The Banu Nadir (Arabic: بنو النضير) were a Jewish tribe who lived in northern Arabia until the 7th century, at the oasis of Yathrib (now known as Medina). Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ There were several Tribes of Arabia that interacted with Muhammad. Medina mɛˈdiːnə (المدينة المنورة ælmæˈdiːnæl muˈnɑwːɑrɑ or المدينة ælmæˈdiːnæ also transliterated into English as They came into conflict with Muhammad and, having been expelled from the city, later participated in the battles of the Trench and Khaybar. IMPORTANT PLEASE READ ##### For all questions relating to the addition of (pbuh peace be upon him or other honorifics The Battle of the Trench (غزوة الخندق|Ghazwah al-Khandaq also known as Battle of the Confederates (غزوة الاحزاب|Ghazwah al-Ahzab was a fortnight-long The Battle of Khaybar was fought in the year 629 between Muhammad and his followers against the Jews living in the oasis of Khaybar, located 150 kilometers
In early Medina, in addition to the Banu Nadir, there were two other major Jewish tribes: the Banu Qurayza and the Banu Qaynuqa. The Banu Qurayza (بني قريظة بنو قريظة alternate spellings include Quraiza, Qurayzah, Quraytha, and the archaic Koreiza) The Banu Qaynuqa (also spelled Banu Kainuka, Banu Kaynuka, Banu Qainuqa, بنو قينقاع) were one of the three main Jewish They were joined centuries later by two non-Jewish Arab tribes from Yemen, Banu Aus and Banu Khazraj. The Banu Aus or Banu Aws ("Sons of Aws" Arabic: بنو اوس? was one of the Tribes of Arabia during Muhammad's era. The Banu al-Khazraj ( بنو الخزرج) was one of the Tribes of Arabia during Muhammad's era.
The Banu Nadir settled outside the city of Yathrib, now Medina, because of the Roman persecutions of the Jews in Palestine. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial Palestine is a name which has been widely used since Roman times to refer to the region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River. According to the Muslim historian al-Yaqubi, the Banu Nadir were an Arab tribe ethnically, which had converted to Judaism and initially settled on the eponymous Mount Nadir. A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion Ahmad ibn Abu Ya'qub ibn Ja'far ibn Wahb Ibn Wadih al-Ya'qubi (? – 897 known as Ya'qubi, was a Muslim historian and Geographer The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding Judaism (from the Greek Ioudaïsmos, derived from the Hebrew יהודה Yehudah, " Judah " in Hebrew יַהֲדוּת Yahedut Some, however, believe them to be an ethnically Jewish tribe connected with the Khaybar Jews. Khaybar ( Arabic,خيبر is the name of an Oasis some 95 miles to the north of Medina (ancient Yathrib) Saudi Arabia. Like other Medinese Jews, Banu Nadir bore Arabic names, but spoke a distinct dialect of Arabic. They earned their living through agriculture, money lending, and trade in weapons and jewels, maintaining commercial relations with Arab merchants of Mecca. Mecca ˈmɛkə also spelled Makkah ˈmækə (in full Makkah Al-Mukarramah (Arabic mækːæ(t ælmʊkarˑamæ مكّة المكرمة, literally Honored Their fortresses were located half a day's march to the south of Medina.  Banu Nadir were wealthy and lived in some of the best lands in Medina. 
When the two Arabian tribes of Aws and Khazraj went to war against each other in the Battle of Bu'ath in 617, the three Jewish tribes split on different sides of the war. The Banu al-Khazraj ( بنو الخزرج) was one of the Tribes of Arabia during Muhammad's era. The Battle of Bu'ath was fought in 617 between Banu Aus and Banu Khazraj, the Arab tribes of Medina (then Yathrib in the south-eastern quarter Events By Place Europe Heathens revolt in Kent under king Eadbald. The Banu Nadir, led by Ka'b ibn al-Ashraf and Huyayy ibn Akhtab, and the Banu Qurayza fought with the Banu Aus, while the Banu Qaynuqa were allied with the Banu Khazraj. Ka'b ibn al-Ashraf (كعب بن الاشرف(d 624 was a chief of the Jewish tribe of Banu Nadir and a poet who was assassinated by an order of Muhammad Huyayy ibn Akhtab ( حيي بن أخطب; חי בן אחיטוב) was a chief of the Banu al-Nadir, a Jewish tribe of pre- Islamic The Banu al-Khazraj ( بنو الخزرج) was one of the Tribes of Arabia during Muhammad's era. The latter were defeated after a long and arduous battle. 
Muhammad was invited to Medina to broker a peace between the warring tribes, and in September 622, he arrived with a group of his followers, who were given shelter by members of the indigenous community known as the Ansar. IMPORTANT PLEASE READ ##### For all questions relating to the addition of (pbuh peace be upon him or other honorifics Amongst his first actions was the construction of the first Mosque in Medina, as well as obtaining residence with Abu Ayyub al-Ansari. Abu Ayyub al-Ansari (576-645 - born Khalid ibn Zayd ibn Kulayb in Yathrib - hailed from the tribe of Banu Najjar and was a close companion ( Arabic  He then set about the establishment of a pact, known as the Constitution of Medina, between the Muslims, the Ansar, and the various Jewish tribes of Medina  to regulate the matters of governance of the city, as well as the extent and nature of inter-community relations. The Constitution of Medina, also known as the Charter of Medina, was drafted by the Islamic prophet Muhammad in 622 Conditions of the pact included boycotting Quraysh, abstinence from "extending any support to them", assistance of one another if attacked by a third party, as well as "defending Medina, in case of a foreign attack". 
When Muhammad expelled the Jewish tribe of the Banu Qaynuqa, the Banu Nadir did not get involved, viewing the conflict as another example of tribal struggle. The Banu Qaynuqa (also spelled Banu Kainuka, Banu Kaynuka, Banu Qainuqa, بنو قينقاع) were one of the three main Jewish  The conflict led to a ruling that such future action by any of the other parties to the Constitution of Medina would constitute a voiding of their benefits under the system, and requiring subsequent punishment. The Constitution of Medina, also known as the Charter of Medina, was drafted by the Islamic prophet Muhammad in 622
After the Battle of Badr, one of the Banu Nadir's chiefs Ka'b ibn al-Ashraf, who was also a gifted poet, wrote a poetic eulogy commemorating the slain Quraish notables; later, he also wrote erotic poetry about Muslim women, which the Muslims found offensive. The Battle of Badr (غزوة بدر fought March 17, 624 AD (17 Ramadan 2 AH in the Islamic calendar) in the Hejaz Ka'b ibn al-Ashraf (كعب بن الاشرف(d 624 was a chief of the Jewish tribe of Banu Nadir and a poet who was assassinated by an order of Muhammad  This poetry influenced so many  that his actions were considered directly against the Constitution of Medina which states, loyalty gives protection against treachery and this document will not (be employed to) protect one who is unjust or commits a crime. The Constitution of Medina, also known as the Charter of Medina, was drafted by the Islamic prophet Muhammad in 622
Other historians cite that Ka'b ibn al-Ashraf went to the Quraish in order to lament the loss at Badr and to incite them to take up arms to regain lost honor, noting the statement of Muhammad: "He (Ka'b) has openly assumed enmity to us and speaks evil of us and he has gone over to the polytheists (who were at war with Muslims) and has made them gather against us for fighting".  This too was thought to be in contravention of the Constitution of Medina, of which the tribe led by Ka'b ibn al-Asharf was a signatory, which prohibited them from "extending any support" to the tribes of Mecca, namely Banu Quraish. The Constitution of Medina, also known as the Charter of Medina, was drafted by the Islamic prophet Muhammad in 622
Muhammad called upon his followers to kill Ka'b. Muhammad ibn Maslama offered his services, collecting four others. By pretending to have turned against Muhammad, Muhammad ibn Maslama and the others enticed Ka'b out of his fortress on a moonlit night, and killed him in spite of his vigorous resistance. IMPORTANT PLEASE READ ##### For all questions relating to the addition of (pbuh peace be upon him or other honorifics  Some attribute this action to norms of the Arab society of that period that demanded retaliation for a slight to a group's honor.  The Jews were terrified at his assassination, and as the historian Stillman put it ". . . there was not a Jew who did not fear for his life". 
After defeat by the Quraish at the Mount Uhud in March, 625, the Banu Nadir challenged Muhammad as the leader of Medina. The Battle of Uhud (غزوة أحد) was fought on 23 March 625 (3 Shawwal 3 AH in the Islamic calendar) at Mount Uhud, in what 
In July of the same year, two men were killed during skirmish in which the Muslims were involved. As a result Muhammad went to the Nadir, asking them to make a contribution towards the blood money of two men killed. Initially most of the Nadir, except Huyayy ibn Akhtab, were inclined to accept Muhammad's request. Huyayy ibn Akhtab ( حيي بن أخطب; חי בן אחיטוב) was a chief of the Banu al-Nadir, a Jewish tribe of pre- Islamic However, Ibn Ubayy communicated to ibn Akhtab of his intent, along with allied nomads, to attack Muhammad. The Nadir, then postponed the contribution until later that day. 
Muhammad left the locality immediately accusing the Banu Nadir of plotting to assassinate him, saying to have learned this either through revelation or Muhammad ibn Maslama. Muhammad ibn Maslamah, sometimes surnamed Ansari (589-666 ( محمد بن مسلمة الأنصاري) was a Companion of Muhammad.  Watt suggests that, in accordance with 7th century Arabian ideals, Muhammad knew the Banu Nadir sought an opportunity to kill him, in order to avenge the death of Ka'b bin Ashraf. Watt deduces that Banu Nadir's postponement of the contribution gave them such an opportunity.
According to other sources, the Banu Nadir invited Muhammad to their habitations for a religious debate, to which Muhammad accepted. Muhammad also accepted the condition that he bring no more than three men with him. On his way he was notified by a Banu Nadir convert to Islam of an assassination attempt at the debate. 
Muhammad besieged the Banu Nadir. He ordered them to surrender their property and leave Medina within ten days. The tribe at first decided to comply, but "certain persons of Medina who were not Believers sent a message to the Banu al-Nadir, saying, 'Hold out, and defend yourselves; we shall not surrender you to Muhammad. If you are attacked we shall fight with you and if you are sent away we shall go with you. '"  Huyayy ibn Akhtab decided to put up resistance, hoping also for help from the Banu Qurayza, despite opposition within the tribe. Huyayy ibn Akhtab ( حيي بن أخطب; חי בן אחיטוב) was a chief of the Banu al-Nadir, a Jewish tribe of pre- Islamic The Banu Qurayza (بني قريظة بنو قريظة alternate spellings include Quraiza, Qurayzah, Quraytha, and the archaic Koreiza)  The Nadir were forced to surrender after the siege had lasted for 14 days, when the promised help failed to materialize and when Muhammad ordered the burning and felling of their palm-trees. Under the conditions of surrender, the Banu Nadir could only take with them what they could carry on camels with the exception of weapons. 
The Banu Nadir left on 600 camels, parading through Medina to the music of pipes and tambourines.  Al-Waqidi described their impressive farewell: "Their women were decked out in litters wearing silk, brocade, velvet, and fine red and green silk. People lined up to gape at them. " Most of Banu Nadir found refuge among the Jews of Khaybar, while others emigrated to Syria. Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية 
Muhammad divided their land between his companions who had emigrated with him from Mecca. Until then, the emigrants had to rely upon the Medinese sympathizers for financial assistance. Muhammad reserved a share of the seized land for himself, which also made him financially independent. 
Upon expulsion of the Banu Nadir, Muhammad is said to have received a revelation of the Surah al-Hashr. Surat Al-Hashr (سورة الحشر) (Exile Banishment is the 59th sura in the 28th part (Juz of the Qur'an with 24 Ayat. 
After their expulsion from Medina, the Banu Nadir, along with the other Jews living in Khaybar, tried to induce the neighbouring Arabs and especially the strong tribe of Ghatafan to join them against the Muslims. The Battle of Khaybar was fought in the year 629 between Muhammad and his followers against the Jews living in the oasis of Khaybar, located 150 kilometers  They had furthermore participated in attacking the Muslim community in the Battle of the Trench. The Battle of the Trench (غزوة الخندق|Ghazwah al-Khandaq also known as Battle of the Confederates (غزوة الاحزاب|Ghazwah al-Ahzab was a fortnight-long  According to William Montgomery Watt this was a straightforward reason for attacking Khaybar. William Montgomery Watt ( 14 March 1909 – 24 October 2006) was an Emeritus Professor in Arabic and Islamic  Modern scholars also agree that one reason for attacking Khaybar was to raise Muhammads prestige among his followers by making booty. 
Later, Muhammad sent a delegation under Abdullah bin Rawaha to ask another chief of the Banu Nadir, Usayr (Yusayr) ibn Zarim to come to Medina along with other Nadir leaders to discuss the two groups political relations. Usayr ibn Zarim was the war chief of the Banu Nadir, who succeeded Abu al-Rafi ibn Abu al-Huqayq upon his death Among whom were Abdullah bin Unays, an ally of Banu Salima, a clan hostile to the Jews. When they came to him they spoke to him and treated him saying that if he would come to Muhammad he would give him an appointment and honour him. They kept on at him until he went with them with a number of Jews. Abdullah bin Unays mounted him on his beast until when he was in al-Qarqara, about six miles from Khaybar, al-Yusayr changed his mind about going with them. Abdullah perceived his intention as he was preparing to draw his sword so he rushed at him and struck him with his sword cutting off his leg. Al-Yusayr hit him with a stick of shauhat wood which he had in his hand and wounded his head. All Muhammad's emissaries fell upon the thirty Jewish companions and killed them except one man who escaped on his feet.  Abdullah bin Unays is the assassin who volunteered and got permission to kill Banu Nadir's Sallam ibn Abu al-Huqayq at a previous night mission in Khaybar. Salām bin Abī 'l-Huqayq ( Arabic: سلام بن أبي الحقيق) was a Jewish poet of early 7th century Arabia.
Muhammad and his followers attacked Khaybar in May/June 628 after the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah. The Treaty of Hudaybiyya ( Arabic: صلح الحديبية) is the treaty that took place between the state of Medina and the Quraishi Although the Jews put up fierce resistance, the lack of central command and their unpreparedness for an extended siege sealed the outcome of the battle in favor of the Muslims. When all but two fortresses were captured, the Jews managed to negotiate their surrender. The terms required them to hand over one-half of the annual produce to the Muslims, while the land itself became the collective property of the Muslim state. 
The agreement, however, did not cover the Banu Nadir tribe, who were not given any quarter. Muslims killed all the men of the Banu Nadir and divided the women among themselves.  According to Ibn Ishaq, when the Banu Nadir's treasurer Kinana ibn al-Rabi was discovered hiding some of the tribe's wealth, he was tortured by Muhammad's order to compel him to reveal the location of the rest, then beheaded. TemplateInfobox Muslim scholars --> Muhammad ibn Ishaq ibn Yasar (محمد بن إسحاق بن يسار or simply Ibn Kinana ibn al-Rabi' ( also Kinana bin al-Rabi, Kinana ibn al-Rabi'a, Kinana ibn al-Rabi ibn Abu al-Huqayq) was a Jewish leader of seventh-century Muhammad took al-Rabi's widow Safiyya bint Huyayy, who was also the daughter of the killed Banu Nadir chief Huyayy ibn Akhtab, as his wife. Safiyya bint Huyayy ( Arabic: صفية بنت حيي c 610 - c Huyayy ibn Akhtab ( حيي بن أخطب; חי בן אחיטוב) was a chief of the Banu al-Nadir, a Jewish tribe of pre- Islamic 
Muslim biographers of Muhammad tell a story that a Jewish woman of the Banu Nadir attempted to poison Muhammad to avenge her slain relatives. She poisoned a piece of lamb that she cooked for Muhammad and his companions, putting a particularly high amount into the shoulder — Muhammad's favorite part. The attempt on Muhammad's life failed because he reportedly spit out the meat, feeling that it was poisoned, while one of his companions ate the meat and died. Muhammad's companions then reported that on his deathbed Muhammad said that his illness was the result of that poison.