The Avro Vulcan is a delta wing subsonic bomber that was operated by the Royal Air Force from 1953 until 1984. A strategic bomber is a heavy type Aircraft designed to drop large amounts of ordnance onto a distant target for the purposes of debilitating an enemy's The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located An aerospace manufacturer is a company or individual involved in the various aspects of designing building testing selling and maintaining Aircraft, Aircraft parts Avro was a British Aircraft manufacturer, with numerous landmark designs such as the Avro 504 trainer in the First World War, the Avro The maiden flight of an Aircraft is the first occasion on which an aircraft leaves the ground of its own accord Events 1363 - Beginning date of the Battle of Lake Poyang; the forces of two Chinese rebel leaders— Chen Youliang and This is a list of Aviation -related events from 1952: Events January January 5 - Pan Am commences trans-atlantic This is a list of Aviation -related events from 1956: Events March March 10 - Lt Cdr Peter Twiss sets a new This is a list of Aviation -related events from 1984: Events February February 21 - 14 hours and 2 minutes after taking This is a list of Aviation -related events from 1956: Events March March 10 - Lt Cdr Peter Twiss sets a new This is a list of Aviation -related events from 1965: Events January January 2 - Denis Healey, the UK's Secretary The delta wing is a Wing Planform in the form of a triangle named after the Greek uppercase delta which is a triangle (Δ A bomber is a Military aircraft designed to attack ground and sea targets primarily by dropping Bombs on them The Vulcan was part of the RAF's V bomber force, which fulfilled the role of nuclear deterrence against the Soviet Union during the Cold War. History Early development RAF Bomber Command ended World War II with a policy of using heavy four- Piston-engined bombers for massed The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the It was also used in a conventional bombing role during the Falklands conflict with Argentina. The Falklands War (Guerra de las Malvinas/Guerra del Atlántico Sur also called the Falklands Conflict/Crisis, was fought in 1982 between Argentina and the One example, XH558 was recently restored for use in display flights and commemoration of the jets' role in the Falklands Conflict. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout The Falklands War (Guerra de las Malvinas/Guerra del Atlántico Sur also called the Falklands Conflict/Crisis, was fought in 1982 between Argentina and the
Design and development
Design work began at A. V. Roe in 1947 under Roy Chadwick. Avro was a British Aircraft manufacturer, with numerous landmark designs such as the Avro 504 trainer in the First World War, the Avro Roy Chadwick, CBE, FRAeS ( April 30 1893 &ndash August 23 1947) was an aircraft designer for Avro. The Air Ministry specification B.35/46 required a bomber with a top speed of 500 knots (930 km/h), an operating ceiling of 50,000 ft (15,000 m), a range of 3,000 nautical miles (5,500 km) and a bomb load of 10,000 lb (4,500 kg); intended to carry out delivery of Britain's nuclear armed gravity bombs to strategic targets within Soviet territory (east of the Ural mountains). The Air Ministry was formerly a department of the British Government with the responsibility of managing the affairs of the Royal Air Force. This is a partial list of the British Air Ministry (AM specifications for Aircraft. A nautical mile or sea mile is a unit of Length. It corresponds approximately to one minute of Latitude along any meridian. Design work also began at Vickers and Handley Page. Vickers was a famous name in British engineering that existed through many companies from 1828 until 2004 Handley Page Limited was founded by Frederick Handley Page (later Sir Frederick in 1909 as the United Kingdom 's first publicly traded aircraft manufacturing All three designs were approved — aircraft that would become the Valiant, the Victor, and the Avro Vulcan. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout
The Type 698 as first envisaged was a delta wing tailless, almost flying wing design, as Avro felt this would be able to give the required combination of large wing area, sweepback to offset the transonic effects and a thick wing root to embed the engines; these were staggered in the wing with two forward and below and two back and above. A flying wing is a Fixed-wing aircraft which has no definite Fuselage, with most of the crew payload and equipment being housed inside the main wing structure Wingtip rudders gave the control. There were two bomb bays, one in each wing. This design was reworked in light of Ministry comments and became more conventional adopting a centre fuselage with four paired engines and a tail.
As the delta wing was an unknown quantity Avro began scale prototype testing in 1948 with the single-seater Type 707 aircraft, and despite the crash of the first prototype on 30 September 1949 work continued. The delta wing is a Wing Planform in the form of a triangle named after the Greek uppercase delta which is a triangle (Δ WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout Events 1399 - Henry IV is proclaimed King of England. 1744 - France and Spain defeat the Year 1949 ( MCMXLIX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The first full-scale prototype Type 698 made its maiden flight (after its designer was killed in an unrelated aircrash) piloted by Roly Falk on 30 August 1952, shortly before appearing at the SBAC Farnborough Air Show. Wing Commander Roland 'Roly' Falk (1915 - 1985 was a British Test pilot noted for being at the controls on the maiden flight of the British V Bomber Events 1363 - Beginning date of the Battle of Lake Poyang; the forces of two Chinese rebel leaders— Chen Youliang and Year 1952 ( MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Society of British Aerospace Companies, known as SBAC is the UK's national trade association representing companies supplying civil air transport aerospace defence homeland Since the Bristol Olympus (mod 01) engines were not ready the aircraft was launched with the Rolls-Royce Avon. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout These would be replaced with Armstrong Siddeley Sapphires as well, before the Olympus were ready. This article is about the jet aero-engine for the vehicle see Armstrong Siddeley Sapphire (motor car WikipediaWikiProject The Vulcan name was not chosen until 1953 after the Valiant had already been named. The first prototype had a straight leading edge which was subsequently modified to have a kink further out towards the wingtip. The Vulcan bomber in service was not fitted with pure delta wings; but the prototypes models were the first jet bomber design to use a wing of that shape, which was modified in development to give the service machines better flying characteristics than a pure delta could supply. The delta wing is a Wing Planform in the form of a triangle named after the Greek uppercase delta which is a triangle (Δ
Aerial view of the Vulcan in RAF colours.
Testing the vehicle was relatively crude in those days, for example, recording the instrument readings involved filming the control panel and manually transcribing the results onto graph paper. As well, testing the brakes of the Vulcan included strapping the company photographer Paul Culerne to the front landing gear with the aircraft moving at full landing speed and photographing the brakes in operation. 
Despite its large size, it had a relatively small radar cross-section (RCS). It is now known that it had a fortuitously stealthy shape apart from the tail fin. Stealth technology also known as LOT (Low Observability Technology is a sub-discipline of military Electronic countermeasures which covers a range of techniques used with The vertical stabilizers, or fins, of Aircraft, Missiles or Bombs are typically found on the aft end of the Fuselage or body
Avro test pilot Wing Commander (retired) Roly Falk demonstrated the aircraft's high performance in the second production Vulcan, XA890, by performing an upward barrel-roll immediately after takeoff at the 1955 Farnborough Air Show. Wing Commander Roland 'Roly' Falk (1915 - 1985 was a British Test pilot noted for being at the controls on the maiden flight of the British V Bomber A serial number is a unique Number assigned for Identification which varies from its Successor or Predecessor by a fixed discrete Integer  The roll was performed while gently climbing so that a positive g-force is maintained and stresses reduced.
The Vulcan used entirely powered control surfaces, this combined with the relatively small space for the flight crew meant that a fighter-like stick could be used instead of a control column with the added benefit that ejection could be quicker in an emergency. Power was 100 volts DC electrical supplied from generators on each engine. Backup was from a set of batteries in series to supply the voltage if generators failed. These had little capacity in event of a power loss so the system was revised for the Mark 2 to use a Ram Air Turbine (RAT) that would operate at higher altitude and an Airborne Auxiliary Power Unit (AAPU) which could be started once the aircraft had reached a lower altitude – 30,000 ft (9,100 m) or less. At the same time the power system was changed to 200 volts at 400 Hz AC from constant frequency generators.
With no view to the rear from the cockpit and with the control surfaces (four elevators and four ailerons in the Mark 1, elevons for the Mark 2) at the extreme rear of the aircraft there was a display board on the pilots control panel that showed the position of all eight so that any non-responding surface could be identified. An elevator or lift is a Transport device used to move people or goods vertically from one floor to another For the band with a similar name see The Ailerons Ailerons are hinged control surfaces attached to the Trailing edge of the Wing of a Fixed-wing Elevons are Aircraft control surfaces that combine the functions of the elevator (used for pitch control and the Aileron (used for roll control The AEO also had a periscope that gave a view to the rear so that the bomb bay and the underside could be checked.
The two prototypes and some of the Mark 1 production were used to develop the systems and the improvements that led to the Mark 2
The Vulcan was normally operated with a crew of five - two pilots, two navigators and an Air Electronics Operator (AEO), with the AEO responsible for all electrical equipment in a role similar to that of flight engineer on earlier propeller aircraft. Only the pilot and co-pilot were provided with ejection seats. In Aircraft, an ejection seat is a system designed to rescue the pilot or other crew of an aircraft (usually military in an emergency The fact that the "rear crew" were not provided ejection seats has been the basis of significant criticism; there were several instances of the pilot and co-pilot ejecting in an emergency and the "rear crew" being killed because there was not time for them to bail out.
The navigator plotter (navigator), navigator radar (bombardier) and AEO (electronic warfare officer) bailed out through the crew entrance door in the cockpit floor immediately ahead of the nosewheel, their parachutes opening automatically by static line. As the crew door was immediately forward of the front undercarriage, it was very important that bail-out was only attempted with the undercarriage retracted. The method of escape was practised regularly in ground rigs, and successfully used on more than one occasion, with all crew members surviving.
In September 1956, the RAF received its first Vulcan B. 1, XA897, which immediately went on a round-the-world tour to fly-the-flag. On 1 October 1956, while landing at London Heathrow Airport at completion of the tour, XA897 was destroyed in a fatal accident. Events 331 BC - Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia in the Battle of Gaugamela. Year 1956 ( MCMLVI) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
The second Vulcan was not delivered until 1957 and the delivery rate then increased. The B. 2 variant was first tested in 1957 and entered service in 1960. It had a larger wing with a different leading edge, and better performance than the B. 1 and had a distinctive kink in its delta wing to reduce buffeting. The leading edge was forward of the spar and changes were easily incorporated into the production.
The undercarriage of a Vulcan made heavy contact with the runway during an air show for the opening of Rongotai (Wellington) Airport New Zealand in 1959. Wellington (ˈwælɪŋtən is the Capital of New Zealand, the country's second largest urban area, the New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island Despite one main undercarriage leg being non-functional the aircraft returned to Ohakea and landed safely, toppling onto the grass verge at the end of its run. There was a long delay while it was decided whether to scrap it, ship it back by sea, or repair it in situ. In the end, the aircraft was repaired by the RNZAF - who "helpfully" applied RNZAF kiwi roundels in place of the typical RAF roundels. The Royal New Zealand Air Force ( RNZAF) is the air arm of the New Zealand Defence Force. KIWI (1029 FM, "Radio Lobo" is a commercial Radio station located in McFarland California, broadcasting to the Bakersfield California A roundel in Heraldry is any circular shape in military use it is an Emblem of nationality employed on military aircraft and air force flags generally round and A display at the Ohakea branch of the Royal New Zealand Air Force Museum includes honeycombed skin from the damaged aircraft. RNZAF Base Ohakea is an operational base of the Royal New Zealand Air Force. The Royal New Zealand Air Force Museum is primarily a museum of the Royal New Zealand Air Force, its predecessor the New Zealand Permanent Air Force and New
Vulcans frequently visited the United States during the 1960s and 1970s to participate in air shows and static displays, as well as to participate in the Strategic Air Command's Annual Bombing and Navigation Competition at such locations as Barksdale AFB, Louisiana and the former McCoy AFB, Florida, with the RAF crews representing Bomber Command and later Strike Command. The Strategic Air Command (SAC was both a major command and a "specified command" in the U Barksdale Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base located three Nautical miles (6 km) east of the Central business district of McCoy Air Force Base (1940-1947 1951-1975 is a former United States Air Force base located 10 miles (16 km south of Orlando, Florida. Bomber Command is an organizational Military unit generally subordinate to the Air force of a Country. The Royal Air Force's Strike Command was the military formation which controlled the majority of the United Kingdom 's combat aircraft from 1968 until
A total of 134 production Vulcans were manufactured (45 B. 1 and 89 B. 2), the last being delivered to the RAF in January 1965. The last operational Vulcan squadron was disbanded in March 1984.
As part of Britain's independent nuclear deterrent, the Vulcan initially carried Britain's first nuclear weapon, the Blue Danube gravity bomb. A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from Nuclear reactions either fission or a combination of fission and fusion. Blue Danube was the first operational British Nuclear weapon. Blue Danube was a low-kiloton yield fission bomb designed before the United States detonated the first hydrogen bomb. The Teller–Ulam design is a Nuclear weapon design which is used in Megaton -range Thermonuclear weapons and is more colloquially referred to as "the The British then embarked on their own hydrogen bomb programme, and to bridge the gap until these were ready the V-bombers were equipped with an Interim Megaton Weapon based on the Blue Danube casing and Green Grass, a large pure-fission warhead of 400-kiloton-of-TNT (1. Yellow Sun was the first British operational high-yield strategic Nuclear weapon. 7 PJ) yield. The joule (written in lower case ˈdʒuːl or /ˈdʒaʊl/ (symbol J) is the SI unit of Energy measuring heat, Electricity This bomb was known as Violet Club. Violet Club was a Nuclear weapon deployed by the United Kingdom during the Cold war. Only five were deployed before a better weapon was introduced as Yellow Sun Mk.1.
A later model, Yellow Sun Mk 2 was fitted with Red Snow, a British-built variant of the US Mk-28 warhead. Yellow Sun was the first British operational high-yield strategic Nuclear weapon. This article is about the nuclear weapon Red Snow Red Snow is also a type of Snow algae. Yellow Sun Mk 2 was the first British thermonuclear weapon to be deployed, and was carried on both the Vulcan and Handley Page Victor. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout All three V-bombers also carried US thermonuclear bombs assigned to NATO under the dual-key arrangements. The North Atlantic Treaty Red Beard (a smaller, lighter low-kiloton yield) bomb was pre-positioned in Cyprus and Singapore for use by Vulcan and Victor bombers, and from 1962, 26 Vulcan B2As and the Victor bombers were armed with the Blue Steel missile, a rocket-powered stand-off bomb, which was also armed with the 1. Red Beard was the first British Tactical nuclear weapon. It was carried by the English Electric Canberra and the V bombers of the Cyprus (Κύπρος transliterated: Kýpros,; Kıbrıs officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία Kypriakī́ Dīmokratía Singapore Blue Steel was a British air-launched rocket-propelled nuclear stand-off Missile, built to arm the 1-megaton-of-TNT (4. 6 PJ) yield Red Snow warhead.
It was intended to equip the Vulcan with the American Skybolt Air Launched Ballistic Missile to replace the Blue Steel, with Vulcan B. The Douglas GAM-87A Skybolt was an air-launched ballistic missile (ALBM developed during the late 1950s 2s carrying two Skybolts under the wings – the last 28 B. 2s being modified on the production line to fit pylons to carry the Skybolt.  It was also proposed to build a stretched version of the Vulcan, with increased wing span to carry up to six Skybolts.  When the Skybolt missile system was cancelled by U. S. President John F. Kennedy on the recommendation of his Secretary of Defense, Robert McNamara in 1962, Blue Steel was retained. John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29 1917&ndashNovember 22 1963 often referred to by his initials JFK, was the thirty-fifth President of Robert Strange McNamara (born June 9 1916 in Oakland, California) is an American business executive and former United States Secretary of Defense To supplement it until the Royal Navy took on the deterrent role with Polaris submarines, the Vulcan bombers adopted a high-low-high mission profile using a rapidly introduced parachute-retarded "laydown" bomb; WE.177B. The Polaris missile was a submarine-launched two-stage solid-fuel nuclear-armed ballistic missile ( SLBM) built during the Cold War by Lockheed for WE177 was the last air-launched nuclear bomb of the British Armed Forces. After the British Polaris submarines became operational, and Blue Steel was taken out of service in 1970, WE. 177B continued in use on the Vulcan in a low-level tactical strike role in support of European NATO ground forces. It would outlive the Vulcan bombers, being used also on Tornado and other low-level strike aircraft until retirement in 1998. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout
Avro Vulcan from Operation Black Buck at the National Museum of Flight
, showing mission markings. The National Museum of Flight is an Aerospace Museum at East Fortune Airfield (formerly RAF East Fortune) just south of the village of East Fortune
Although the primary weapon for the Vulcan was nuclear, Vulcans could carry up to 21 x 1,000 pounds (454 kg) bombs in a secondary role. The only combat missions involving the Vulcan took place in the 1982 Falklands War with Argentina, when Vulcans, in the Black Buck operations flew the 3,380 nautical miles (6,260 km) from Ascension Island to Stanley. The Falklands War (Guerra de las Malvinas/Guerra del Atlántico Sur also called the Falklands Conflict/Crisis, was fought in 1982 between Argentina and the For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. During the Falklands War, Operations Black Buck 1 to Black Buck 7 was a series of seven extremely long-range ground attack missions Ascension Island is an island in the South Atlantic Ocean, around from the coast of Africa "Port Stanley" redirects here For the town in Canada see Port Stanley Ontario.  There were three missions to bomb the airfield at Stanley; two to attack Argentine radar installations with missiles and two missions were cancelled.
Victor aircraft were used for air-to-air refuelling in a complex scheme and approximately 1. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout Aerial refueling, also called air refueling, in-flight refueling ( IFR) air-to-air refueling ( AAR) or tanking, is 1 million gallons (5,000 cubic metres) of jet fuel were used in each mission. 
Five Vulcans were selected for the operation: their bomb bays were modified; the flight refuelling system that had long been out of use was re-instated; the electronics updated; and wing pylons designed, manufactured, and fitted to carry an ECM pod and Shrike anti-radar missiles where the Skybolt hardpoints remained in the wings. Electronic Countermeasures ( ECM') are a subsection of Electronic warfare which includes any sort of electrical or electronic device designed to trick History The Shrike was first employed during the Vietnam War by the Navy in 1965 using A-4 aircraft The engineering work began on 9 April 1982 with the first mission on 30 April–1 May. Events 193 - Septimius Severus is proclaimed Roman Emperor by the army in Illyricum (in the Balkans) Year 1982 ( MCMLXXXII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar)
Royal Air Force Avro Vulcan B. 2.
At the time these missions held the record for the world's longest distance raids. The planning and execution of the "Black Buck One" raid has been described in Rowland White's book Vulcan 607. 
Maritime Radar Reconnaissance
On 1 November 1973, the first of nine B. Events 996 - Emperor Otto III issues a deed to Gottschalk Bishop of Freising which is the oldest known document using the name Ostarrîchi Year 1973 ( MCMLXXIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the 1973 Gregorian calendar. 2 (MRR) aircraft was delivered to the No. 27 Sqn at RAF Scampton reforming for its main role of Maritime Radar Reconnaissance. The main external visual difference was the gloss paint finish and the lack of the Terrain Following Radar (TFR) "thimble" from the nose below the air-to-air refuelling probe. The gloss paint finish, which was always with the light grey undersurface, was due to the secondary role of air sampling. As both roles were high altitude the TFR system was removed.
Only five of the B. 2(MRR)s were capable of the air sampling role, those that were included XH537, XH558 and XH560. These aircraft could be distinguished by the additional hard points outside of the Skybolt points. These additional points sometimes carried redundant Sea Vixen drop tanks that had the nose section replaced by a newer section of a larger diameter. Another external, but much smaller, piece of equipment was carried just outboard of the port undercarriage main door.
During the late 1970s some of the non-air sampling aircraft were exchanged with other squadrons whose aircraft had a high fatigue usage.
All B2(MRR) aircraft were equipped with Olympus 201 ECUs. Three of the aircraft, XH534, XH537 and XH538 had the small Mk 1 style of engine air intake. The B2(MRR) was withdrawn from service on 31 March 1982, some of the aircraft going on to be converted for use as tankers. Events 307 - After divorcing his wife Minervina, Constantine marries Fausta, the daughter of the retired Roman Emperor Year 1982 ( MCMLXXXII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar)
Aerial refuelling role
After the end of the Falklands War, the Vulcan was due to be withdrawn from RAF service. The Falklands War (Guerra de las Malvinas/Guerra del Atlántico Sur also called the Falklands Conflict/Crisis, was fought in 1982 between Argentina and the However, the disbandment of 57 Squadron and delays in the operational availability of the TriStar left a gap in the RAF's air to air refuelling capability. No 57 Squadron RAF was a Royal Air Force flying squadron History 57 Squadron of the Royal Flying Corps was formed on 8 June WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout As an interim measure, six Vulcan B. 2s were converted into air-to-air refueling (AAR) tankers and commissioned into service with 50 Squadron from 1982 to 1984. No 50 Squadron was a squadron of the Royal Air Force History No
A Vulcan was used as a testbed for the afterburning Olympus 320 for the TSR-2, the planned Concorde engine, the Rolls-Royce/Snecma Olympus 593 and the Rolls-Royce Conway turbofan. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout (and how to find a free use picture? While testing the Bristol Olympus for the TSR-2, the engine disintegrated, setting the Vulcan on fire and also the fire tender in attendance. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout The crew escaped unhurt.
In testing the Olympus, one engine was fitted to the bomb bay of a Vulcan. High level flight testing was carried out with the Olympus engine helping the Vulcan fly faster than with its original engines. The Vulcan was hung on wires in a hangar to allow access to the engine in the bomb bay. A hangar is an enclosed structure to hold Aircraft in protective storage
- Two prototypes were built and subsequently modified for development, gaining the Mark 2 wing and testing engines. They differed in several ways from the later production aircraft. Smaller nose (No H2S radar fitted) and no Flight Refuelling Probe (FRP). VX770 did not have the bomb aimer's blister. Both aircraft had a longer nose undercarriage leg than production aircraft.
- B. 1
- The initial production aircraft, with the straight wing leading edge, with wide undercarriage track and four underwing airbrakes. Early examples finished in silver, later changed to "anti-flash" white.
- B. 1A
- The B. 1 with an Electronic Countermeasures (ECM) system in a new larger tail cone
- B. Electronic Countermeasures ( ECM') are a subsection of Electronic warfare which includes any sort of electrical or electronic device designed to trick 2
- Developed version of the B. 1. Larger, thinner wing than the B. 1 and fitted with Olympus 201 or 301 engines. Terrain following radar in nosecone and passive radar warning in tail fin giving it a square top from mid-1970s . Uprated electrics with Airborne Auxiliary Power Unit and emergency Ram Turbine generator. Smiths Military Flight System (MFS). Originally white "anti-flash" finish, from late 1970s dark all over camouflage finish.
- B. 2A
- Also known as B. 2BS. B. 2 with Olympus 301 engines to carry Blue Steel in recessed bomb doors. A & E bomb bay tanks only. After the withdrawal of Blue Steel converted back to B. 2
- B. 2 (MRR)
- Nine B. 2 converted to Maritime Radar Reconnaissance. Given high gloss protective paint to protect against sea spray effects. No Terrain Following Radar (TFR) but given LORAN navigation aid. LORAN ( LO ng R ange A id to N avigation is a terrestrial Radio navigation system using Low frequency Radio transmitters Five aircraft further modified for Air Sampling Role taking over from 543 Sqn. Victor SR 2. Retained gloss finish with light grey underside when B 2 given matte all surface camouflage.
- K. 2
- Six B. 2 converted for air-to-air refuelling with Mark 17 hose drum below tail cone. ECM removed. Could be fitted with three bomb bay drum tanks (for self-use or tanking)
- United Kingdom
Accidents and incidents
- On 1 October 1956 Vulcan B1 XA897 crashed at London Heathrow Airport after an approach in bad weather, striking the ground 700yds short of the runway just as engine power was applied. No 101 Squadron of the Royal Air Force operates the Vickers VC-10 K3 and K4 from RAF Brize Norton No 617 Squadron of the Royal Air Force is better known as the "Dambusters" squadron No 230 Operational Conversion Unit (OCU was created in 1956 at RAF Waddington to convert crews onto the Avro Vulcan bomber Events 331 BC - Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia in the Battle of Gaugamela. Year 1956 ( MCMLVI) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.  The impact probably broke the drag links on the main undercarriage, allowing the undercarriage to be forced backwards and damage the trailing edge of the wing.  After the initial impact the aircraft rose back in the air.  The pilot, Squadron Leader D. R. Howard, and co-pilot Air Marshal Sir Harry Broadhurst both ejected. See also Henry Broadhurst for the trade unionist and politician Air Chief Marshal Sir Harry Broadhurst GCB, KBE The aircraft then hit the ground and broke up.  Howard and Broadhurst survived but the other four occupants including Howard’s usual co-pilot were killed.  XA897 was the first Vulcan to be delivered to the RAF. AOC-in-C Bomber Command, Air Marshal Broadhurst, had taken the aircraft with a full Vulcan crew of four and an Avro technician on a round-the-world tour. At the conclusion of the tour Broadhurst was to land at Heathrow Airport in front of the assembled aviation media. RAF aircraft were not equipped to use the Instrument Landing System installed at Heathrow and other civil airports so a Ground Controlled Approach (GCA) was carried out. The Instrument Landing System (ILS is a ground-based Instrument approach system that provides precision guidance to an Aircraft approaching a Runway In Aviation a ground-controlled approach (GCA is a type of service provided by air-traffic controllers whereby they guide aircraft to a safe landing in adverse weather conditions 
- In 1957 a Vulcan B1 (XA892) attached to the Aeroplane and Armament Experimental Establishment (A&AEE) at Boscombe Down for acceptance testing was unintentionally flown to an Indicated Mach Number (IMN) above 1. The Aeroplane and Armament Experimental Establishment (A&AEE was a research facility for British military aviation from 1918 to 1992 04, alarming the crew that it had reached supersonic speed. The aircraft commander, Flt Lt Milt Cottee (RAAF) and co-pilot Flt Lt Ray Bray (RAF) were tasked to fly with twenty-one dummy 1,000 lb (450 kg) bombs and, at 415 kn (769 km/h) and 0. 98 IMN, to take the aircraft to a load factor of 3G. Load factor is the Ratio of the Lift on an Aircraft to the Weight of the aircraft The Vulcan was climbed to 35,000 ft (11,000 m) and then dived with the intention of reaching the target speed at 27,000 ft (8,200 m). Approaching the target altitude the Mach trimmer reached the limit of its authority and, even though the crew had closed the throttles and were applying full up-elevator, the aircraft continued to pitch nose-down, passing the vertical at 1. 04 IMN. As it went beyond the vertical Flt Lt Cottee contemplated pushing forward to go inverted and then rolling upright. Instead he opened the speed brakes, even though the airspeed was above their maximum operating speed. The speed brakes were not damaged and succeeded in reducing the Mach number. The aircraft came back past the vertical at about 18,000 ft (5,500 m) and regained level flight at 8,000 ft (2,400 m). There was no report of a sonic boom in the vicinity so it is unlikely a True Mach Number of 1. 0 was reached. (At Mach numbers close to 1. 0 the Vulcan had position error of about 0. Position error is one of the errors affecting the systems in an aircraft for measuring Airspeed and altitude. 07. ) After the flight a rear bulkhead was found to be deformed. 
- On 20 September 1958, a Rolls Royce test pilot was authorized to fly VX770 on an engine performance sortie with a fly past at RAF Syerston Battle of Britain "At Home" display. Events 451 - The Battle of Chalons takes place in North Eastern France. Year 1958 ( MCMLVIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. RAF Syerston is a Royal Air Force station near Newark, Nottinghamshire. The briefing was for the pilot to fly over the airfield twice at 200–300 ft (60–90 m), flying at a speed of 250–300 knots (460–560 km/h). The Vulcan flew along the main 25/07 runway then started a roll to starboard and climbed slightly. Very shortly a kink appeared in the starboard mainplane leading edge followed by a stripping of the leading edge of the wing. The starboard wingtip then broke followed by a collapse of the main spar and wing structure. Subsequently, the Vulcan went into a dive and began rolling with the starboard wing on fire and struck the ground at the taxiway of the end of runway 07. Three occupants of a controllers' caravan were killed by debris, a fourth being injured. All four of the Vulcan crew were killed. The cause of the crash was pilot error; the aircraft commander flew the aircraft over the airfield at 410–420 knots (760–780 km/h) instead of the briefed 250–300 knots he had also descended to a height of 65–70 ft (approximately 20 m). Rolling the Vulcan to starboard while flying at this speed, the aircraft was rolled at a rate of 15–20 degrees/second while pulling up into a 3,000 ft (910 m) per minute climb imposing a strain of between 2–3 g where it should have remained below 1. 25 g. The VX770 was a prototype and was not as strong as later production models, indeed buckling of the leading edge in this plane was a known problem and was the primary reason for low flight performance limits being imposed.  However, Avro Chief Test Pilot Tony Blackman notes that when Avro display pilots carried out aerobatics it was followed by a careful, but little known, inspection of the inside of the wing leading edge. Blackman understands that Rolls-Royce pilots also carried out aerobatics but he speculates that Rolls-Royce knew nothing of the special inspections, and VX770 may well have been severely structurally damaged before it took off for the display at Syerston. 
- On 24 October 1958, Vulcan B1 XA908 of No. Events 69 - Second Battle of Bedriacum, forces under Antonius Primus the commander of the Danube armies loyal to Vespasian, defeat Year 1958 ( MCMLVIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. 83 Squadron crashed in Detroit, after a complete electrical systems failure. The failure occurred at around 30,000 ft (9,100 m) and the backup system should have provided 20 minutes of emergency power to allow the aircraft to divert to Kellogg Airfield. Due to a short circuit in the service busbar, backup power only lasted three minutes before expiring and locking the aircraft controls. XA908 then went into a dive of between 60–70 degrees before it crashed, leaving a 70 ft (21 m) deep crater in the ground. All six crew members were killed, including the co-pilot who had ejected. The co-pilot’s ejector seat was found in Lake St Clair but his body was never found.  It is thought he was the only member of the squadron who could not swim. 
- On 24 July 1959, Vulcan B1 XA891 crashed due to an electrical failure during an engine test. Events 1132 - Battle of Nocera between Ranulf II of Alife and Roger II of Sicily. The year 1959 ( MCMLIX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Shortly after take-off the crew observed generator warning lights and loss of busbar voltage. The aircraft commander climbed XA891 to 14,000 ft and steered a course away from the airfield and populated areas while the AEO attempted to solve the problem. When it became clear that control of the aircraft would not be regained the aircraft commander instructed the crew in the rear compartment to exit the aircraft, and the co-pilot to eject. The aircraft commander then also ejected.  All the crew survived making them the first complete crew to escape successfully from a Vulcan. The aircraft crashed near Hull.
- On 12 December 1963, Vulcan B1A XH477 of No. 50 Squadron crashed in Scotland on an exercise at low level (not less than 1,000 ft (300 m) above ground. Events 627 - Battle of Nineveh: A Byzantine army under Emperor Heraclius defeats Emperor Khosrau II 's Persian Year 1963 ( MCMLXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. No 50 Squadron was a squadron of the Royal Air Force History No ) XH477 had struck the ground while climbing slightly. It was assumed XH477 crashed due to poor visibility. 
- On 11 May 1964, Vulcan B2 XH535 crashed during a low speed demonstration. Events 330 - Byzantium is renamed ''Nova Roma'' during a dedication ceremony but is more popularly referred to as Constantinople Year 1964 ( MCMLXIV) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the 1964 Gregorian calendar. The test pilot was demonstrating a very low speed and high rate of descent when the aircraft began to spin. The landing parachute was deployed and the spin stopped briefly but the aircraft then began to spin again. At around 2,500 ft (760 m) the aircraft commander instructed the crew to abandon the aircraft. The aircraft commander and co-pilot ejected successfully but none of the crew in the rear compartment did so, presumably due to the G forces in the spin. 
- On 16 July 1964, Vulcan B1A XA909 crashed in Anglesey after an explosion and Nos 3 and 4 engines were closed down. Events 622 - The beginning of the Islamic calendar. 1054 - Three Roman legates fractured relations between the Western and Year 1964 ( MCMLXIV) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the 1964 Gregorian calendar. History There are numerous Megalithic monuments and Menhirs present on Anglesey testifying to the presence of mankind in prehistory The explosion was caused by failure of a bearing in No. 4 engine. The starboard wing was extensively damaged, the pilot had insufficient aileron power, and both airspeed indications were highly inaccurate. The whole crew successfully abandoned XA909 and were found within a few minutes and rescued. 
- On 11 February 1966, Vulcan B2 XH536 of the Cottesmore Wing crashed in the Brecon Beacons during a low level exercise. Events 660 BC - Traditional founding date of Japan by Emperor Jimmu. Year 1966 ( MCMLXVI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. The Brecon Beacons (Bannau Brycheiniog is a Mountain range located in the south-east of Wales. The aircraft struck the ground at 1,910 ft (580 m) near the summit of Fan Bwlch Chwyth 2,635 ft (803 m), 20 miles NE of Swansea. All crew members died. Hilltops at the time were snow-covered and cloud extended down to 1,400 ft (430 m). 
- On 7 January 1971, Vulcan B2 XM610 of No.44 Squadron crashed after fatigue failure of a blade in No. Events 1325 - Alfonso IV becomes King of Portugal. 1558 - France takes Calais, the last continental Year 1971 ( MCMLXXI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. No 44 (Rhodesia Squadron of the Royal Air Force is no longer operational 1 engine that damaged the fuel system and led to an engine fire. The crew abandoned the aircraft safely and the aircraft crashed harmlessly in Wingate. Wingate is a village in County Durham, England Wingate is a former Pit village with a mixture of 19th-century post-war and more recent housing developments 
- On 14 October 1975, Vulcan B2 XM645 of No.9 Squadron out of RAF Waddington lost its left undercarriage and damaged the airframe when it undershot the runway at Luqa airport in Malta. Events 1066 - Norman Conquest: Battle of Hastings - In England on Senlac Hill seven miles from Hastings, the forces Year 1975 ( MCMLXXV) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. No IX (Bomber or 9 Squadron of the Royal Air Force was the first in the service to receive the Panavia RAF Waddington is a Royal Air Force station in Lincolnshire, England. For the airport near the village Malta International Airport. Malta, officially the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta is a European Microstate, comprising an Archipelago of three islands The pilot decided to do a circuit to crash land on runway 24 after it was covered with fire prevention foam. As the aircraft was turning inbound for the landing, it broke up in mid-air over the village of Zabbar, killing five of its seven crew members. Żabbar ( Maltese: Città Hompesch or Żabbar) is the fourth largest town in Malta, with a population of 14694 (November 2005 Only the pilot and co-pilot escaped, using their ejection seats. Large pieces of the aircraft fell on the village. One woman (Vincenza Zammit, age 48), who was shopping in a street was hit by an electric cable and killed instantly. Some 20 others were injured slightly. 
- On 12 August 1978, Vulcan B2 XL390 of No. 617 Squadron crashed during an air display at Naval Air Station Glenview, Illinois in the United States. Events 1099 - First Crusade: Battle of Ascalon - Crusaders under the command of Godfrey of Bouillon defeat Fatimid Year 1978 ( MCMLXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar) No 617 Squadron of the Royal Air Force is better known as the "Dambusters" squadron Naval Air Station Glenview or NAS Glenview was an operational U The State of Illinois ( roughly ill-i-NOY is a state of the United States of America, the 21st to be admitted to the Union. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the  The accident sequence started at about 400 ft (120 m), after a possible stall during a wing-over. The Vulcan crashed into a landfill just north of the base and all crew members aboard perished. For other uses see Water treatment and Land reclamation. A landfill, also known as a dump (and historically as 
- XH558 Vulcan B2 - (Registered G-VLCN) Restored to flying condition at Bruntingthorpe Aerodrome, England. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout Bruntingthorpe Aerodrome and Proving Ground is a privately owned Airport in Leicestershire near the village of Bruntingthorpe.
- XJ823 Vulcan B2A - On display at Carlisle Airport, England. Carlisle Airport is located 5 Nautical miles (93 km east northeast of Carlisle, Cumbria, England.
- XJ824 Vulcan B2A - On display at the Imperial War Museum, Duxford Aerodrome, England. The Imperial War Museum is a Museum in London, England featuring military vehicles weapons war memorabilia an extensive library open to the public Duxford Aerodrome is located 8 Nautical miles (148 km south of Cambridge in the village of Duxford, Cambridgeshire, England
- XL318 Vulcan B2 - On display at the RAF Museum, Hendon, England. The Royal Air Force Museum ( RAF Museum) is a Museum dedicated to the history of Aviation, and the British Royal Air Force in particular
- XL319 Vulcan B2 - On display at the North East Aircraft Museum, Sunderland, England. North East Aircraft Museum is a volunteer-run Aviation museum in England situated on the site of the former RAF Usworth / Sunderland Airport, in
- XL360 Vulcan B2 - On display at the Midland Air Museum, Coventry, England. The Midland Air Museum (MAM is situated just outside the village of Baginton in Warwickshire, England, and is adjacent to Coventry Airport. Coventry ( is a city and Metropolitan borough in the County of West Midlands in England.
- XL361 Vulcan B2 - On display at CFB Goose Bay, Canada.
- XL426 Vulcan B2 - (Registered G-VJET) preserved in taxiable condition at Southend Airport, England. London Southend Airport or Southend Airport is a regional airport in south east England, in the county of Essex.
- XM573 Vulcan B2 - On display at Strategic Air and Space Museum, Ashland, Nebraska, USA. Strategic Air and Space Museum is a museum focusing on United States Air Force military aircraft and Nuclear missiles located near Ashland Nebraska, along Ashland is a city in Saunders County, Nebraska, United States. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the
- XM575 Vulcan B2A - On display at the East Midlands Airport Aeropark, England. East Midlands Airport is an Airport in the East Midlands of England, near Castle Donington in Leicestershire.
- XM594 Vulcan B2 - On display at the Newark Air Museum, Newark-on-Trent, England. Newark Air Museum is an Air museum located at Winthorpe, near Newark on Trent in Nottinghamshire, England. Newark-on-Trent (generally shortened to Newark) is a Market town in Nottinghamshire in the East Midlands region of England.
- XM597 Vulcan B2 - On display at the National Museum of Flight, East Fortune, Scotland. The National Museum of Flight is an Aerospace Museum at East Fortune Airfield (formerly RAF East Fortune) just south of the village of East Fortune
- XM598 Vulcan B2 - On display at the RAF Museum, Cosford, England. The Royal Air Force Museum ( RAF Museum) is a Museum dedicated to the history of Aviation, and the British Royal Air Force in particular
- XM603 Vulcan B2 - At Woodford Aerodrome, some parts removed for support of XH558, XM655 and XL426
- XM605 Vulcan B2 - On display at Castle Air Museum, Atwater, California, United States. Woodford Aerodrome or Manchester Woodford Aerodrome is located at Woodford in the Metropolitan Borough of Stockport, Greater Manchester Castle Air Museum is located in Atwater, California, United States at the site of the former Castle Air Force Base. Atwater is a city in Merced County, California, United States.
- XM606 Vulcan B2 - On display at Barksdale AFB, United States. Barksdale Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base located three Nautical miles (6 km) east of the Central business district of
- XM607 Vulcan B2 - On display at RAF Waddington, England. RAF Waddington is a Royal Air Force station in Lincolnshire, England.
- XM612 Vulcan B2 - On display at City of Norwich Aviation Museum, Norwich, England. The City of Norwich Aviation Museum is voluteer run museum and charitable trust dedicated to the preservation of the Aviation History of the county of Norfolk, England History Roman The Romans had their regional capital at Venta Icenorum on the river to the south which is near modern-day Caistor St Edmund
- XM655 Vulcan B2 - (Registered G-VULC) preserved in taxiable condition at Wellesbourne Mountford Airfield, England. Wellesbourne Mountford Airfield is located 33  Nautical miles (6
- Former survivors include
- XA900 Vulcan B1 - On display at RAF Cosford Museum, England. DCAE Cosford (Defence College of Aeronautical Engineering Cosford (previously RAF Cosford) is a Royal Air Force station in Cosford, Shropshire It was the last B1 intact and was used as an instructional airframe until 1966. Corrosion set in and it was scrapped in 1986.
- XA903 Vulcan B1 - The last flying B1. Used as an engine test bed with Rolls Royce until 1979. With B2s up for retirement, no museum was interested. It was sent to Farnborough where it was scrapped between 1980 and 1984. The nose section survives.
- XL391 Vulcan B2 - Scrapped on site at Blackpool Airport, England. Blackpool International Airport is a small international Airport, on the outskirts of Blackpool on the Fylde coast, Lancashire in The aircraft decayed and it was scrapped after its eBay-buyer refused to collect it owing to its poor state. eBay Inc is an American Internet company that manages eBaycom an Online auction and shopping Website in which people and businesses buy and
- XM569 Vulcan B2 - On display at Wales Aircraft Museum, Cardiff International Airport, Wales from 1983. Scrapped in 1996.
- XM571 Vulcan B2 - On display at RAF Gibraltar from 1983, scrapped in 1990. Royal Air Force Station Gibraltar, better known as RAF Gibraltar and formally as North Front, is a Royal Air Force station on Gibraltar.
- XM602 Vulcan B2 - Preserved at RAF St Athan, Wales from 1982, scrapped in 1983.
- XM656 Vulcan B2 - Preserved at RAF Cottesmore, England from 1982, scrapped in 1983. Station crest The badge of RAF Cottesmore consists of a Hunting horn, a Five-pointed star and a horseshoe
- XJ782 Vulcan B2 - On display at RAF Finningley, England from 1982, scrapped 1988. RAF Finningley was a Royal Air Force station near Doncaster, South Yorkshire, partly within the traditional county boundaries of Nottinghamshire
Restoration to flight of Vulcan XH558
The last airworthy Vulcan XH558 has been restored to flying condition by the Vulcan to the Sky Trust after a number of years of effort and fundraising. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout The first post-restoration flight, which lasted 34 minutes, took place on 18 October 2007. Events 1009 - The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, a Christian church in Jerusalem, is completely destroyed by the Fatimid Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. 
Specifications (Vulcan B. 1)
- Crew: 5 (pilot, co-pilot, AEO, Navigator Radar, Navigator Plotter)
- Length: 97 ft 1 in (29. 59 m)
- Wingspan: 99 ft 5 in (30. The wingspan (or just span) of an airplane or a Bird, is the distance from the left wingtip to the right wingtip 3 m)
- Height: 26 ft 6 in (8. 0 m)
- Wing area: 3554 ft² (330. 2 m²)
- Empty weight: 83,573 lb (including crew) (37,144 kg)
- Max takeoff weight: 170,000 lb (77,111 kg)
- Powerplant: 4× Bristol Olympus 101, or 102 or 104, with higher thrust turbojet, 11,000 lbf (49kN) each
- Maximum speed: 0. The Maximum Takeoff Weight or Maximum Takeoff Mass of an Aircraft is the maximum weight at which the pilot of the aircraft is allowed to attempt to take off WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout In Aviation, V-speeds or Velocity-speeds are standard terms used to define Airspeeds important or useful to the operation of Aircraft, such 96 Mach (627 mph, 830 km/h 607 mph (1040 km/h) at altitude))
- Cruise speed: 0. In Aviation, V-speeds or Velocity-speeds are standard terms used to define Airspeeds important or useful to the operation of Aircraft, such 86 Mach at 45,000 ft (567 mph, 971 km/h)
- Range: 2,607 Miles (4,171 km)
- Service ceiling 55,000 ft (16,760 m)
- Thrust/weight: 0. The maximal total range is the distance an Aircraft can fly between Takeoff and Landing, as limited by fuel capacity in powered aircraft or cross-country In Aeronautics, a ceiling is the maximum Density altitude an aircraft can reach under a set of conditions Thrust-to-weight ratio is as its name suggests the ratio of instantaneous Thrust to Weight (where weight means weight at the Earth ’s surface 31
Armament 21,000 lb (9,500 kg) of conventional bombs or single free-fall nuclear weapon
Comparison of variants
|B. 1||B. 1A||B. 2||B. 2A (B. 2BS)||B. 2(MRR) or (K)|
|Wingspan||99 ft 5 in||111 ft|
|Length||97 ft 1 in||99 ft 11 in||105 ft 6 in||99 ft 11 in||99 ft 11 in|
|Height||26 ft 6 in||27 ft 1 in|
|Wing area||3,554 sq ft||3,964 sq ft|
|Maximum takeoff weight. ||190,000 lb (86,000 kg)||204,000 lb (93,000 kg)|
|Cruising speed||Mach 0. 86 (610 mph)|
|Maximum speed||Mach 0. 93 (632 mph)||Mach 0. 92 (625 mph)|
|Range||3,910 miles (3,395 nm, 6,293 km)||4,600 miles (3,995 nm, 7,402 km)|
|Service ceiling||55,000 ft (17,000 m)||60,000 ft (18,000 m)|
|Engines||4x Bristol Siddeley|
Olympus 101, 102 or 104
|4x Bristol Siddeley|
Olympus 201,202, 203 or 301
|4x Bristol Siddeley|
Olympus 201,202, 203
|4x Bristol Siddeley|
Olympus 201,202, 203
|Fuel capacity (Avtur/Mains only)||9,250 Imp. Gal.||9,260 Imp. A gallon is a measure of Volume. It is in current use in the United States and still has limited use in many other English-speaking countries Gal. |
|Armament||nuclear bomb armed with a thermonuclear warhead|
or 21 x 1,000 lb bombs
|1x Blue Steel nuclear missile or 21 x 1,000 lb bombs||None|
Crew (All Mks):
Pilot, Co-Pilot, Navigator Plotter, Navigator Radar and Air Electronics Officer
(two extra seats could be fitted for Crew Chiefs if required, for a total of seven crew). A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from Nuclear reactions either fission or a combination of fission and fusion. Blue Steel was a British air-launched rocket-propelled nuclear stand-off Missile, built to arm the
Fuel capacity and range are for main tanks only. Various combinations of extra bomb bay tankage (A, E or Drum) could be fitted dependent on the aircraft sortie requirements.
- B 1 (early production): --- (included in build total below)
- B 1 (later production) --- 45 built
- B 2 --- 89 built
- B 1a (B 1 converted to B 2 Spec internally. ) 28 converted from B 1
- B 2a --- B 2 conversions
- B 2 (MRR)/SR 2 --- 11 converted (only 9 in existence at any one time. )
- B 2 K --- six converted – from three B 2 & three B 2(MRR)
- Total build 136
- The Vulcan bomber was featured in the 1965 James Bond movie Thunderball. James Bond 007 is a Fictional character created in 1953 by writer Ian Fleming, who featured him in twelve Novels and two Short story Thunderball (1965 is the fourth Spy film of the British James Bond series, and the fourth to star Sean Connery as the Agents of SPECTRE hijacked a Vulcan B. A spectre or specter is a (usually terrifying phantom, Apparition, or Ghost, or an unreal appearance 2 bomber to use its two nuclear bombs for a ransom plot against the US and Britain. In the novel, the bomber is known as the (fictional) Villiers Vindicator. Fictional fighters F-19 Stealth See also F-19 In the 1980s a gap appeared in the designation system for US military aircraft between
- In the 1965 Cold War novel The Penetrators by Hank Searls (writing as Anthony Gray), an RAF officer leads nine Vulcans in a mock attack against the USA to prove that the manned bomber is a more flexible deterrent option than ballistic missiles. Hank Searls (born Henry Hunt Searls in 1922 is an American author and screenwriter
- Parts from two scrapped Vulcan bombers were used to make the set of the spaceship Nostromo from Ridley Scott's 1979 film Alien. Sir Ridley Scott (born November 30 1937 in South Shields, Tyne and Wear) is a British Academy Award Nominated and Golden Globe Emmy Award and BAFTA Award winning Alien is a 1979 science fiction / Horror film directed by Ridley Scott and starring Sigourney Weaver. 
- ^ Aircraft of the V-Force - Part 3 - The Avro Vulcan development. History Early development RAF Bomber Command ended World War II with a policy of using heavy four- Piston-engined bombers for massed In its early years the British V Bomber force relied on the concept of aircraft dispersal to escape the effects of an enemy attack on their main bases WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout Many aircraft types have served in the Royal Air Force since it was formed in 1918 by the merger of the Royal Flying Corps and Royal Naval Air Service. List of bomber aircraft is organized by grouped years countries and Bomber Aircraft type Royal Air Force History. Royal Air Force. Retrieved on 2007-12-25. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 274 - Roman Emperor Aurelian
- ^ Vulcan history
- ^ Laming 2002, Page 48
- ^ Laming 2002, p. 88
- ^ Laming 2002, p. 89.
- ^ Falklands Vulcan
- ^ a b Falklands
- ^ White 2006
- ^ a b c d e Blackman, Tony. Vulcan Test Pilot. p. 142
- ^ National Archives: Ref no. AIR 20/12396
- ^ Blackman, Tony. Vulcan Test Pilot. p. 90
- ^ Extract from National Archives: Ref no. BT 233/403 report on crash
- ^ Blackman, Tony. Vulcan Test Pilot. p. 151
- ^ a b Blackman, Tony. Vulcan Test Pilot. p. 161
- ^ a b Laming 2002, p. 60.
- ^ Laming 2002, p. 219.
- ^ a b Blackman, Tony. Vulcan Test Pilot. p. 154
- ^ Blackman, Tony. Vulcan Test Pilot. p. 155
- ^ Blackman, Tony. Vulcan Test Pilot. p. 157
- ^ Blackman, Tony. Vulcan Test Pilot. p. 159
- ^ V-Force XM645
- ^ Laming 2002, p. 223.
- ^ Unger, Robert and Benjamin, Robert. "Glenview Jet Crash 4 Die. " Chicago Tribune, 12 August 1978, p. Events 1099 - First Crusade: Battle of Ascalon - Crusaders under the command of Godfrey of Bouillon defeat Fatimid Year 1978 ( MCMLXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar) S1.
- ^ "The Vulcan Bomber returns to the sky"
- ^ "First Takeoff Video"
- ^ 105 ft 6 in with refuelling probe
- ^ Aliens Note: Among many other parts, the APC hand controls are recognizable as foot controls from a Vulcan bomber.
- Arnold, Lorna. Britain and the H-Bomb. Basingstoke, Hampshire, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2001. ISBN 0-333-94742-8 (outside North America), ISBN 0-312-23518-6 (North America only).
- Blackman, Tony. Vulcan Test Pilot. London: Grub Street, 2007. ISBN-13: 9781904943884
- Chesnau, Roger. Vulcan (Aeroguide 29: Avro Vulcan B Mk 2). Ringshall, Suffolk, UK: Ad Hoc Publications, 2003. ISBN 0-946958-39-4.
- Holmes, Harry. Avro: The History of an Aircraft Company. Wiltshire, UK: Crowood Press, 2004. ISBN 1-86126-651-0.
- Jackson, A. J. Avro Aircraft since 1908, 2nd edition. London: Putnam Aeronautical Books, 1990. ISBN 0-85177-834-8.
- Laming, Tim. The Vulcan Story 1952-2002, Second Edition. Enderby, Leicester, UK: Silverdale Books, 2002. ISBN 1-85605-701-1.
- McLelland, Tim. The Avro Vulcan. Manchester, UK: Crecy Publishing Limited, 2007. ISBN 978-0-85979-127-4.
- Vulcan B. Mk. 2 Aircrew Manual (AP101B-1902-15).
- White, Rowland. Vulcan 607. London: Bantam Press, 2006. ISBN 0-593-05391-5 (cased), ISBN 0-593-05392-3 (pb).
- Wynn, Humphrey. RAF Strategic Nuclear Deterrent Forces: Origins, Roles and Deployment 1946 - 1969. London: The Stationery Office, 1994. ISBN 0-11-772778-4.
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