The Báthory (Polish: Batory) were a Hungarian noble family of the Gutkeled clan. Polish ( język polski, polszczyzna) is the Official language of Poland. Hungary (Magyarország 'mɔɟɔrorsaːg) officially in English the Republic of Hungary ( Magyar Köztársaság, literally Magyar (Hungarian Republic The Gutkeled (spelling variants Gut-Keled Guthkeled Guth-Keled was a family or clan ( Latin generatio) of Hungarian nobles to which a number The family rose to significant influence in Central Europe during the late middle ages, holding high military, administrative and ecclesiastical positions in the Kingdom of Hungary. Central Europe is the Region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and The Kingdom of Hungary (short form Hungary) was a considerable state in Central Europe that existed from 1001 to 1918 then from 1919 to 1946 In the early modern period, the family brought forth several Princes of Transylvania and one King of Poland. List of rulers of Transylvania, from the first mention of a ruler in the tenth century until 1918. This article is about the ruler of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the 16th century The most notorious member of the family was Elizabeth, known as the Blood Countess for killing hundreds of young women.
The Báthory family belonged to the Gutkeled, a clan of Hungarian nobles, which traced its descent to the Swabian brothers Gut and Kelad, who immigrated into Hungary from the castle Stof (probably Staufen im Breisgau or Hohenstaufen in Württemberg) during the reign of King Peter (reigned 1038-1046), who himself was partly of Venetian descent. The Gutkeled (spelling variants Gut-Keled Guthkeled Guth-Keled was a family or clan ( Latin generatio) of Hungarian nobles to which a number Hungary (Magyarország 'mɔɟɔrorsaːg) officially in English the Republic of Hungary ( Magyar Köztársaság, literally Magyar (Hungarian Republic Swabia, Suabia, or Svebia ( German: Schwaben, Schwabenland or Ländle) is both a historic and linguistic Staufen im Breisgau is a German town in the Breisgau-Hochschwarzwald district of Baden-Württemberg. Württemberg, formerly known as Wirtemberg, is an area and a former state in Swabia, a region in southwestern Germany. Peter I the Venetian ( Hungarian: I (Velencei Péter) (c 1010-1015, Venice, Italy &ndash 1046 or 30 August 1059 Venice ( Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venesia or Venexia) is a city in Northern Italy, the capital of the 
The actual Báthory family began in the 13th century with Andrew of Rakoméz, surnamed the Bald, son of Nikolaus. Andrew is mentioned in 1250 as a patron of the monastery of Sárvár in the county of Szatmár. Szatmár is the name of a historic administrative county ( comitatus) of the Kingdom of Hungary.
In 1279, King Ladislaus IV rewarded Andrew's brother Hados and Andrew's sons George (d. Ladislaus IV the Cuman (IV (Kun László Ladislav III Ladislav IV (August 1262 &ndash July 10 1290 Kőrösszeg, Hungary) also known as László IV 1307), Benedict (d. 1321) and Briccius (d. Briccius Báthory (d 1322 was a Hungarian nobleman and the founder of the renowned Báthory family 1322) for their military services by granting them Bátor in the county of Szabolcs. Nyírbátor is a Town in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county in the Northern Great Plain Region of eastern Hungary. Szabolcs is the name of a historic administrative county ( Comitatus) of the Kingdom of Hungary in present-day north-eastern Hungary. Bátor had been the estate of Vajda son of Lángos, who had married a relative of Andrew but died without issue. 
In 1310, Bátor came into the sole possession of Briccius when he reached an agreement with his nephew Michael and his cousin Vid to divide the joint possessions. After this, Briccius and his descendants named themselves "of Bátor" or Báthory. 
The family divided into two major branches, which descended from the sons and grandsons of Briccius:
The elder branch of the family, the Báthory of Somlyó were descended from John, Count of Szatmár, the first-born son of Briccius, through his eldest son Ladislaus (died 1373). Briccius Báthory (d 1322 was a Hungarian nobleman and the founder of the renowned Báthory family Szatmár is the name of a historic administrative county ( comitatus) of the Kingdom of Hungary. Ladislaus, Count of Szabolcs, married Anna Meggyesi and received Somlyó as dowry.  Ladislaus' younger brother George II is the ancestor of the Simolin family, later called Báthory of Simolin (see below). The Báthory (Batory were a Hungarian noble family of the Gutkeled clan  A further division occurred under the great-grandsons of Ladislaus (latter half of the 15th century): John and Stephen dropped the name Báthory and founded the Szaniszlófi family, while Nikolaus continued the Somlyó branch. 
The younger branch of the family, the Báthory of Ecsed, were descended from Luke, the youngest son of Briccius. Luke possessed wide estates in Szatmár and was granted by King Charles Robert the lordship of Ecsed, where he built the castle called Hrséy (loyalty). Szatmár is the name of a historic administrative county ( comitatus) of the Kingdom of Hungary. Charles I of Hungary (Károly Róbert Karlo Robert Karol Róbert (1288 Naples, Italy &ndash 16 July 1342, Visegrád, Ecsed is a small village in present day Hungary. The Blood Countess Elizabeth Bathory, was raised in Ecsed at Ecsed Castle  This branch, since they retained the possession of Bátor, are sometimes called of Bátor or, as the younger branch, Nyírbátor (New Bathory). 
A legendary account, placing the Báthorys' origin in the year 900 (preceding the advent of the Gutkeled clan), related how a god-fearing warrior called Vitus (a namesake of a member of the first generation of the Gutkeled clan) set out to fight a dragon, which loomed in the swamps next to the castle of Ecsed (actually built only in the 14th century) and harassed the countryside. Ecsed is a small village in present day Hungary. The Blood Countess Elizabeth Bathory, was raised in Ecsed at Ecsed Castle Vitus killed it with three thrusts of his lance and as a reward received the castle. The grateful people honoured him with the names Bathory, meaning good hero, and "animus magnanimus". In Hungarian the word for brave is bátor.
The Báthory coat of arms, granted in 1325 to the sons of Briccius, was styled in reference to this legend: three horizontally placed teeth surrounded by a dragon biting its own tail. A coat of arms or armorial bearings (often just arms for short in European tradition is a design belonging to a particular person (or group of people 
The Ecsed branch first rises to prominence with the sons of Luke's grandson John V. His eldest son Bartholomew I fell in 1432 fighting against the Hussites. The Hussite Wars, also called the Bohemian Wars involved the military actions against and amongst the followers of Jan Hus in Bohemia in the period 1420 The second son, Stephen III rose to become Palatine of Hungary and in 1444 fell in the Battle of Varna as flag-bearer of Wladyslaw, King of Poland and Hungary. Stephen III Báthory ( Hungarian: Báthory István; d 11 November 1444 was a Hungarian nobleman and commander The palatine ( Latin: comes palatii comes palatinus, later palatinus (regni, Hungarian: nádorispán/ nádor, Slovak The Battle of Varna took place on November 10, 1444 near Varna in eastern Bulgaria. This article refers to the 15th century Jagiellon monarch For the 12th century Piast monarch see Władysław III Spindleshanks, and for other monarchs with similar He had also received the castle Bujak from King Albert of Habsburg. Albert II of Habsburg ( August 10, 1397 &ndash October 27, 1439) was King of the Romans (ruler of Germany within the
Of Stephen's six sons Ladislaus V (d. 1474) was supreme count of the counties Szatmár and Szarand, the second Andrew III (d. Szatmár is the name of a historic administrative county ( comitatus) of the Kingdom of Hungary. 1495) was confirmed in his possession of Bujak. The third son, Stephen V (d. For the Polish king see Stefan Batory. Stephen Báthory of Ecsed ( Báthory István iʃtvan 1430&ndash1493 was a 1493) excelled as a military commander and was made Voivod of Transylvania, the first of a long line of Báthory rulers of that country. List of rulers of Transylvania, from the first mention of a ruler in the tenth century until 1918. The youngest son, Nicolaus III (d. 1506), bishop first of Syrmia and after 1474 of Vác, excelled as a rennaisance scholar and served as counselor to King Matthias Corvinus. Vác (ˈvaːts approximately "vats" (Vacov Waitzen Vacium is a city in Pest county in Hungary with approximately 33000 inhabitants The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere Matthias Corvinus ( Matthias the Just; February 23 1443 &ndash April 6 1490) was King of Hungary and
Stephen VII first proved himself as Count of Temesvár and in 1519 was elected Palatin of Hungary, as which he had to contend with the opposition of the nobility. Stephen VII Báthory ( Hungarian: Báthory István; d 1530 was a Hungarian nobleman and commander The palatine ( Latin: comes palatii comes palatinus, later palatinus (regni, Hungarian: nádorispán/ nádor, Slovak In 1526, He fought in the disastrous battle of Mohacs against the Ottomans, in which King Louis II fell. The Battle of Mohács (mohácsi csata or mohácsi vész/Bane of Mohács; Schlacht bei Mohács Mohačka bitka Мохачка битка/Mohačka bitka Bitka pri Moháči The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish
After the harsh and fierce battle, Hungary was torn apart by the conflict between the rival royal claims. The two branches of the family positioned themselves on the opposing sides of the conflict. The Ecsed branch commonly sided with the Habsburgs: Stephen VII, who had escaped the battle, fled with the Louis' widow to Pressburg (now Bratislava), where he organized the election of Ferdinand of Austria as King of Hungary. ARTICLE TEXT BEGINS AFTER THESE COMMENTS - PLEASE READ 1 Please do not edit the lead without reading Ferdinand I Holy Roman Emperor ( Alcalá de Henares (near Madrid) Kingdom of Castile (now Spain) 10 March 1503 &ndash In the 1550s, when Ferdinand briefly gained control of Transylvania in 1551, he installed Stephen's nephew Bonaventura as his lieutenant to govern the country.
The Somlyó branch, on the other hand, supported John Zápolya, whom the greater part of the Hungarian nobility had elected King. This article is about the János Szapolyai For his son see John Zápolya II. Zápolya appointed Stephen VIII Voivode of Transylvania, which he governed until his death in 1534. List of rulers of Transylvania, from the first mention of a ruler in the tenth century until 1918. Later, the interest of the Zápolyas were represented at the Habsburg court by the Voivod's son Stephen IX, who would go on to become Prince of Transylvania and King of Poland. This article is about the ruler of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the 16th century List of rulers of Transylvania, from the first mention of a ruler in the tenth century until 1918. Poland, or at least its nucleus was ruled at various times either by książęta (Dukes(ca
Impressed by Stephen, George VI Báthory, of the Ecsed branch, was persuaded to change his allegiance from the Habsburgs to Stephen, for which he was deprived of his castle Bujak. George strengthened his alliance to Stephen by marrying his sister Anna in a marriage uniting the branches and producing the most infamous member of the family, Elizabeth. Anna Báthory was the widow of the last descendent of the Dragfi family and George now seized the castles of the Dragfi. But since the Dragfi estates legally were due to the crown, the Habsburgs forced George to yield the castles and withdrew to Csitsva in the county of Zemplén. Zemplén ( Hungarian: Zemplén, Slovak: Zemplín, German: Semplin, Latin: Zemplinum
Another branch of the family are the Báthory of Simolin family, which was named after their estate Simony (or Simolin). They descended from George II, the younger son of John I, through the George's grandson Michael. In the 15th century, Michael's brothers George and Ladislaus, who both died without issue, had sold their heritage to the then-head of the Somlyó branch, Nicolaus. The Simolin family possessed large estates in Prussia and Courland and members served the Russian Empresses Elizabeth and Catherine as diplomats. The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia (Ducatus Curlandiæ et Semigalliæ Księstwo Kurlandii i Semigalii,Herzogtum Kurland und Semgallen Kurzemes un Zemgales hercogiste is the name of Yelizaveta Petrovna (Елизаве́та (Елисаве́т Петро́вна (December 29 1709 – January 5 1762 (New Style December 18 1709 – December 25 1761 ( Catherine II, called Catherine the Great (Екатерина II Великая Yekaterina II Velikaya;) reigned as Empress of Russia for 34 years In the 19th century, long after the demise of the other branches, the family claimed name and title of Counts Báthory, since their ancestor Michael had never consented to the sale conducted by his brothers, and in 1852 the Russian government confirmed the legitimacy of their claims.