In the arts, the Baroque was a Western cultural epoch, commencing roughly at the turn of the 17th century in Rome, Italy. The arts is a broad subdivision of Culture, composed of many expressive disciplines. As a means of recording the passage of Time, the 17th Century was that Century which lasted from 1601 - 1700 in the Gregorian calendar Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest It was exemplified by drama and grandeur in sculpture, painting, literature, dance, and music. Baroque sculpture is the Sculpture associated with the Baroque Cultural movement, a movement often identified with the existence of important Baroque art Baroque painting is the Painting associated with the Baroque Cultural movement, a movement often identified with the existence of important Baroque Literature is the Art of written works Literally translated the word means "acquaintance with letters" (from Latin littera letter Baroque dance is Dance of the Baroque era in Europe (roughly 1600–1750 closely linked with Baroque music, theatre and opera Baroque music describes an era and a set of styles of European classical music which were in widespread use between approximately 1600 and 1750.
The popularity and success of the Baroque style was encouraged by the Roman Catholic Church which had decided at the time of the Council of Trent that the arts should communicate religious themes in direct and emotional involvement. The Council of Trent was the 19th Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. The aristocracy also saw the dramatic style of Baroque architecture and art as a means of impressing visitors and expressing triumphant power and control. Nobility is a government-privileged title which may be either hereditary (see Hereditary titles) or for a lifetime Baroque palaces are built around an entrance of courts, grand staircases and reception rooms of sequentially increasing opulence. In similar profusions of detail, art, music, architecture, and literature inspired each other in the Baroque cultural movement as artists explored what they could create from repeated and varied patterns. A cultural movement is a change in the way a number of different disciplines approach their work Some traits and aspects of Baroque paintings that differentiate this style from others are the abundant amount of details, often bright polychromy, less realistic faces of subjects, and an overall sense of awe, which was one of the goals in Baroque art.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word baroque is of uncertain origin but may derive from the Portuguese word "barrueco", Spanish "barroco", or French "baroque", all of which refer to a "rough or imperfect pearl". The Oxford English Dictionary ( OED) published by the Oxford University Press (OUP is a comprehensive Dictionary of the English  In informal usage, the word baroque can simply mean that something is "elaborate", with many details, without reference to the Baroque styles of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
Beginning around the year 1600, the demands for new art resulted in what is now known as the Baroque. The canon promulgated at the Council of Trent (1545–63) by which the Roman Catholic Church addressed the representational arts by demanding that paintings and sculptures in church contexts should speak to the illiterate rather than to the well-informed, is customarily offered as an inspiration of the Baroque, which appeared, however, a generation later. The Council of Trent was the 19th Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. This turn toward a populist conception of the function of ecclesiastical art is seen by many art historians as driving the innovations of Caravaggio and the Carracci brothers, all of whom were working in Rome at that time. Art history is the Academic study of objects of Art in their Historical development and stylistic contexts i Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio, usually just known as Caravaggio, (28 September 1571 – 18 July 1610 was an Italian Artist active in Rome
The appeal of Baroque style turned consciously from the witty, intellectual qualities of 16th century Mannerist art to a visceral appeal aimed at the senses. Mannerism is a period of European art which emerged from the later years of the Italian High Renaissance around 1520. It employed an iconography that was direct, simple, obvious, and dramatic. Iconography is the branch of Art history which studies the identification description and the interpretation of the content of images Baroque art drew on certain broad and heroic tendencies in Annibale Carracci and his circle, and found inspiration in other artists such as Caravaggio, and Federico Barocci nowadays sometimes termed 'proto-Baroque'. Annibale Carracci ( November 3, 1560 - July 15, 1609) was an Italian Baroque painter. Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio, usually just known as Caravaggio, (28 September 1571 – 18 July 1610 was an Italian Artist active in Rome Federico Barocci (1528&ndash1612 was an Italian Renaissance painter and Printmaker.
Germinal ideas of the Baroque can also be found in the work of Michelangelo and Correggio. Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni Two biographies were published of him during his lifetime One of them by Giorgio Vasari, proposed that he was the pinnacle of all
Some general parallels in music make the expression "Baroque music" useful. Contrasting phrase lengths, harmony and counterpoint ousted polyphony, and orchestral color made a stronger appearance. In Music, counterpoint is the relationship between two or more voices that are independent in contour and Rhythm, and interdependent in Harmony In Music, polyphony is a texture consisting of two or more independent Melodic voices, as opposed to music with just one voice ( Monophony (See Baroque music. Baroque music describes an era and a set of styles of European classical music which were in widespread use between approximately 1600 and 1750. ) Similar fascination with simple, strong, dramatic expression in poetry, where clear, broad syncopated rhythms replaced the enknotted elaborated metaphysical similes employed by Mannerists such as John Donne and imagery that was strongly influenced by visual developments in painting, can be sensed in John Milton's Paradise Lost, a Baroque epic. Mannerism is a period of European art which emerged from the later years of the Italian High Renaissance around 1520. John Donne (pronounced like done, dʌn 1572 – 31 March 1631 was a Jacobean poet preacher and a major representative of the Metaphysical poets John Milton ( 9 December, 1608 – 8 November, 1674) was an English Poet, Prose Polemicist and Paradise Lost is an Epic poem in Blank verse by the 17th-century English poet John Milton.
Though Baroque was superseded in many centers by the Rococo style, beginning in France in the late 1720s, especially for interiors, paintings and the decorative arts, Baroque architecture remained a viable style until the advent of Neoclassicism in the later 18th century. Rococo is a style of 18th century French art and Interior design. Early Modern France is the Early modern period of French history from the end of the 15th century to the end of the 18th century (or from the French Renaissance Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the decorative and A prominent example, the Neapolitan palace of Caserta, a Baroque palace (though in a chaste exterior) that was not even begun until 1752. The Palace of Caserta, in Italian Reggia di Caserta, is a former royal residence Critics have given up talking about a "Baroque period. "
In paintings, Baroque gestures are broader than Mannerist gestures: less ambiguous, less arcane and mysterious, more like the stage gestures of opera, a major Baroque artform. Opera is an art form in which Singers and Musicians perform a Dramatic work (called an opera which combines a text (called a Libretto Baroque poses depend on contrapposto ("counterpoise"), the tension within the figures that moves the planes of shoulders and hips in counterdirections. Contrapposto is an Italian term meaning "counterpoise" used in the Visual arts to describe a human figure standing with most of its weight on one foot It made the sculptures almost seem like they were about to move. See Bernini's David (below, left).
The drier, chastened, less dramatic and coloristic, later stages of 18th century Baroque architectural style are often seen as a separate Late Baroque manifestation. The 18th century lasted from 1701 to 1800 in the Gregorian calendar, in accordance with the Anno Domini / Common Era numbering system (See Claude Perrault. Though Claude Perrault (Paris September 25, 1613 - Paris 1688 is best known as the Architect of the eastern range of the Louvre in Paris ) Academic characteristics in the neo-Palladian architectural style, epitomized by William Kent, are a parallel development in Britain and the British colonies: within doors, Kent's furniture designs are vividly influenced by the Baroque furniture of Rome and Genoa, hieratic tectonic sculptural elements meant never to be moved from their positions completing the wall elevation. PLEASE DO NOT ADD AN INFO BOX TO THIS PAGE --> Palladian architecture is a European style of Architecture derived from the designs of the Italian William Kent (born in Bridlington, Yorkshire, c 1685 &ndash 12 April 1748) was an eminent English Architect, Landscape Baroque is a style of unity imposed upon rich and massy detail.
The Baroque was defined by Heinrich Wölfflin as the age where the oval replaced the circle as the center of composition, balance replaced organization around a central axis, and coloristic and "painterly" effects began to become more prominent. Heinrich Wölfflin ( June 21 1864 &ndash July 19 1945) was a famous Swiss Art critic, whose objective classifying principles Art historians, often Protestant ones, have traditionally emphasized that the Baroque style evolved during a time in which the Roman Catholic Church had to react against the many revolutionary cultural movements that produced a new science and new forms of religion—the Reformation. Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. A religion is a set of Tenets and practices often centered upon specific Supernatural and moral claims about Reality, the Cosmos The Protestant Reformation was a reform movement in Europe that began in 1517 though its roots lie further back in time It has been said that the monumental Baroque is a style that could give the Papacy, like secular absolute monarchies, a formal, imposing way of expression that could restore its prestige, at the point of becoming somehow symbolic of the Catholic Reformation. History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and An autocracy is a Form of government in which the Political power is held by a single self-appointed ruler The Counter-Reformation (also Catholic Reformation denotes the period of Catholic revival from the pontificate of Pope Pius IV in 1560 to the close of the Whether this is the case or not, it was successfully developed in Rome, where Baroque architecture widely renewed the central areas with perhaps the most important urbanistic revision during this period of time. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2
A defining statement of what Baroque signifies in painting is provided by the series of paintings executed by Peter Paul Rubens for Marie de Medici at the Luxembourg Palace in Paris (now at the Louvre) , in which a Catholic painter satisfied a Catholic patron: Baroque-era conceptions of monarchy, iconography, handling of paint, and compositions as well as the depiction of space and movement. Santarém (sɐ̃tɐˈɾɐ̃j̃ is a Portuguese city and municipality Baroque painting is the Painting associated with the Baroque Cultural movement, a movement often identified with the existence of important Baroque Marie de' Medici ( April 26, 1575 &ndash July 3, 1642) was Queen consort of France. The Palais du Luxembourg in the VIe arrondissement of Paris, north of the Jardin du Luxembourg, is where the French Senate meets The Louvre Museum (Musée du Louvre located in Paris is the world's most visited art museum a historic monument and a national museum of France
There were highly diverse strands of Italian baroque painting, from Caravaggio to Cortona; both approaching emotive dynamism with different styles. Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio, usually just known as Caravaggio, (28 September 1571 – 18 July 1610 was an Italian Artist active in Rome Pietro da Cortona, byname of Pietro Berrettini ( November 1 1596 - May 16, 1669) was an Italian artist and architect of High Baroque Another frequently cited work of Baroque art is Bernini's Saint Theresa in Ecstasy for the Cornaro chapel in Saint Maria della Vittoria, which brings together architecture, sculpture, and theater into one grand conceit . "Bernini" redirects here For people named Bernini see Bernini (surname. The Ecstasy of St Teresa (alternatively St Teresa in Ecstasy or Transverberation of St
The later Baroque style gradually gave way to a more decorative Rococo, which, through contrast, further defines Baroque. Rococo is a style of 18th century French art and Interior design.
The intensity and immediacy of baroque art and its individualism and detail—observed in such things as the convincing rendering of cloth and skin textures—make it one of the most compelling periods of Western art.
In Baroque sculpture, groups of figures assumed new importance, and there was a dynamic movement and energy of human forms— they spiralled around an empty central vortex, or reached outwards into the surrounding space. Baroque sculpture is the Sculpture associated with the Baroque Cultural movement, a movement often identified with the existence of important Baroque art For the first time, Baroque sculpture often had multiple ideal viewing angles. The characteristic Baroque sculpture added extra-sculptural elements, for example, concealed lighting, or water fountains. A traditional fountain is an arrangement where water issues from a source ( Latin fons) fills a basin of some kind and is drained away Aleijadinho in Brazil was also one of the great names of baroque sculpture, and his master work is the set of statues of the Santuário de Bom Jesus de Matosinhos in Congonhas. Aleijadinho (b Antônio Francisco Lisboa; 1730 or 1738 &ndash November 18, 1814) was a Colonial Brazil -born sculptor and There is another settlement called Congonhas in Minas Gerais state north of Belo Horizonte (see Congonhas do Norte) and yet another in Santa Catarina state The soapstone sculptures of old testament prophets around the terrace are considered amongst his finest work.
The architecture, sculpture and fountains of Bernini (1598–1680) give highly charged characteristics of Baroque style. "Bernini" redirects here For people named Bernini see Bernini (surname. Bernini was undoubtedly the most important sculptor of the Baroque period. He approached Michelangelo in his omnicompetence: Bernini sculpted, worked as an architect, painted, wrote plays, and staged spectacles. Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni Two biographies were published of him during his lifetime One of them by Giorgio Vasari, proposed that he was the pinnacle of all In the late 20th century Bernini was most valued for his sculpture, both for his virtuosity in carving marble and his ability to create figures that combine the physical and the spiritual. He was also a fine sculptor of bust portraits in high demand among the powerful.
A good example of Bernini's work that helps us understand the Baroque is his St. Theresa in Ecstasy (1645–52), created for the Cornaro Chapel of the church of Santa Maria della Vittoria, Rome. The Ecstasy of St Teresa (alternatively St Teresa in Ecstasy or Transverberation of St Santa Maria della Vittoria is a small Basilica church in Rome, on Via XX Settembre Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 Bernini designed the entire chapel, a subsidiary space along the side of the church, for the Cornaro family.
Saint Theresa, the focal point of the chapel, is a soft white marble statue surrounded by a polychromatic marble architectural framing. This structure works to conceal a window which lights the statue from above. In shallow relief, sculpted figure-groups of the Cornaro family inhabit in opera boxes along the two side walls of the chapel. The setting places the viewer as a spectator in front of the statue with the Cornaro family leaning out of their box seats and craning forward to see the mystical ecstasy of the saint. St. Theresa is highly idealized and in an imaginary setting. Teresa, Theresa, and Therese ( Thérèse) are feminine given names St. Theresa of Avila, a popular saint of the Catholic Reformation, wrote of her mystical experiences aimed at the nuns of her Carmelite Order; these writings had become popular reading among lay people interested in pursuing spirituality. For other saints with similar names please see Saint Teresa. Saint Teresa of Ávila, known in religion as Saint Teresa of Jesus and The Counter-Reformation (also Catholic Reformation denotes the period of Catholic revival from the pontificate of Pope Pius IV in 1560 to the close of the The Order of the Brothers of Our Lady of Mount Carmel or Carmelites (sometimes simply Carmel by Synecdoche; Latin: Ordo fratrum Beatæ In her writings, she described the love of God as piercing her heart like a burning arrow. Bernini literalizes this image by placing St. Theresa on a cloud while a Cupid figure holds a golden arrow (the arrow is made of metal) and smiles down at her. The angelic figure is not preparing to plunge the arrow into her heart— rather, he has withdrawn it. St. Theresa's face reflects not the anticipation of ecstasy, but her current fulfillment.
This is widely considered the genius of Baroque although this mix of religious and erotic imagery was extremely offensive in the context of neoclassical restraint. However, Bernini was a devout Catholic and was not attempting to satirize the experience of a chaste nun. Celibacy refers to the lack of participation in Sexual intercourse. Rather, he aimed to portray religious experience as an intensely physical one. Theresa described her bodily reaction to spiritual enlightenment in a language of ecstasy used by many mystics, and Bernini's depiction is earnest.
The Cornaro family promotes itself discreetly in this chapel; they are represented visually, but are placed on the sides of the chapel, witnessing the event from balconies. As in an opera house, the Cornaro have a privileged position in respect to the viewer, in their private reserve, closer to the saint; the viewer, however, has a better view from the front. An opera house is a theater building used for Opera performances that consists of a stage an orchestra pit audience seating and backstage facilities for costumes They attach their name to the chapel, but St. Theresa is the focus. It is a private chapel in the sense that no one could say mass on the altar beneath the statue (in 17th century and probably through the 19th) without permission from the family, but the only thing that divides the viewer from the image is the altar rail. The spectacle functions both as a demonstration of mysticism and as a piece of family pride.
In Baroque architecture, new emphasis was placed on bold massing, colonnades, domes, light-and-shade (chiaroscuro), 'painterly' color effects, and the bold play of volume and void. Melk Abbey or Stift Melk is an Austrian Benedictine Abbey, and one of the world's most famous monastic sites Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich Jakob Prandtauer (baptized in Stanz bei Landeck ( Tyrol) on July 16, 1660; died in Sankt Pölten on September 16, 1726 Baroque architecture, starting in the early 17th century in Italy, took the humanist Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical In Classical architecture, a colonnade denotes a long sequence of Columns joined by their Entablature, often free-standing as in the famous elliptically A dome is a common structural element of Architecture that resembles the hollow upper half of a Sphere. Chiaroscuro ( Italian for light-dark) is a term in Art for a contrast between light and dark In interiors, Baroque movement around and through a void informed monumental staircases that had no parallel in previous architecture. The other Baroque innovation in worldly interiors was the state apartment, a processional sequence of increasingly rich interiors that culminated in a presence chamber or throne room or a state bedroom. The sequence of monumental stairs followed by a state apartment was copied in smaller scale everywhere in aristocratic dwellings of any pretensions.
Baroque architecture was taken up with enthusiasm in central Germany (see e. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. g. Ludwigsburg Palace and Zwinger Dresden), Austria and Russia (see e. Ludwigsburg Palace is one of Germany 's largest Baroque palaces and features an enormous baroque garden See also Theodor Zwinger The Zwinger Palace in Dresden is a major German landmark Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending g. Peterhof). Peterhof (Петерго́ф Petergof, originally named nl Peterhof, the Dutch for "Peter's Court" is a municipal town within Petrodvortsovy In England the culmination of Baroque architecture was embodied in work by Sir Christopher Wren, Sir John Vanbrugh and Nicholas Hawksmoor, from ca. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Sir Christopher Wren ( 20 October 1632 &ndash 25 February 1723) was a 17th century English Designer, Astronomer Sir John Vanbrugh (pronounced "Van'-bru" (24 January 1664? – 26 March 1726 was an English Architect and Dramatist, perhaps best known Nicholas Hawksmoor (probably 1661 - 25 March 1736) was a British Architect born to a humble family in Nottinghamshire 1660 to ca. 1725. Many examples of Baroque architecture and town planning are found in other European towns, and in Latin America. Town planning of this period featured radiating avenues intersecting in squares, which took cues from Baroque garden plans. This entry concerns the history of ornamental gardening considered as an amenity of civilized life as a vehicle for style for conspicuous show and even an expression of philosophy In Sicily, Baroque developed new shapes and themes as in Noto, Ragusa and Acireale "Basilica di San Sebastiano"
In theater, the elaborate conceits, multiplicity of plot turns, and variety of situations characteristic of Mannerism (Shakespeare's tragedies, for instance) were superseded by opera, which drew together all the arts into a unified whole. Acireale ( Aciriali in Sicilian; often shortened to Aci) is a coastal city in the north-east of the Province of Catania, Sicily Mannerism is a period of European art which emerged from the later years of the Italian High Renaissance around 1520. William Shakespeare ( baptised Opera is an art form in which Singers and Musicians perform a Dramatic work (called an opera which combines a text (called a Libretto
Theater evolved in the Baroque era and became a multimedia experience, starting with the actual architectural space. Multimedia is media and content that utilizes a combination of different content forms. In fact, much of the technology used in current Broadway or commercial plays was invented and developed during this era. The stage could change from a romantic garden to the interior of a palace in a matter of seconds. The entire space became a framed selected area that only allows the users to see a specific action, hiding all the machinery and technology - mostly ropes and pulleys.
This technology affected the content of the narrated or performed pieces, practicing at its best the Deus ex Machina solution. A deus ex machina ( lat. ˈdeːus eks ˈmaːkʰina literally "god from a/the machine" is an improbable Gods were finally able to come down - literally - from the heavens and rescue the hero in the most extreme and dangerous, even absurd situations.
The term Theatrum Mundi - the world is a stage - was also created. The social and political realm in the real world is manipulated in exactly the same way the actor and the machines are presenting/limiting what is being presented on stage, hiding selectively all the machinery that makes the actions happen. There is a wonderful German documentary called Theatrum Mundi that clearly portrays the political extents of the Baroque and its main representative, Louis XIV. Early years Birth and ancestry Louis XIV was born in the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye on September 5 1638 and bore the Heir apparent
The films Vatel, Farinelli, and the staging of Monteverdi's Orpheus at the Gran Teatre del Liceu in Barcelona, give a good idea of the style of productions of the Baroque period. Vatel is a 2000 Film based on the life of 17th century French chef François Vatel, directed by Roland Joffé and starring Gérard Farinelli is a 1994 Biopic film about the life and career of Italian Opera singer Farinelli, considered one of the greatest The American musician William Christie and Les Arts Florissants have performed extensive research on all the French Baroque Opera, performing pieces from Charpentier and Lully, among others that are extremely faithful to the original 17th century creations. Les Arts Florissants is a Baroque ensemble of singers and musicians founded in 1979 by William Christie and based in France. Marc-Antoine Charpentier (1643 - February 24 1704 was a French composer of the Baroque era Jean-Baptiste de Lully ( Giovanni Battista di Lulli) (ʒɑ̃batist də lyˈli in French (November 28 1632 &ndash March 22 1687 was a French Composer of Italian
Baroque actually expressed new values, which often are summarized in the use of metaphor and allegory, widely found in Baroque literature, and in the research for the "maraviglia" (wonder, astonishment — as in Marinism), the use of artifices. See also 16th century in literature Early Modern literature other events of the 17th century 18th century 17th century philosophy in the Western world is generally regarded as being the start of Modern philosophy, and a departure from the medieval approach The History of literature of the Early Modern period ( 16th, 17th and partly 18th century literature) Metaphor (from the Greek: μεταφορά - metaphora, meaning "transfer" is language that directly compares seemingly unrelated subjects An allegory (from αλλος allos "other" and el αγορευειν agoreuein "to speak in public" is a figurative mode of representation Marinism (Italian marinismo, or secentismo, "17th century" is the name now given to an ornate witty style of poetry and verse drama If Mannerism was a first breach with Renaissance, Baroque was an opposed language. The psychological pain of Man -- a theme disbanded after the Copernican and the Lutheran revolutions in search of solid anchors, a proof of an "ultimate human power" -- was to be found in both the art and architecture of the Baroque period. Martin Luther (November 10 1483 February 18 1546 was a German Monk, theologian, university professor Father of Protestantism, and church reformer A relevant part of works was made on religious themes, since the Roman Catholic Church was the main "customer. "
Virtuosity was researched by artists (and the virtuoso became a common figure in any art) together with realism and care for details (some talk of a typical "intricacy"). A virtuoso (from Italian virtuoso, late Latin virtuosus, Latin virtus meaning skill manliness excellence is an individual Realism in the Visual arts and Literature is the depiction of subjects as they appear in Everyday life, without embellishment or interpretation
The privilege given to external forms had to compensate and balance the lack of content that has been observed in many Baroque works: Marino's "Maraviglia", for example, is practically made of the pure, mere form. Giambattista Marino (also Giovan Battista Marino; 14 October 1569 - 25 March 1625) was an Italian poet who was born in Fantasy and imagination should be evoked in the spectator, in the reader, in the listener. All was focused around the individual Man, as a straight relationship between the artist, or directly the art and its user, its client. Art is then less distant from user, more directly approaching him, solving the cultural gap that used to keep art and user reciprocally far, by Maraviglia. But the increased attention to the individual, also created in these schemes some important genres like the Romanzo (novel) and allowed popular or local forms of art, especially dialectal literature, to be put into evidence. A novel (from Italian novella, Spanish novela, French nouvelle for "new" "news" or "short story In Italy this movement toward the single individual (that some define a "cultural descent", while others indicate it as a possible cause for the classical opposition to Baroque) caused Latin to be definitely replaced by Italian. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome.
In Spain, the baroque writers are framed in the Siglo de Oro. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. This article is about the Spanish Golden Age of the 15th-17th centuries Naturalism and sharply critical points of view on Spanish society are common among such conceptista writers as Quevedo, while culterano authors emphasize the importance of form with complicated images and the use of hyperbaton. Francisco Gómez de Quevedo y Santibáñez Villegas ( Madrid, September 14, 1580 &ndash Villanueva de los Infantes, September 8, In Catalonia the baroque took hold as well in Catalan language, with representatives including poets and dramaturgs such as Francesc Fontanella and Francesc Vicenç Garcia as well as the unique emblem book Atheneo de Grandesa by Josep Romaguera. Catalonia (Cataluña Catalunya Aranese: Catalonha) is an Autonomous Community in the northeast part of Spain. Catalan ˈkætəˌlæn ( català kətəˈla or) is a Romance language, the national and official language of Andorra, and a co-official Francesc Fontanella ( 1622 – 1685 ? was a Catalan Poet, Dramatist, and Priest. Francesc Vicent Garcia i Torres was an early modern Catalan poet known by the pseudonym of the "Vallfogona Rector An emblem is a pictorial Image, abstract or representational that epitomizes a Concept — e The Atheneo de Grandesa is an Emblem book written in the Catalan language by Josep Romaguera and published in 1681 by the printer Josep Romaguera (1642-1723 is the author of the only Emblem book ever published in the Catalan language, the Atheneo de Grandesa. In Colonial Spanish America some of the best-known baroque writers were Sor Juana and Bernardo de Balbuena, in Mexico, and Juan de Espinosa Medrano and Juan del Valle Caviedes, in Peru. Sor Juana ( November 12, 1651 1648 according to some biographers &ndash April 17, 1695) also known as Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz Bernardo de Balbuena (c 1561 - October 1627) was a Latin American poet The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. Juan de Espinosa Medrano (ca 1629— November 13, 1688) known as El Lunarejo (“The Spotty-Faced” was a Peruvian Cleric, preacher Peru (Perú Piruw Piruw officially the Republic of Peru ( reˈpuβlika del peˈɾu is a country in western South America.
In the Portuguese Empire the most famous baroque writer of the time was Father António Vieira, a Jesuit who lived in Brazil during the 18th century. The Portuguese Empire was the earliest and longest lived of the modern European colonial empires spanning almost six centuries from the capture of Ceuta Father António Vieira, pron. ɐ̃'tɔniu vi'ɐiɾɐ ( February 6, 1608, Lisbon, Portugal - July 18, 1697, The Society of Jesus ( Latin: Societas Iesu, SJ and SI or SJ, SI) is a Catholic religious order |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld The 18th century lasted from 1701 to 1800 in the Gregorian calendar, in accordance with the Anno Domini / Common Era numbering system Secondary writers are Gregório de Matos and Francisco Rodrigues Lobo. Gregório de Matos e Guerra ( April 7 1636 &ndash November 26 1696) was the major Baroque poet of Brazil. Francisco Rodrigues Lobo ( 1580 - November 4, 1621) was a Portuguese Poet and Bucolic writer
In English literature, the metaphysical poets represent a closely related movement; their poetry likewise sought unusual metaphors, which they then examined in often extensive detail. The term English literature refers to Literature written in the English language, including literature composed in English by Writers not necessarily from The metaphysical poets were a loose group of British lyric poets of the 17th century who shared an interest in metaphysical concerns and a common way of investigating them Their verse also manifests a taste for paradox, and deliberately inventive and unusual turns of phrase.
For German Baroque literature, see German literature of the Baroque period. German literature comprises those literary texts written in the German language.
The term Baroque is also used to designate the style of music composed during a period that overlaps with that of Baroque art, but usually encompasses a slightly later period. Baroque music describes an era and a set of styles of European classical music which were in widespread use between approximately 1600 and 1750. Antonio Vivaldi, J.S. Bach and G.F. Handel are often considered its culminating figures. WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section.2 This article is written in British English including maximised use of "-ise"
It is a still-debated question as to what extent Baroque music shares aesthetic principles with the visual and literary arts of the Baroque period. A fairly clear, shared element is a love of ornamentation, and it is perhaps significant that the role of ornament was greatly diminished in both music and architecture as the Baroque gave way to the Classical period.
It should be noted that the application of the term "Baroque" to music is a relatively recent development. The first use of the word "Baroque" in music was only in 1919, by Curt Sachs, and it was not until 1940 that it was first used in English (in an article published by Manfred Bukofzer). Curt Sachs ( June 29, 1881 - February 5, 1959) was a German musicologist. Manfred Bukofzer ( March 27, 1910 &ndash December 7, 1955) was a German - American Musicologist and humanist Even as late as 1960 there was still considerable dispute in academic circles over whether music as diverse as that by Jacopo Peri, François Couperin and J.S. Bach could be meaningfully bundled together under a single stylistic term. Jacopo Peri ( August 20 1561 &ndash August 12 1633) was an Italian Composer and singer of the transitional period between François Couperin (fʀɑ̃swa kuˈpʀɛ̃ (November 10 1668 &ndash September 11 1733 was a French Baroque composer organist and harpsichordist WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section.2 This article is written in British English including maximised use of "-ise"
Many musical forms were born in that era, like the concerto and sinfonia. The term Concerto (plural concertos or concerti) usually refers to a three part musical work in which one solo instrument is accompanied by an Orchestra Sinfonia is the Italian (Spanish and also Portuguese word for Symphony (see that article for etymology Forms such as the sonata, cantata and oratorio flourished. Usage of sonata The Baroque applied the term sonata to a variety of works though most works in the Baroque Period were fugues and toccatas A cantata (derived from the Italian word 'cantare' meaning 'to sing' is a vocal composition with an instrumental Accompaniment and often An oratorio is a large Musical composition including an Orchestra, a Choir, and soloists The oratorio was somewhat modeled after the Opera Also, opera was born out of the experimentation of the Florentine Camerata, the creators of monody, who attempted to recreate the theatrical arts of the ancient Greeks. Opera is an art form in which Singers and Musicians perform a Dramatic work (called an opera which combines a text (called a Libretto The Florentine Camerata was a group of humanists Musicians Poets and Intellectuals in late Renaissance Florence who gathered In Poetry, the term monody has become specialized to refer to a poem in which one person laments another's death Indeed, it is exactly that development which is often used to denote the beginning of the musical Baroque, around 1600. An important technique used in baroque music was the use of ground bass, a repeated bass line. In Music, an Ostinato (derived from Italian: "stubborn" see also Oscillation) is a motif or phrase which is persistently Dido's Lament by Henry Purcell is a famous example of this technique.
The word "Baroque", like most periodic or stylistic designations, was invented by later critics rather than practitioners of the arts in the 17th and early 18th centuries. Vespro della Beata Vergine 1610 ( SV 206 and 206a Vespers for the Blessed Virgin 1610 or simply the Vespers of 1610, as it is commonly called Heinrich Schütz (October 8 ( JC) 1585 Köstritz - November 6 1672 Dresden) was a German Composer and organist, generally regarded Jean-Baptiste de Lully ( Giovanni Battista di Lulli) (ʒɑ̃batist də lyˈli in French (November 28 1632 &ndash March 22 1687 was a French Composer of Italian Armide is an Opera by Jean-Baptiste Lully. The Libretto was written by Philippe Quinault, based on Torquato Tasso 's Year 1706 ( MDCCVI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Pachelbel's Canon, also known as Canon in D major, or more formally Canon and Gigue in D major for three Violins and Basso Continuo WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> Arcangelo Corelli (February 17 1653 &ndash January 8 1713 was a French Violinist Year 1713 ( MDCCXIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Twelve concerti grossi op6 are a collection of twelve Concerti written by Arcangelo Corelli, arranged for publication in 1708. Henry Purcell (ˈpɜrsəl 10 September 1659 (? – 21 November 1695 was an English Baroque Composer. Dido and Æneas is an Opera by the English Baroque composer Henry Purcell, from a libretto by Nahum Tate. Tomaso Giovanni Albinoni (June 8 1671 Venice, Republic of Venice &ndash January 17 1751 Venice, Republic of Venice) was a Venetian Year 1751 ( MDCCLI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Year 1741 ( MDCCXLI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Johann David Heinichen ( 17 April 1683 - 16 July 1729) was a German Baroque Composer and Music theorist Year 1729 ( MDCCXXIX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Jean-Philippe Rameau (ʒɑ̃filip ʀaˈmo in French (September 25 1683 – September 12 1764 was one of the most important French Composers and music theorists Year 1764 ( MDCCLXIV) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Dardanus is an Opera in five acts by Jean-Philippe Rameau. The French Libretto was by Charles-Antoine Leclerc de La Bruère Year 1739 ( MDCCXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Year 1759 ( MDCCLIX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year The Water Music is a collection of orchestral movements often considered as three Suites composed by George Frideric Handel. Year 1717 ( MDCCXVII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Giuseppe Domenico Scarlatti (October 26 1685 – July 23 1757 was a Neapolitan Composer who spent much of his life in Spain and Portugal. Year 1757 ( MDCCLVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a These are the sonatas for solo keyboard (originally intended for Harpsichord or Fortepiano) by Domenico Scarlatti, listed in Kirkpatrick WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section.2 This article is written in British English including maximised use of "-ise" Year 1750 ( MDCCL) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a The Brandenburg concertos by Johann Sebastian Bach ( BWV 1046&ndash1051 original title Six Concerts Avec plusieurs Instruments) are a Year 1721 ( MDCCXXI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Georg Philipp Telemann (March 14 1681 &ndash June 25 1767 was a German Baroque music Composer, born in Magdeburg. Year 1767 ( MDCCLXVII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Year 1762 ( MDCCLXII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Giovanni Battista Pergolesi (January 4 1710 &ndash 16 or March 17 1736 was an Italian Composer, Violinist and organist. Year 1710 ( MDCCX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar or a Common year Year 1734 ( MDCCXXXIV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Stabat Mater is a thirteenth century Roman Catholic sequence variously attributed to Innocent III and Jacopone da Todi Year 1736 ( MDCCXXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year Periodization is the attempt to categorize or divide Time into discrete named blocks The word critic comes from the Greek el κριτικός ( el-Latn kritikós) "able to discern" which in turn derives from the word It is a French transliteration of the Portuguese phrase "pérola barroca", which means "irregular pearl"—an ancient similar word, "Barlocco" or "Brillocco", is used in the Roman dialect for the same meaning—and natural pearls that deviate from the usual, regular forms so they do not have an axis of rotation are known as "baroque pearls". French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people Portuguese ( or língua portuguesa) is a Romance language that originated in what is now Galicia (Spain and northern Portugal. A pearl is a hard roundish object produced within the soft tissue (specifically the mantle) of a living shelled Mollusk. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος dialektos) is a variety of a Language that is characteristic of a particular group of A rotation is a movement of an object in a circular motion A two- Dimensional object rotates around a center (or point) of rotation Others derive it from the mnemonic term "Baroco" denoting, in logical Scholastica, a supposedly laboured form of syllogism. A syllogism, or logical appeal, (συλλογισμός &mdash "conclusion" "inference" (usually the categorical syllogism) is a kind of 
The term "Baroque" was initially used with a derogatory meaning, to underline the excesses of its emphasis. In particular, the term was used to describe its eccentric redundancy and noisy abundance of details, which sharply contrasted the clear and sober rationality of the Renaissance. It was first rehabilitated by the Swiss-born art historian, Heinrich Wölfflin (1864–1945) in his Renaissance und Barock (1888); Wölfflin identified the Baroque as "movement imported into mass," an art antithetic to Renaissance art. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation Art history is the Academic study of objects of Art in their Historical development and stylistic contexts i Heinrich Wölfflin ( June 21 1864 &ndash July 19 1945) was a famous Swiss Art critic, whose objective classifying principles The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere He did not make the distinctions between Mannerism and Baroque that modern writers do, and he ignored the later phase, the academic Baroque that lasted into the 18th century. Mannerism is a period of European art which emerged from the later years of the Italian High Renaissance around 1520. Writers in French and English did not begin to treat Baroque as a respectable study until Wölfflin's influence had made German scholarship pre-eminent.