officially San Francisco de Quito, is the Capital of Ecuador in northwestern South America. The Solomonic column, also called Barley-sugar column, is a helical Column, characterized by a spiraling twisting shaft like a corkscrew
To the north, the richest province of 18th-century New Spain — Mexico — produced some fantastically extravagant and visually frenetic architecture known as Mexican Churrigueresque. The Viceroyalty of New Spain (Virreinato de Nueva España was a name given to the Viceroy -ruled territories of the Spanish Empire in North America, The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. This ultra-Baroque approach culminates in the works of Lorenzo Rodriguez, whose masterpiece is the Sagrario Metropolitano in Mexico City). Mexico Dic 06 044jpg|thumb|right|300px|The Cathedral as seen from Francisco I Mexico City (in Spanish: Ciudad de México, México DF, México or simply Méjico) is the Capital city of Mexico Other fine examples of the style may be found in remote silver-mining towns. For instance, the Sanctuary at Ocotlán (begun in 1745) is a top-notch Baroque cathedral surfaced in bright red tiles, which contrast delightfully with a plethora of compressed ornament lavishly applied to the main entrance and the slender flanking towers (exterior, interior). Ocotlán (from the Nahuatl ocotl ("pine tree" meaning "place of pines" may refer to Mexico Ocotlán Jalisco
The true capital of Mexican Baroque is Puebla, where a ready supply of hand-painted ceramics (talavera) and vernacular gray stone led to its evolving further into a personalised and highly localised art form with a pronounced Indian flavour. The city of Puebla, officially Heroic Puebla de Zaragoza (nicknamed Angelópolis) is the capital and largest city of the Mexican state of Puebla. There are about sixty churches whose façades and domes display glazed tiles of many colours, often arranged in Arabic designs. The interiors are densely saturated with elaborate gold leaf ornamentation. In the 18th century, local artisans developed a distinctive brand of white stucco decoration, named "alfenique" after a Pueblan candy made from egg whites and sugar.
Istanbul, once the center of the Ottoman Empire, hosts many different varieties of Baroque architecture. The most famous of these are probably the Nuruosmaniye Mosquee and the Ortaköy Mosquee. Built in the 1750s by Simeon Kalfa, the Nuruosmaniye Mosquee is an "eastern" form a baroque expression and probably the most "baroque" architectural structure in Islamic architecture. The arabesque and Ottoman flavour gives it its unique atmosphere, which also distinguishes it from the later "collonial" baroque styles, largely used in the Middle East, especially Lebanon. Later and more mature baroque forms it Istanbul can be found especially in the gates of the Dolmabahce palace, built by the famous Turkish-Armenian Balyan dynasty, which also has a very "eastern" flavour, combining Baroque, Romantic and Oriental architecture.