Baking is the technique of prolonged cooking of food by dry heat acting by conduction, and not by radiation, normally in an oven, but also in hot ashes, or on hot stones. Cooking is the process of preparing Food by applying Heat, selecting measuring and combining of ingredients in an ordered procedure for producing safe and edible Food is any substance usually composed primarily of Carbohydrates Fats water and/or Proteins that can be eaten or drunk by an Heat conduction or thermal conduction is the spontaneous transfer of thermal energy through matter from a region of higher Temperature to a region of lower Thermal radiation is Electromagnetic radiation emitted from the surface of an object which is due to the object's Temperature. An oven is an enclosed compartment for Heating, Baking or Drying.  It is primarily used for the preparation of bread, cakes, pastries and pies, tarts, quiches, and cookies. Bread is a Staple food prepared by Baking a Dough of Flour and Water. Cake is a form of Food that is usually sweet and often baked. This article describes Pastry in food For the Distributed Hash Table system see Pastry_(DHT. A pie is a baked dish which is usually made of a Pastry dough shell that covers or completely contains a filling of various sweet or Savoury ingredients A tart is a Pastry dish usually sweet that is a type of Pie with an open top not covered with pastry In French cuisine, a quiche (IPA) is a baked dish that is made primarily of eggs and Milk or Cream in a Pastry In the United States and Canada, a cookie is a small flat-baked treat usually round containing milk flour eggs and sugar etc Such items are sometimes referred to as "baked goods," and are sold at a bakery. A person who prepares baked goods as a profession is called a baker. This article refers to the cooking profession For other uses see Baker (disambiguation A baker is someone who primarily Bakes It is also used for the preparation of baked potatoes; baked apples; baked beans; some pasta dishes, such as lasagne; and various other foods, such as the pretzel. Baked beans is a dish consisting of Beans baked (or despite the name usually stewed) in a Sauce. Lasagna (singular laˈzaɲa in Italian plural lasagne pronounced) is both a form of Pasta in sheets (sometimes rippled though seldom so in Northern A pretzel is a bread pastry of German origin that has the shape of a three looped Knot or twisted braid
Many domestic ovens are provided with two heating elements: one for baking, using convection and conduction to heat the food; and one for broiling or grilling, heating mainly by radiation. For the device used to cook see Grill (cooking, for other uses see Grill. Meat may be baked, but is more often roasted, a similar process, using higher temperatures and shorter cooking times.
The baking process does not add any fat to the product, and producers of snack products such as potato chips are also beginning to replace the process of deep-frying with baking in order to reduce the fat content of their products. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water A potato chip or crisp is a thin slice of Potato, deep fried or baked until Crisp. Deep frying is a Cooking method in which food is submerged in hot oil or Fat.
The dry heat of baking changes the structures of starches in the food and causes its outer surfaces to brown, giving it an attractive appearance and taste, while partially sealing in the food's moisture. Starch, CAS # 9005-25-8 Chemical formula (C6H10O5n is a Polysaccharide The browning is caused by caramelization of sugars and the Maillard reaction. Caramelization or caramelisation is the Oxidation of Sugar, a process used extensively in cooking for the resulting nutty flavor and brown color The Maillard reaction is a Chemical reaction between an Amino acid and a Reducing sugar, usually requiring Heat. Moisture is never really entirely "sealed in", however; over time, an item being baked will become dry. This is often an advantage, especially in situations where drying is the desired outcome, for example in drying herbs or in roasting certain types of vegetables. A(n herb (ˈhɝb or /ˈɝb/ see pronunciation differences) is a plant that is valued for qualities such as medicinal properties flavor scent or the like The term " vegetable " generally means the edible parts of Plants The definition of the word is traditional rather than Scientific, however The most common baked item is bread. Bread is a Staple food prepared by Baking a Dough of Flour and Water. Variations in the ovens, ingredients and recipes used in the baking of bread result in the wide variety of breads produced around the world.
Some foods are surrounded with moisture during baking by placing a small amount of liquid (such as water or broth) in the bottom of a closed pan, and letting it steam up around the food, a method commonly known as braising. Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. Broth is a Liquid in which Bones Meat, Fish, Cereal grains or Vegetables have been simmered and strained out Braised_Baby_Artichokesjpg#file|thumb|right|100px|Braised baby artichokes]] Braising (from the French “braiser” is a combination cooking method using both moist and
Over time breads become hard in a process known as going stale. Staling is a chemical and physical process in Bread that reduces its palatability This is not primarily due to moisture being lost from the baked products, but more a reorganization of the way in which the water and starch are associated over time. This process is similar to recrystallization, and is promoted by storage at cool temperatures, such as those of a domestic refrigerator. Recrystallization (see also Crystallization) is a physical process that has meanings in Chemistry, Metallurgy and Geology.
Archaeological evidence suggests that the early Egyptians first made bread in 2600-2100 B.C. It is believed that the Egyptians learned the skill from the Babylonians. The Roscheider Hof Open Air Museum is the Open air museum and Folklore Museum of the Greater SaarLorLux Region This article is about the contemporary North African ethnic group Bread is a Staple food prepared by Baking a Dough of Flour and Water. Babylonia was an Amorite state in lower Mesopotamia (modern southern Iraq) with Babylon as its capital The royal bakery of Ramses featured bread and cakes, some of which were shaped in the form of animals and used for sacrifices. Sacrifice (from a Middle English verb meaning "to make sacred" from Old French, from Latin sacrificium: sacr, "sacred"
Other early records show that a Greek scholar, Aristophanes, first created honey flans and tortes, a type of dough nut made from honey and flour in a ring-cake like shape that was covered in wine and served hot. The Greeks ( Greek: Έλληνες) are a Nation and Ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus and neighbouring regions Scholarly method &mdash or as it is more commonly called scholarship &mdash is the body of principles and practices used by scholars to make their claims about the world as Aristophanes (Ἀριστοφάνης ˌærɪˈstɒfəniːz in English ca Wine is an Alcoholic beverage made from the fermentation of Grape juice The Roman Empire boasted the first pastry cooks association in the fourth century A.D.
Around 1800 in Grantham, London, in contrast with the ordinary bread merchants, some men sold bread from hand-carts, which they used as a shop on wheels. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial Grantham is a Market town within the South Kesteven district of Lincolnshire, England. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. They earned the nickname “Gingerbread Merchants. ”