Avram Iancu (Janko Avram in Hungarian; 1824, in Vidra [de Sus], today Avram Iancu in Alba county, Romania—September 10, 1872, in the same area) was a Transylvanian Romanian lawyer who played an important role in the local chapter of the Austrian Empire Revolutions of 1848-1849. Hungarian ( magyar nyelv) is a Uralic language (more specifically a Ugric language) unrelated to most other languages in Europe. Year 1824 ( MDCCCXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year Avram Iancu (Felsővidra is a commune located in Alba County, Romania. Alba ('alba Hungarian: Fehér) is a county ( Judeţ) of Romania, in Transylvania, with the capital city at Alba Iulia Romania ( dated: Rumania, Roumania Events 506 - The Bishops of Visigothic Gaul meet in the Council of Agde. Year 1872 ( MDCCCLXXII) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year Transylvania (Ardeal or ro ''Transilvania'' Erdély, see also other denominations) is a Central European region located in the eastern half of the Carpathian The Romanians (dated Rumanians or Roumanians; Romanian: români or historically and today rather seldom and only regional rumâni From March 1848 through July 1849 the Habsburg Austrian Empire was threatened by revolutionary movements Year 1848 ( MDCCCXLVIII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap Year 1849 ( MDCCCXLIX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common He was especially active in the Ţara Moţilor region and the Apuseni Mountains. Ţara Moţilor, also known as Ţara de Piatră ("The Stone Land" is an ethnogeographical region of Romania in the Apuseni Mountains, on the superior The Apuseni Mountains (Munţii Apuseni Erdélyi-szigethegység is a Mountain range in Transylvania, Romania, which belongs to the Western Carpathians The rallying of peasants around him, as well as the allegiance he paid to the Habsburgs got him the moniker Crăişorul Munţilor ("The little Emperor/King of the Mountains", also translatable as "The little Emperor/King in the Mountains", present in other, more explicit forms —such as Împăratul Munţilor, "The Emperor of/in the Mountains"). A moniker (or " monicker " is a Slang expression for a Nickname, Pseudonym, or Cognomen.
Born into a family of peasants that had been emancipated from serfdom, Avram Iancu attended school, studying humanities in Cluj, and then graduating from law school. The humanities are academic disciplines which study the Human condition, using methods that are primarily Analytic, Critical, or Speculative (pronunciation in Romanian: /'kluʒ na'poka/ Klausenburg Kolozsvár Napoca Castrum Clus Claudiopolis קלויזנבורג Kloiznburg until 1974 Cluj, is the third A law school (also known as a school of law or college of law) is an institution specializing in Legal education. He became a law clerk in Târgu Mureş, where he learned about the events of March 1848 of Vienna and Pest. Târgu Mureş (ˈtɨrgu ˈmureʃ in Romanian; Târgu Mureş Marosvásárhely (Székely-Vásárhely Neumarkt am Mieresch Novum Forum Siculorum is a city in Mureş Year 1848 ( MDCCCXLVIII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap Vienna ( in Wien; see also other names) is the Capital of Austria, and is also one of the nine States of Austria. Pest (ˈpɛʃt Slovak: Pešť, Croatian: Pešta, Serbian: Пешта / Pešta is the eastern mostly flat part of Budapest His attitude at the time showed the nature of the conflict that was to engulf Transylvania: while Iancu welcomed the transition, he was indignant at the fact that Hungarian revolutionaries (many of whom were landowners) refused to debate the abolition of serfdom (which, at the time, covered the larger part of the Romanian population in Transylvania).
Back in the Apuseni, he started rallying the peasants in Câmpeni, organizing protests that were recognized as peaceful by the authorities, but nonetheless got them worried. Câmpeni (alternate spelling Cîmpeni, German: Topesdorf, Hungarian: Topánfalva) is a town in Alba County, Iancu and his associate Ioan Buteanu quickly became the main figures of the Romanian-led actions in the area, especially after they took part in the Blaj Assemblies starting in April. In Blaj, both opted for the main, radical wing of the movement. Blaj (blaʒ in Romanian; Hungarian: Balázsfalva; German: Blasendorf) is a city in Alba County, Transylvania Centered on Alexandru Papiu Ilarian, the group opposed the Hungarian revolutionary option of uniting Transylvania and Hungary. Alexandru Papiu-Ilarian ( September 27, 1827, Bezded, Sălaj County &ndash Sibiu) was a Romanian revolutionary and lawyer It got into conflict with the minor wing around Greek-Catholic Bishop Ioan Lemeni, one which chose not to boycott the elections for the Hungarian Parliament. The Romanian Church United with Rome Greek-Catholic (Biserica Română Unită cu Roma Greco-Catolică is an Eastern Rite or Greek-Catholic Church ranked as a Major
While the union was carried of on May 30 1848, the majority of Romanian activists looked towards Vienna and Emperor Ferdinand, sharing the cause of the Transylvan Saxons. Events 1416 - The Council of Constance, called by the Emperor Sigismund a supporter of Antipope John XXIII burns Jerome of Prague following Ferdinand ( April 19, 1793 &ndash June 29, 1875) was Emperor of Austria as Ferdinand I, King of Hungary and Croatia and Archduke The Transylvanian Saxons (Siebenbürger Sachsen Erdélyi szászok Saşi are a people of German ethnicity who settled in Transylvania (Siebenbürgen from the 12th Things became heated after July 11, when Hungary declared its independence. Events 911 - Signing of the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte between Charles the Simple and Rollo of Normandy. Austria started to open itself to the Romanian demands, while bloody conflicts ensued between the Hungarian nobles and their Romanian serfs. The last Assembly in Blaj saw the Habsburg governor, Anton Freiherr von Puchner, approve of the arming of National Guards for Romanians and Saxons. On September 27, the lynching of Austrian plenipotentiary General Lemberg by a Pest crowd cut off any dialogue between the two centers. Events 489 - Odoacer attacks Theodoric at the Battle of Verona and is defeated again Lynching is an Extrajudicial punishment meted out by a mob Lynching an enumerated Felony in some states in the United States, is defined by some The new Emperor Franz Joseph and the Austrian government granted the Romanians numerous liberties and rights; although Lajos Kossuth's government abolished serfdom, this was no longer a match for the Imperial offer. Franz Joseph I Karl (- German, in English Francis Joseph I Charles, see the name in other languages) (18 August 1830 &ndash 21 November Lajos Kossuth (ˈlɒjoʃ ˈkoʃut Monok, September 19 1802 &ndash Turin, March 20 1894 was a Hungarian lawyer politician and Regent-President
The Austrians clearly rejected the October demand that the ethnical criteria become the basis for internal borders, with the goal of creating a province for Romanians (Transylvania grouped alongside the Banat and Bukovina), as they did not want to replace the threat of Hungarian nationalism with the potential one of Romanian separatism. The Banat is a geographical and historical region in Central Europe currently divided between three countries the eastern part lies in Romania (the counties Bukovina (Bucovina Буковина/ Bukovyna; German and Polish: Bukowina; see also other languages) is a historical region on the Separatism refers to the advocacy of a state of cultural ethnic tribal religious racial or gender separation from the larger group often with demands for greater political autonomy Yet they did not declare themselves hostile to the rapid creation of Romanian administrative offices within Transylvania, one which prevented Hungary from including the region in all but name.
The territory was organized in prefecturi ("prefectures"), with Avram Iancu and Buteanu as two prefects in the Apuseni. Iancu's prefecture, the Auraria Gemina (a name charged with Latin symbolism), became the most important one as it took over from bordering areas that were never really fully organized. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome.
In the same month, the administrative efforts were put to a halt, as Hungarians under Józef Bem carried out a sweeping offensive through Transylvania. Józef Zachariasz Bem, Bem József (March 14 1794 - December 10 1850 was a Polish general and a national hero of Poland and Hungary, and a figure intertwined With the discreet assistance of Imperial Russian troops, the Austrian army (except for the garrisons at Alba Iulia and Deva) and the Austrian-Romanian administration retreated to Wallachia and Wallachian Oltenia (both were, at the time, under Russia's occupation). The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya Alba Iulia ( Latin: Apulum, German: Karlsburg / Weißenburg, Hungarian: Gyulafehérvár, former Erdel Belgradı Deva ( German: Diemrich, Hungarian: Déva) is a city situated in Transylvania (or Ardeal the popular name for Transylvania on the left bank This article is about the region in what is now Southern Romania Oltenia ( Lesser Wallachia in antiquated versions with the alternate Latin names Wallachia Minor, Wallachia Alutana, Wallachia Caesarea
Avram Iancu's remained the only resistance force: he retreated to harsh terrain, mounting a guerrilla campaign on Bem's forces, causing severe damage and blocking the route to Alba Iulia. Guerrilla warfare is the unconventional warfare and combat with which a small group of combatants use mobile tactics (ambushes raids etc He was, however, challenged by severe shortages himself: the Romanians had few guns and very little gunpowder. The conflict dragged on for the next months, with all Hungarian attempts to seize the mountain stronghold being overturned.
In April 1849, Iancu was approached by the Hungarian envoy Ioan Dragoş (in fact, a Romanian deputy in the Hungarian Parliament). Dragoş appeared to have been acting out of his own desire for peace, and he worked hard to get the Romanian leaders to meet him in Abrud and listen to the Hungarian demands. Abrud ( Hungarian: Abrudbánya, German: Großschlatten) is a town in the north-western part of Alba County, Transylvania Iancu's direct adversary, Hungarian commander Imre Hatvany, seems to have taken profit on the provisoral armistice to attack the Romanians in Abrud. An armistice is a situation where the warring parties agree to stop fighting He did not, however, benefit from a surprise, as Iancu and his men retreated and then encircled him. In the interval, Dragoş was lynched by the Abrud crowds, in the belief that he was part of Hatvany's ruse.
Hatvany also angered the Romanians by having Buteanu captured and murdered. While his position became weaker, he was permanently attacked by Iancu's men, until the major defeat of May 22. Events 334 BC - The Greek army of Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia in the Battle of the Granicus. Hatvany and most of his armed group were massacred by their adversaries, as Iancu captured their cannons, switching the tactical advantage for the next months. | NOTE Throughout this article "cannon" is used as BOTH the || singular and plural Kossuth was angered by Hatvany's gesture (an inspection of the time dismissed all of Hatvany's close collaborators), especially since it made future negotiations unlikely.
However, the conflict became less harsh: Iancu's men concentrated on taking hold of local resources and supplies, opting to inflict losses only through skirmishes. The Russian intervention in June precipitated events, especially since Poles fighting in the Hungarian revolutionary contingents wanted to see an all-out resistance to the Tsarist armies. The Polish people, or Poles, (Polacy) are a Western Slavic Ethnic group of Central Europe, living predominantly in Poland. People like Henryk Dembiński mediated for an understanding between Kossuth and the Wallachian émigré revolutionaries. Henryk Dembiński ( January 16, 1791 – July 13, 1864) was a Polish engineer traveler and general Émigré is a French term that literally refers to a person who has "migrated out" but often carries a connotation of politico-social self- Exile. The latter, understandably close to Avram Iancu (especially Nicolae Bălcescu, Gheorghe Magheru, Alexandru G. Golescu, and Ion Ghica) were also keen to inflict a defeat on the Russian armies that had crushed their movement in September 1848. Nicolae Bălcescu ( June 29, 1819 &mdash November 29, 1852) was a Romanian Wallachian soldier historian journalist General Gheorghe Magheru (1802 Bârzeiul de Gilort, Gorj County &mdash March 23, 1880) was a Romanian revolutionary and soldier Alexandru G Golescu (1819&mdash August 15, 1881) was a Romanian politician who served as a Prime Minister of Romania in 1870 (between February Ion Ghica ( August 12, 1816 &mdash May 7, 1897) was a Romanian revolutionary mathematician diplomat and twice Prime Minister of
Bălcescu and Kossuth met in May 1849, in Debrecen. Debrecen, (approximate pronunciation Deb-ret-sen known by alternative names) is the second largest city in Hungary after Budapest. The contact has for long been celebrated by Romanian Marxist historians and politicians: Karl Marx's condemnation of everything opposing Kossuth had led to any Romanian initiative being automatically considered "reactionary". Marxism is the political philosophy and practice derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Reactionary (also reactionist) is a derogatory term usually used by the Left wing in regards to movements which oppose radical change in society and seeks a return In fact, it appears that the agreement was in no way a pact: Kossuth meant to flatter the Wallachians, by getting them to champion the idea of Iancu's armies leaving Transylvania for good, in order to help Bălcescu in Bucharest. Bucharest ( Romanian: Bucureşti) is the Capital city, industrial and commercial centre of Romania. While agreeing to mediate for peace, Bălcescu never presented these terms to the fighters in the Apuseni. His personal documents (commented by Liviu Maior) show that the un-realistic assumptions of Kossuth had made him view the Hungarian leader as a "demagogue". Demagogy (also demagoguery) ( Ancient Greek δημαγωγία from dēmos "people" and agein "to lead" refers to a political
Even more contradictory, the only thing Avram Iancu agreed to (and which no party had asked for) was his forces' "neutrality" in the conflict between Russia and Hungary. Thus, he secured his position as the Hungarian armies suffered defeats in July, culminating in the Battle of Sighişoara, and then the capitulation of August 13. Events 3114 BC - According to the Lounsbury correlation the start of the Maya calendar.
Avram Iancu agreed to disarm as soon as the Austrians took over, and wrote a detailed report to the new governor of Transylvania, General Ludwig von Wohlgemuth (in 1850). In order to avoid suspicion of Romanian separatism, the document does not mention the contacts with the Wallachians. As the Austrians granted the abolition of serfdom, they also forbade all representative institutions in Transylvania. While Hungarian nationalism was slowly fitting in the pattern that would make the Ausgleich acceptable for both sides involved, the Romanian option raised more and more irritation. The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 (Ausgleich Kiegyezés established the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary. The revolutionary zeal it had found under Iancu, although profiting the Monarchy, could also prove to be a weapon used for very different goals (the Austrians were especially fearful that the Eastern Orthodox faith of the Romanians would accommodate itself with Pan-Slavism, completing the gap between Serbia and the Russian Empire). The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world Pan-Slavism was a movement in the mid 19th century aimed at unity of all the Slavic peoples The main focus was in the Balkans where the South Slavs had been Serbia (Србија Srbija) officially the Republic of Serbia (Република Србија Republika Srbija) is a Landlocked Country
It is very possible that Iancu was not able to properly observe the changes. While decision for his initial arrest (in December 1849) was quickly overturned after local protests (and explained as an abuse), he was censored throughout his life, had his library confiscated, and was placed under surveillance. He was even arrested a second time, in 1852, after it was presumed that his presence alone served to inflame local sentiments. Soon after his release, Iancu visited Vienna and attempted to petition the Emperor. He was prevented to do so by the police, a public humiliation which provoked the nervous breakdown from which he never recovered. Mental breakdown (also known as nervous breakdown or snapping) is a non-medical term used to describe a sudden acute attack of Mental illness such as He became an alcoholic and a vagabond, wandering through the Apuseni (usually playing a pipe). Alcoholism is a term with multiple and sometimes conflicting definitions A vagabond is an Itinerant person Such people may be called Tramps rogues or Hobos A vagabond is characterised by almost continuous travelling
He asked for his body to be buried under Horea's tree in Ţebea (by tradition, the place where the Revolt of Horea, Cloşca and Crişan had started). Vasile Ursu Nicola, known as Horea, (born 1731 in Arada near Câmpeni, present-day Romania; died 1785 was a Transylvanian Romanian The Revolt of Horea Cloşca and Crişan began in Zarand County Transylvania on 2 November 1784, but it soon spread all throughout the Apuseni