|Time Zone||CET (GMT +1)|
|Canton||Chief town of 4 cantons|
du Grand Avignon
|Mayor||Marie-Josée Roig (UMP)|
|Elevation||10 m–122 m|
(avg. A geographic coordinate system enables every location on the Earth to be specified in three coordinates using mainly a spherical coordinate system. Wikipedia talkFeatured lists for an explanation of this and other inclusion tags below -->This list of countries, arranged alphabetically This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. France is divided into 26 regions or régions (in French of which 21 are in continental Metropolitan France, one is the island of Corsica, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur (PACA ( Provençal Occitan: Provença-Aups-Còsta d'Azur in classical norm or Prouvènço-Aup-Costo d'Azur in Mistralian In the context of the political and geographic organization of France and many of its former colonies a department (département depaʁtǝmɑ̃ is an Administrative division The Vaucluse ( Provençal Occitan: Vauclusa in classical norm or Vau-Cluso in Mistralian norm is a department in the southeast of A prefecture ( préfecture) in France can refer to: the Chef-lieu de département, the town in which the administration of a ''département'' The 100 French departments are divided into 342 arrondissements, which may be translated into English as districts. The arrondissement of Avignon is an arrondissement of France located in the Vaucluse department, in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur The cantons of France are territorial subdivisions of the French Republic's 341 arrondissements and 100 departments. The commune is the lowest level of administrative division in the French Republic. A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning "greater" is a modern title used in many countries for the highest ranking officer in a municipal government Marie-Josée Roig (born May 12 1938) is a French politician and the current mayor of Avignon. The elevation of a Geographic location is its height above a fixed reference point often the mean sea level. 23 m)
|Land area¹||64. 78 km²|
|- Density||1,326/km² (1999)|
|INSEE/Postal code||84007/ 84000|
|1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0. As of January 1, 2008, 64473140 people live in the French Republic. Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume The INSEE code is a numerical indexing code used by the French National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies (INSEE to identify various entities including communes Postal codes were introduced in France in 1972, when La Poste introduced automated sorting. Square Kilometre ( US spelling square kilometer) symbol km2, is a decimal multiple of the SI unit of 386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. An estuary is a semi-enclosed Coastal body of Water with one or more Rivers or Streams flowing into it and with a free connection to the open|
|2 Population sans doubles comptes: residents of multiple communes (e.g. students and military personnel) only counted once. C D E|
|Historic Centre of Avignon: Papal Palace, Episcopal Ensemble and Avignon Bridge*|
|UNESCO World Heritage Site|
|Criteria||i, ii, iv|
|Region†||Europe and North America|
|Inscription||1995 (19th Session)|
|* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.|
† Region as classified by UNESCO.
Avignon (/aviɲɔ̃/ in French) (Provençal: Avinhon in classical norm or Avignoun in Mistralian norm) is a commune in southern France with an estimated mid-2004 population of 89,300 in the city itself and a population of 290,466 in the metropolitan area at the 1999 census. A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex As of 2008 there are a total of 878 World Heritage Sites located in 145 "State Parties" This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex This is a list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Europe. Asia Minor, Cyprus, all of the Aegean Islands, the Canaries A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people Provençal ( Provençau) is one of several dialects of Occitan spoken by a minority of people mostly in Provence (in southern France The commune is the lowest level of administrative division in the French Republic. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The aire urbaine is an INSEE (the national statistics office of France statistical region comprising a Couronne périurbaine commuter belt around a contiguous
The city is well known for its Palais des Papes (Palace of the Popes), where several popes and antipopes lived from the early 14th to early 15th centuries. The Palais des Papes is a historical palace in Avignon, southern France, one of the largest and most important Medieval Gothic buildings in History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and An antipope ( Latin: antipapa) is a person who makes a widely accepted claim to be the lawful Pope, in opposition to the pope recognised by the Roman
Avignon is the capital of the Vaucluse département. Mont Ventoux (Ventor in classical norm or oc ''Ventour'' in Mistralian norm is a Mountain in the Provence region of southern France, located some 20 km The song "Sur le pont d'Avignon" See also Sur le pont d'Avignon The bridge has achieved worldwide fame through its commemoration by the song "Sur The Vaucluse ( Provençal Occitan: Vauclusa in classical norm or Vau-Cluso in Mistralian norm is a department in the southeast of In the context of the political and geographic organization of France and many of its former colonies a department (département depaʁtǝmɑ̃ is an Administrative division It is situated on the left bank of the Rhône, a few miles above its confluence with the Durance, about 580 km (360 m. The Rhone, or the Rhône is one of the major Rivers of Europe, running through Switzerland and France. The Durance ( Occitan: Durença in classical norm or Durènço in Mistralian norm is a 324 km long River in south-eastern France, ) south-south-east of Paris, 229 km (143 m. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city ) south of Lyon and 85 km (55 m. ) north-north-west of Marseille. Marseille, ( English alt Marseilles mɑrˈseɪ — French: maʁsɛj locally — Provençal Occitan: Marselha maʀˈsijɔ Its coordinates are . Avignon occupies a large oval-shaped area, not fully populated and covered in great part by parks and gardens.
Avignon is subject to violent winds, of which the strongest is the mistral. The Mistral in France is a fresh or cold often violent and usually dry Wind, blowing throughout the year but is most frequent in winter and spring The popular proverb is, however, somewhat exaggerated, Avenie ventosa, sine vento venenosa, cum vento fastidiosa (windy Avignon, pest-ridden when there is no wind, wind-pestered when there is).
Avignon is the préfecture (capital) of the Vaucluse département in the region of Provence-Alpes-Côte-d'Azur. A prefecture ( préfecture) in France can refer to: the Chef-lieu de département, the town in which the administration of a ''département'' The Vaucluse ( Provençal Occitan: Vauclusa in classical norm or Vau-Cluso in Mistralian norm is a department in the southeast of It forms the core of the Grand Avignon metropolitan area (communauté d'agglomération), which comprises twelve communes on both sides of the river:
The site of Avignon was settled very early on; the rocky outcrop (le Rocher les Doms) at the north end of the town, overlooking the Rhône River, may have been the site of a Celtic oppidum or hill fort. The Rhone, or the Rhône is one of the major Rivers of Europe, running through Switzerland and France. Celts (ˈkɛlts or /ˈsɛlts/, see Names of the Celts Oppidum (plural oppida) is a Latin word meaning the main settlement in any administrative area of Ancient Rome. A hill fort is a fortified refuge or defended settlement
Avignon, written as Avennio or Avenio in the ancient texts and inscriptions, takes its name from the Avennius clan. Founded by the Gallic tribe of the Cavares or Cavari, it became the centre of an important Phocaean colony from Massilia (present Marseilles). History The Cavares, or Cavari, were a Gallic tribe or a federation of tribes located in the lower Rhone valley This article is about the ancient city For the modern city see Foça Phocaea, or Phokaia, (Φώκαια (modern-day Foça Marseille, ( English alt Marseilles mɑrˈseɪ — French: maʁsɛj locally — Provençal Occitan: Marselha maʀˈsijɔ
Under the Romans, Avenio aflourishing city of Gallia Narbonensis, the first Transalpine province of the Roman Empire, but very little from this period remains (a few fragments of the forum near Rue Molière). Gallia Narbonensis ( Narbonese Gaul) was a Roman province located in what is now Languedoc and Provence, in southern France. The Forum was the public space in the middle of a Roman city It had a great social importance and was often the scene of diverse activities including political discussions
During the inroads of the barbarians, it was badly damaged in the 5th century and belonged in turn to the Goths, the kingdoms of Burgundy and of Arles, the Ostrogoths and the Frankish-Merovingian kings of Austrasia. "Barbarian" is a pejorative term for an uncivilized person either in a general reference to a member of a nation or Ethnos perceived The Goths ( Gothic: Gothic usvg|14px|u]]Gothic asvg|14px|a]]Gothic s The Ostrogoths (Ostrogothi or Austrogothi were a branch of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe that played a major role in the political events of the late The Franks or Frankish people (Franci or gens Francorum) were West Germanic tribes first identified in the 3rd century as an Ethnic group The Merovingians (also Merovings) were a Salian Frankish dynasty that came to rule the Franks in a region (known as Francia in Latin Austrasia (rarely Austria, both meaning "eastern land" formed the north-eastern portion of the Kingdom of the Merovingian Franks, comprising In 736 it fell into the hands of the Saracens and was destroyed in 737 by the Franks under Charles Martel for having sided with the Arabs against him. Saracen was a term used by Europeans in the Middle Ages for Fatimids at first then later for all who professed the religion of Islam. The Franks or Frankish people (Franci or gens Francorum) were West Germanic tribes first identified in the 3rd century as an Ethnic group Charles "The Hammer" Martel (Carolus Martellus Charles "the Hammer" (ca The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding Boso having been proclaimed Burgundian King of Provence, or of Arelat (after its capital Arles), by the Synod of Mantaille, at the death of Louis the Stammerer (879), Avignon ceased to belong to the Frankish kings. The land of Provence has a history quite separate from that of any of the larger nations of Europe. The Kingdom of Arles ( Arelat) was a Frankish dominion surrounding Arles, established in 933 by combining Upper and Lower Burgundy The Synod of Mantaille was held in Mantaille, in the southwestern rench region of Provence, on 15 October 879 by the bishops and nobles of the Louis the Stammerer ( November 1, 846 — April 10, 879; Louis le Bègue) was the eldest son of Charles the Bald and
In 1033, when Conrad II fell heir to the Kingdom of Arelat, Avignon passed to the empire. Conrad II (c 990&ndash June 4, 1039) was the son of a mid-level nobleman in Franconia, Count Henry of Speyer and Adelaide of Alsace who inherited The German rulers being at a distance, Avignon took advantage of their absence to set up as a republic with a consular form of government, between 1135 and 1146. In addition to the Emperor, the Counts of Forcalquier, of Toulouse and of Provence exercised a purely nominal sway over the city; on two occasions, in 1125 and in 1251, the Counts of Toulouse and Provence divided their rights in regard to it, while the Count of Forcalquier resigned any right he possessed to the local Bishops and Consuls in 1135. Forcalquier is a commune of the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence department in southeastern France. Toulouse ( pronounced in standard French, and in the local accent ( Occitan: Tolosa, pronounced) is a city in southwest Provence ( Provençal Occitan: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm is a region of southeastern France Toulouse ( pronounced in standard French, and in the local accent ( Occitan: Tolosa, pronounced) is a city in southwest Provence ( Provençal Occitan: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm is a region of southeastern France Forcalquier is a commune of the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence department in southeastern France. Consul (abbrev cos; Latin plural consules) was the highest elected office of the Roman Republic and an appointive office under the Empire
At the end of the 12th century, Avignon declared itself an independent republic, but independence was crushed in 1226 during the crusade against the Albigenses (the dualist Cathar heresy centered in neighboring Albi). After the citizens refused to open the gates of Avignon to King Louis VIII of France and the papal Legate, a three month siege ensued starting on June 10th, 1226, and ending in capitulation by Avignon on September 13th, 1226. Louis VIII the Lion ( 5 September 1187 – 8 November 1226) reigned as King of France from 1223 to 1226 Following the defeat, they were forced to pull down the ramparts and fill up the moat of the city.
On 7 May 1251 Avignon was made a common possession of counts Charles of Anjou and Alphonse de Poitiers, brothers of French king Saint Louis IX. Charles I ( 21 March 1226 &ndash 7 January 1285) commonly called Charles of Anjou, was the King of Sicily by conquest Alfonso or Alphonse ( 11 November 1220 &ndash 21 August 1271) was the Count of Poitou from 1225 and Count of Toulouse On 25 August 1271, at the death of Alphonse de Poitiers, Avignon and the surrounding countship Comtat-Venaissin (which was governed by rectors since 1274) were united with the French crown. Alfonso or Alphonse ( 11 November 1220 &ndash 21 August 1271) was the Count of Poitou from 1225 and Count of Toulouse The Comtat Venaissin, often called the Comtat for short (lo Comtat Venaicin la Comtat is the former name of the region around the city of Avignon in what is now The word rector ("ruler" from the Latin regere and Rector meaning "Teacher" In Latin has a number of different meanings but all of them indicate an academic
In 1309 the city was chosen by Pope Clement V as his residence when the city and the surrounding Comtat Venaissin were ruled by the kings of Sicily from the house of Anjou, and from 9 March 1309 till 13 January 1377 was the seat of the Papacy instead of Rome. Pope Clement V' (About 1264 &ndash April 20, 1314) born Raymond Bertrand de Got (also occasionally spelled de Gouth and de The Comtat Venaissin, often called the Comtat for short (lo Comtat Venaicin la Comtat is the former name of the region around the city of Avignon in what is now Sicily ( Italian and Sicilian: Sicilia) is an autonomous region of Italy. Anjou is a former County (c 880) Duchy ( 1360) and province centred on the city of Angers in the lower French King Philip the Fair, who had inherited from his father all the rights of Alphonse de Poitiers, the last Count of Toulouse, made them over to Charles II, King of Naples and Count of Provence (1290). Nonetheless, Phillip was a shrewd ruler. Inasmuch as the eastern banks of the Rhone marked the edge of his kingdom, when the river flooded up into the city of Avignon, Phillip taxed the city since during periods of flood, the city technically lay within his domain. Regardless, on the strength of the donation of Avignon, Queen Joanna I of Sicily, as countess of Provence, sold the city to Clement VI for 80,000 florins on 9 June, 1348 and, though it was later the seat of more than one antipope, Avignon belonged to the Papacy until 1791, when, during the disorder of the French Revolution, it was reincorporated with France. Joan I (1328 – May 12, 1382) born Joanna of Anjou, was Queen of Naples from 1343 until her death An antipope ( Latin: antipapa) is a person who makes a widely accepted claim to be the lawful Pope, in opposition to the pope recognised by the Roman The French Revolution (1789–1799 was a period of political and social upheaval in the History of France, during which the French governmental structure previously an
Seven popes resided there:
This period from 1309–1377 — the Avignon Papacy — was also called the Babylonian Captivity of exile, in reference to the Israelites' enslavement in biblical times. Pope Clement V' (About 1264 &ndash April 20, 1314) born Raymond Bertrand de Got (also occasionally spelled de Gouth and de Pope John (numbering Pope John XXII (1249 &ndash December 4, 1334) born Jacques Duèze (or d'Euse) was Pope from 1316 to 1334 Pope Benedict XII (died April 25, 1342) born Jacques Fournier, was Pope from 1334 to 1342 Pope Clement VI (1291 &ndash December 6, 1352) born Pierre Roger, the fourth of the Avignon Popes, was Pope from May 1342 until his Pope Innocent VI (1282 or 1295 &ndash September 12, 1362) born Étienne Aubert, Pope at Avignon from 1352 to 1362 the successor Blessed See also Vicedomino de Vicedominis, a pope-elect who took the name Gregory XI. In the History of the Roman Catholic Church, the Avignon Papacy was the period from 1309 to 1377 during which seven Popes all French, resided in Avignon In the History of the Roman Catholic Church, the Avignon Papacy was the period from 1309 to 1377 during which seven Popes all French, resided in Avignon See also History of ancient Israel and Judah According to the Bible, the Israelites were the dominant group living in the Land of Israel.
The walls that were built by the popes in the years immediately after the acquisition of Avignon as papal territory are well preserved. History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and As they were not particularly strong fortifications, the Popes relied instead on the immensely strong fortifications of their palace, the "Palais des Papes". The Palais des Papes is a historical palace in Avignon, southern France, one of the largest and most important Medieval Gothic buildings in This immense Gothic building, with walls 17–18 feet thick, was built 1335–1364 on a natural spur of rock, rendering it all but impregnable to attack. See also Gothic art Gothic architecture is a style of Architecture which flourished during the high and late medieval period. After being taken following the French Revolution, it was used as a barracks and prison for many years but it is now a museum. The French Revolution (1789–1799 was a period of political and social upheaval in the History of France, during which the French governmental structure previously an
Avignon, which at the beginning of the fourteenth century was a town of no great importance, underwent a wonderful development during the time the seven Avignon popes and two anti-popes, Clement V to Benedict XIII made their residences there. To the north and south of the rock of the Doms, partly on the site of the Bishop's Palace, which had been enlarged by John XXII, was built the Palace of the Popes, in the form of an imposing fortress made up of towers, linking one to another, and named as follows: De la Campane, de Trouillas, de la Glacière, de Saint-Jean, des Saints-Anges (Benedict XII), de la Gâche, de la Garde-Robe (Clement VI), de Saint-Laurent (Innocent VI). Pope John (numbering Pope John XXII (1249 &ndash December 4, 1334) born Jacques Duèze (or d'Euse) was Pope from 1316 to 1334 The Palace of the Popes belongs, by its severe architecture, to the Gothic art of the South of France. This article is about Gothic art See also Gothic architecture Gothic art was a Medieval art movement that lasted about 200 Other noble examples can be seen in the churches of St. Didier, St. Peter and St. Agricola, as well as the Clock Tower, and in the fortifications built between 1349 and 1368 for a distance of some three miles (5 km), flanked by thirty-nine towers, all of which were erected or restored by the Roman Catholic Church. The frescoes that are on the interiors of the Palace of the Popes and the churches of Avignon were created primarilly by artists from Siena. Siena is a city in Tuscany, Italy. It is the capital of the Province of Siena.
The popes were followed to Avignon by agents (factores) of the great Italian banking-houses, who settled in the city as money-changers, as intermediaries between the Apostolic Chamber and its debtors, living in the most prosperous quarters of the city, which was known as the Exchange. FACTOR may also refer to the Object Oriented programming requirements caputre acronym "Functionality Application domain Conditions Technology Objects and Responsibility" A crowd of traders of all kinds brought to market the products necessary to maintain the numerous court and of the visitors who flocked to it; grain and wine from Provence, from the south of France, the Roussillon and the country around Lyon. Roussillon ( French: Roussillon, ʀusiˈjɔ̃ Catalan: Rosselló, pronounced; Spanish: Rosellón, pronounced) is Fish was brought from places as distant as Brittany; cloths, rich stuffs and tapestries came from Bruges and Tournai. Brittany (Breizh bʁejs Bretagne; Gallo: Bertaèyn) is a former independent Celtic kingdom and Duchy, now incorporated into Bruges (Brugge is the capital and largest city of the province of West Flanders in the Flemish Region of Belgium. Tournai (in Dutch Doornik, in Latin: Tornacum) is a Walloon City and municipality of Belgium We need only glance at the account-books of the Apostolic Chamber, still kept in the Vatican archives, in order to judge of the trade of which Avignon became the center. The university founded by Boniface VIII in 1303, had a good many students under the French popes, drawn thither by the generosity of the sovereign pontiffs, who rewarded them with books or benefices. Originally a benefice was a gift of land ( Precaria) for life as a reward for services rendered
During the Great Schism (1378-1415) the antipopes Clement VII and Benedict XIII returned to reside at Avignon. The Great Schism of Western Christianity or Papal Schism (also known as the Western Schism) was a split within the Roman Catholic Church from 1378 to 1417 An antipope ( Latin: antipapa) is a person who makes a widely accepted claim to be the lawful Pope, in opposition to the pope recognised by the Roman Clement VII lived in Avignon during his entire anti-pontificate, while Benedict XIII only lived there until 1403 when he was forced to flee to Aragon. Aragon ( Spanish: "Aragón") is an autonomous community of Spain.
After the restoration of the Papacy in Rome, the spiritual and temporal government of Avignon was entrusted to a gubernatorial Legate, notably the Cardinal-nephew, who was replaced, in his absence, by a vice-legate (contrary to the legate usually a commoner, and not a cardinal). A cardinal-nephew (cardinalis nepos cardinale nipote valido de su tío prince de fortune is a cardinal elevated by a Pope who is that cardinal's uncle But pope Innocent XII abolished nepotism and the office of Legate in Avignon on 7 February 1693, handing over its temporal government in 1692 to the Congregation of Avignon (i. Pope Innocent XII ( March 13, 1615 &ndash September 27, 1700) born Antonio Pignatelli was Pope from 1691 to 1700 e. a department of the papal Curia, residing at Rome), with the Cardinal Secretary of State as presiding prefect, and exercising its jurisdiction through the vice-legate. The Roman Curia is the administrative apparatus of the Holy See and the central governing body of the entire Roman Catholic Church, together with the Pope The Cardinal Secretary of State &mdashofficially Secretary of State of His Holiness The Pope &mdashpresides over the Vatican Secretariat of State, which This congregation, to which appeals were made from the decisions of the vice-legate, was united to the Congregation of Loreto within the Roman Curia; in 1774 the vice-legate was made president, thus depriving it of almost all authority. A congregation is a type of Dicastery (department with a jurisdiction of the Roman Curia, the central administrative organism of the Catholic Church. It was done away with under Pius VI on 12 June 1790. Pope Pius VI (December 27 1717 &ndash August 29 1799 born Count Giovanni Angelo Braschi, Pope from 1775 to 1799 was born at Cesena.
The Public Council, composed of forty-eight councillors chosen by the people, four members of the clergy and four doctors of the university, met under the presidency of the chief magistrate of the city, the viquier (Occitan) or vicar or representative of the papal Legate or Vice-legate, who annually nominated a man for the post. The councillors' duty was to watch over the material and financial interests of the city; but their resolutions were to be submitted to the vice-legate for approval before being put in force. Three consuls, chosen annually by the Council, had charge of the administration of the streets. Consul (abbrev cos; Latin plural consules) was the highest elected office of the Roman Republic and an appointive office under the Empire
Avignon's survival as a papal enclave was, however, somewhat precarious, as the French crown maintained a large standing garrison at Villeneuve-lès-Avignon just across the river. The song "Sur le pont d'Avignon" See also Sur le pont d'Avignon The bridge has achieved worldwide fame through its commemoration by the song "Sur Villeneuve-lès-Avignon is a commune in the Gard department in southern France.
From the 15th century onward it became the policy of the Kings of France to rule Avignon as part of their kingdom. In 1476, Louis XI, upset that Charles of Bourbon was made legate, sent troops to occupie the city, until his demands that Giuliano della Rovere be made legate, once Giuliano della Rovere was made a cardinal he withdrew his troops from the city. Louis XI ( July 3, 1423 – August 30, 1483) called the Prudent (le Prudent and the Universal Spider ( Middle Pope Julius II (5 December 1443 &ndash 21 February 1513 born Giuliano Della Rovere, was Pope from 1503 to 1513 Pope Julius II (5 December 1443 &ndash 21 February 1513 born Giuliano Della Rovere, was Pope from 1503 to 1513 A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official usually a bishop, of the Catholic Church.
In 1536 king Francis I of France invaded the papal territory, in order to overthrow Emperor Charles V, who was emperor of the territory. Francis I (September 12 1494 &ndash March 31 1547 was crowned King of France in 1515 in the cathedral at Reims and reigned until 1547 Charles V (24 February 1500 &ndash 21 September 1558 was When he entered the city the people received him very well, and in return for the reception the people were all granted to them the same privileges that french subjects enjoyed, such as being able to hold state offices.
In (1583) King Henry III Valois attempted to offer an exchange of Marquisate of Saluzzo for Avignon, however his offer was refused by Pope Gregory XIII. Henry III of France (Henri III Henryk ( September 19 1551 – August 2, 1589) Saluzzo is a town and former principality in the Province of Cuneo, Piedmont region Italy. Pope Gregory XIII (January 7 1502 &ndash April 10 1585 born Ugo Boncompagni, was Pope from 1572 to 1585
In 1663 in retaliation for the attack led by the Corsican Guard on the attendants of the Duc de Créqui, the ambassador of Louis XIV in Rome, he attacked and seized Avignon. Vatican City lies entirely within Rome, the capital of Italy. Early years Birth and ancestry Louis XIV was born in the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye on September 5 1638 and bore the Heir apparent Which at the time was considered an important and integral part of the French Kingdom by the provincial Parliament of Provence.
In 1688 yet another attempt was made to occupy Avignon, however the attempt failed, and from 1688 to 1768 Avignon was at peace with no occupations or wars during that time.
King Louis XV, dissatisfied with Clement XIII's action in regard to the Duke of Parma, occupied the Papal States from 1768 to 1774 and substituted French institutions for those in force with the approval of the people of Avignon; a French party grew up which, after the sanguinary massacres of La Glacière between the adherents of the Papacy and the Republicans (16-17 October 1791), carried all before it, and induced the Constituent Assembly to decree the union of Avignon and the Comtat (comital district) Venaissin with France on 14 September, 1791. Louis XV (15 February 1710 &ndash 10 May 1774 ruled as King of France and of Navarre from 1 September 1715 until his death in 1774 Pope Clement XIII ( Venice, March 7, 1693 &ndash February 2, 1769 in Rome) born Carlo della Torre di Rezzonico The Papal States, State(s of the Church or Pontifical States (in Italian Stato Ecclesiastico, Stato della Chiesa, Stati della Chiesa The bloody massacres of La Glacière that took place during 16- 17 October 1791 in the Tour de la Glacière of the Palais des Papes at Avignon On 25 June 1793 Avignon and Comtat-Venaissain were integrated along with the former principality of Orange to form the present republican département Vaucluse.
Article 5 of the Treaty of Tolentino (19 February, 1797) definitively sanctioned the annexation, stating that "The Pope renounces, purely and simply, all the rights to which he might lay claim over the city and territory of Avignon, and the Comtat Venaissin and its dependencies, and transfers and makes over the said rights to the French Republic. The Treaty of Tolentino was signed after nine months of negotiations between France and the Papal States on February 19, 1797. " In 1801 the territory had 191,000 inhabitants.
On 30 May 1814, the French annexation was recognized by the Pope. Consalvi made an ineffectual protest at the Congress of Vienna in 1815 but Avignon was never restored to the Holy See. Ercole Consalvi ( June 8, 1757 &ndash January 24, 1824) was a cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. The Congress of Vienna was a conference of ambassadors of the major powers of Europe, chaired by the Austrian statesman Clemens Wenzel von Metternich The Holy See is the episcopal jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome, commonly known as the Pope, and is the preeminent Episcopal see of the Roman Catholic In 1815 Bonapartist Marshal Guillaume Marie Anne Brune was assassinated in the town by adherents of the royalist party during the White Terror. Guillaume Marie Anne Brune 1st Comte Brune ( March 13, 1763 &mdash August 2, 1815) was a French soldier and political figure who rose In general the term White Terror refers to acts of violence carried out by Reactionary (usually monarchist or conservative) groups as part of a
It was the seat of a bishop as early as the year 70 AD. A bishop is an ordained or consecrated member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight The first bishop known to history is Nectarius, who took part in several councils about the middle of the fifth century. Nectarius may refer to Nectarius of Constantinople (d 398 Archbishop of Constantinople Nectarius of Jerusalem: (1605-1680 Patriarch of St. Magnus was a Gallo-Roman senator who became a monk and then bishop of the city. Saint Magnus of Avignon (Saint Magne (d 660 AD was a Bishop and governor of Avignon, his native city This article covers the culture of Romanized areas of Gaul. For the political history of the brief "Gallic Empire" of the 3rd century see Gallic Empire A senate is a Deliberative body, often the Upper house or chamber of a Legislature or Parliament. MONK is a Monte Carlo software package for simulating nuclear processes particularly for the purpose of determining the neutron multiplication factor or k-effective His son, St. Agricol (Agricolus), bishop between 650 and 700, is the patron saint of Avignon. Saint Agricola (Agricol Agricolus of Avignon (c 630-c 700 was a Bishop of Avignon. Several synods of minor importance were held there, and its university, founded by Pope Boniface VIII in 1303 and famed as a seat of legal studies, flourished until the French Revolution. A synod (also known as a council) is a council of a church, usually a Christian church convened to decide an issue of doctrine administration or application Pope Boniface VIII (c 1235 &ndash October 11, 1303) born Benedetto Caetani, was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from 1294 The French Revolution (1789–1799 was a period of political and social upheaval in the History of France, during which the French governmental structure previously an The memory of St. Eucherius still clings to three vast caves near the village of Beaumont, whither, it is said, the people of Lyon had to go in search of him when they sought him to make him their archbishop. Saint Eucherius, Bishop of Lyon, (born say 380 &ndash died ca 449 was a high-born and high-ranking ecclesiastic in the Christian Church of Gaul. ||-||} Lyon, also known as Lyons in English is a city in east-central France. In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated Bishop. In the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion and others this means that they lead As Bishop of Cavaillon, Cardinal Philippe de Cabassoles, seigneur of Vaucluse, was the great protector of the Renaissance poet Petrarch. The former French diocese of Cavaillon existed until the French Revolution. The Bishop of Cavaillon, Philippe de Cabassoles, Seigneur of Vaucluse, was the great protector of Renaissance poet and Orator Francesco The Vaucluse ( Provençal Occitan: Vauclusa in classical norm or Vau-Cluso in Mistralian norm is a department in the southeast of Francesco Petrarca ( July 20, 1304 – July 19, 1374) known in English as Petrarch, was an Italian scholar
In 1309 the city was chosen by Clement V as his residence, and from that time till 1377 was the papal seat. Pope Clement V' (About 1264 &ndash April 20, 1314) born Raymond Bertrand de Got (also occasionally spelled de Gouth and de In 1348 the city was sold by Joanna, Countess of Provence, to Clement VI for 80,000 florins. Joan I (1328 – May 12, 1382) born Joanna of Anjou, was Queen of Naples from 1343 until her death Pope Clement VI (1291 &ndash December 6, 1352) born Pierre Roger, the fourth of the Avignon Popes, was Pope from May 1342 until his
In 1475 pope Sixtus IV raised the diocese of Avignon to the rank of an archbishopric, in favour of his nephew Giuliano della Rovere, who later became Pope Julius II. Pope Sixtus IV ( July 21, 1414 &ndash August 12, 1484) born Francesco Della Rovere, was Pope from 1471 to 1484 In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated Bishop. In the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion and others this means that they lead Pope Julius II (5 December 1443 &ndash 21 February 1513 born Giuliano Della Rovere, was Pope from 1503 to 1513 Pope Julius II (5 December 1443 &ndash 21 February 1513 born Giuliano Della Rovere, was Pope from 1503 to 1513 The Archdiocese of Avignon has canonic jurisdiction over the department of Vaucluse. In many rites of the Roman Catholic Church and in Anglican churches, a diocese is an administrative territorial unit administered by a Bishop. The Vaucluse ( Provençal Occitan: Vauclusa in classical norm or Vau-Cluso in Mistralian norm is a department in the southeast of Before the French Revolution it had as suffragan sees Carpentras, Vaison and Cavaillon, which were united by the Napoleonic Concordat of 1801 to Avignon, together with the Diocese of Apt, a suffragan of Aix-en-Provence. The French Revolution (1789–1799 was a period of political and social upheaval in the History of France, during which the French governmental structure previously an Carpentras ( Provençal Occitan: Carpentràs in classical norm or Carpentras in Mistralian norm is a town and commune in the Vaison-la-Romaine (Latin Vasio Vocontiorum) is a small town and former bishopric in Provence. Cavaillon is a commune of the Vaucluse département, in southern France. The Concordat of 1801 is a reflection of an agreement between Napoleon Bonaparte and Pope Pius VII that reaffirmed the Roman Catholic Church as the majority The former French Catholic diocese of Apt, in south-east France existed from the fourth century until the French Revolution. Aix (ɛks or Aix-en-Provence ( Provençal Occitan: Ais de Provença in classical norm or Ais de Prouvènço in Mistralian norm to distinguish However, at that same time Avignon was reduced to the rank of a bishopric and was made a suffragan see of Aix. The Archdiocese of Avignon was re-established in 1822, receiving as suffragan sees the Diocese of Viviers (restored in 1822), Valence: (formerly under Lyon), Nimes (restored in 1822) and Montpellier (formerly under Toulouse). In many rites of the Roman Catholic Church and in Anglican churches, a diocese is an administrative territorial unit administered by a Bishop. Valence ( Occitan Valença) is a commune in southeastern France, the capital of the department of Drôme, situated Nîmes ( Provençal Occitan: Nimes in both classical and Mistralian norms is a city in southern France. Montpellier ( Occitan Montpelhièr) is a City in the south of France.
In 2002, as part of the reshuffling of the ecclesiastic provinces of France, the Archdiocese of Avignon ceased to be a metropolitan and became, instead a suffragan diocese of the new province of Marseilles, while keeping its rank of archdiocese. In many rites of the Roman Catholic Church and in Anglican churches, a diocese is an administrative territorial unit administered by a Bishop. In many rites of the Roman Catholic Church and in Anglican churches, a diocese is an administrative territorial unit administered by a Bishop.
The Councils of Avignon are Councils of the Roman Catholic Church. Council of Avignon may refer to one of a number of councils of the Roman Catholic Church, held in Avignon. The first reported council was held in 1060, though nothing is known about the events of the council. in 1080 another council was held, with Hugues de Dié, papal legate as council president. Hugh of Die (c1040-1106 was a French Papal legate, and Archbishop of Lyon from 1081 to 1106 A Papal Legate – from the Latin authentic Roman title Legatus – is a personal representative of the Pope to Foreign nations or to some part of the Catholic During the 1080 council Aicard, usurper of the See of Arles was deposed, and Gibelin placed in his position. The former French Catholic Archbishopric of Arles had its episcopal see in the city of Arles, in southern France. Ghibbelin of Sabran (c 1045–1112 (also spelled Gibelin) was Archbishop of Arles (1080-1112 Papal legate (1107 and Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem Three bishops-elect (Lautelin of Embrun, Hugues of Grenoble, Didier of Cavaillon) accompanied the legate to Rome and were consecrated there by Pope Gregory VII. Saint Hugh of Châteauneuf (1052&ndash April 1 1132) was the Bishop of Grenoble from 1080 to his death Gregory VII can refer to Pope Gregory VII Gregory VII, Patriarch of Constantinople
During the 13th century 4 councils were held, including the 1209 council in which the inhabitants of Toulouse were excommunicated from the church by the council for failing to expel the Albigensian heretics from Toulouse. Included in the population that was excommunicated were two papal legates, four archbishops and twenty bishops. The next council was held in 1270, and Bertrand de Malferrat, Archbishop of Arles presided over the council. The former French Catholic Archbishopric of Arles had its episcopal see in the city of Arles, in southern France. The usurpers of ecclesiastical property were severely threatened; unclaimed legacies were allotted to pious uses; the bishops were urged to mutually support one another; and individual churches were taxed for the support of the papal legates; and ecclesiastics were forbidden to convoke the civil courts against their bishops. And the council banned Christmas carols.
During the 1279 council they were concerned with the clergys protection of rights, privileges, and immunities. Provisions were also made for those who promised to join the crusade Gregory X had ordered, but had failed to actually go on the crusade. Pope also the council decreed that to hear confessions monks must have permission of their ordinary, or bishop, as well as their superior. The last council during the 13th century was the council of 1282, during the council they published 10 canons. Among the canons published was one urging people to more regularly frequent the parochial churches, and to goto their parish church for at least feast days and on Sundays.
During the 1327 council the temporalities of the Church and ecclesiastical jurisdiction occupied their attention. Temporalities are the secular properties and possessions of the Christian Church The council published seventy-nine canons in 1337. The 79 canons are renewed from earlier councils, and emphasize the duty of Easter Communion in one's own parish church, And of abstinence on Saturday for beneficed persons and ecclesiastics, in honour of the Blessed Virgin, a practice begun three centuries earlier on the occasion of the Truce of God, but no longer universal. The Peace and Truce of God was a Medieval European movement of the Catholic Church that applied spiritual sanctions in order to limit the violence of Private war
The 15th century saw two councils convened, one in 1457 and one in 1497. The 1457 council was held by Cardinal de Foix, Archbishop of Arles and legate of Avignon, he was also a Franciscan. His primary reason was to promote the doctrine of Immaculate Conception, in sense of the declaration of the council of Basle. They forbade the preaching of the contrary doctrine, as well as 64 disciplinary canons that were published, in keeping with the legislation of previous councils. In 1497 Archbishop Francesco Tarpugi (after the council he was cardinal) presided over the council. They published a simialr number of decrees to the 1457 council. It was decreed that the sponsors of the newly confirmed were not obligated to make presents to their parents or to them. They also decreed that before the relics of the saints two candles were to be kept lite at all times.
During the next five centuryies only six further councils were held. The 1509 council focused on disciplinary measures. The next council, in 1596, was called to discuss the furthering of the observance of the decrees of the Council of Trent. The Council of Trent was the 19th Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. , and the 1609 council was held for very similar circumstances. The councils of 1664 and 1725 were held to formulate disciplinary decrees. The 1725 council also decreed the duty of adhering to the Papal Bull Unigenitus (1713) of Clement XI that condemned the Oratorian, Pasquier Quesnel. Unigenitus may also refer to a papal bull issued by Pope Clement VI in 1343 Pope Clement XI ( July 23, 1649 &ndash March 19, 1721) born Giovanni Francesco Albani, was Pope from 1700 until his death Pasquier Quesnel ( July 14, 1634 - December 2, 1719) was a French Jansenist theologian. The final council on record was in 1849 and it published ten chapters of canons concering discipline and faith.
The University of Avignon (1303-1792), formed from the existing schools of the city, and was formally constituted in 1303, by Boniface VIII in a Papal Bull. A Papal bull is a particular type of Letters patent or charter issued by a Pope. Boniface VIII, and King Charles II of Naples should be considered one of the first great protectors and benefactors to the University of Avignon. Pope Boniface VIII (c 1235 &ndash October 11, 1303) born Benedetto Caetani, was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from 1294 Charles II may refer to Charles the Bald (823 &ndash 877 king of the West Franks and Holy Roman Emperor Charles II of Naples (1248 The Law department within the university has always been its most important department, covering both civil and ecclesiastical law. The law department existed nearly exclusively for some time after the universitys forming and remained the most important department through its existence.
In 1413 Antipope John XXIII founded the Universitys department of Theology, which for quite some time had only a few students. Pope John XXIIIPope John (numbering Baldassarre Cossa (c 1370 &ndash November 22 1419 also known as John XXIII, was Pope or Antipope during The university's art department never did gain any great importance. It was not until the 16th and 17th centuries that the school developed a department of medicine. The Bishop of Avignon was chancellor of the university from 1303 to 1475, after 1475 the bishop became and Archbishop, but remained chancellor of the university. The papal vice-legate, generally a bishop, represented the civil power (in this case the pope) and was chiefly a judicial officer, ranking higher than the Primicerius (Rector).
The Primicerius was elected by the Doctors of Law. In 1503 the Doctors of Law had 4 Theologians, and in 1784 two Doctors of Medicine added their ranks. Since the Pope was the spiritual head, and after 1348, the temporal ruler of Avignon, he was able to have a great deal of influence in all university affairs. In 1413, John XXIII granted the university extensive special privileges, such as university jurisdiction, and tax exempt status. Circumstances in the latter part of the universitys existence such as political, geographical, and educational, caused the university to seek favour from Paris rather than Rome for protection and favour. During the chaos of the French Revolution the university started to gradually disappear, and in 1792 the university was abandoned and closed. The French Revolution (1789–1799 was a period of political and social upheaval in the History of France, during which the French governmental structure previously an Currently the university has been superseded by the modern Université of Avignon and Vaucluse.
A famous theater festival is held annually in Avignon. Musée Requien or Museum Requien is a Natural history Museum in Avignon, France. Founded in 1947, the Avignon Festival comprises traditional theatrical events as well as other art forms such as dance, music, and cinema, making good use of the town's historical monuments. The Festival d'Avignon, or Avignon Festival, is an annual Arts festival held in French city of Avignon. Every summer approximately 100,000 people attend the festival. There are really two festivals that take place: the more formal "Festival In", which presents plays inside the Palace of the Popes and the more bohemian "Festival Off", which is known for its presentation of largely undiscovered plays and street performances.
It was created in 1976 within the outstanding premises of the Palace of the Popes and hosts many events throughout the entire year. The Congress Center, designed for conventions, seminars, and meetings for 10 to 550 persons, now occupies two wings of the Popes' Palace. 
Avignon has an SNCF railway station, situated just outside the ramparts of the old town, and a new TGV station outside the town, served by the TGV Méditerranée, a high-speed rail system. Route The LGV Méditerranée begins at Saint-Marcel-lès-Valence, as the extension of the LGV Rhône-Alpes.  It is situated on the banks of the river Rhone, one of the main water thoroughfares in France. The Rhone, or the Rhône is one of the major Rivers of Europe, running through Switzerland and France.
Avignon is commemorated by the French children's song, "Sur le pont d'Avignon" ("On the bridge of Avignon"), which describes folk dancing. "Sur le pont d’Avignon" is a French song about the Pont d'Avignon that dates back to the 15th century. The bridge of the song is the Saint Bénézet bridge, over the Rhône River, of which only four arches (out of the initial 22) remain which start from the avignon side of the river. A bridge is a Structure built to span a Gorge, Valley, Road, railroad track, River, Body of water The song "Sur le pont d'Avignon" See also Sur le pont d'Avignon The bridge has achieved worldwide fame through its commemoration by the song "Sur The Rhone, or the Rhône is one of the major Rivers of Europe, running through Switzerland and France. In fact people would have danced beneath the bridge (sous le pont) where it crossed an island (Ile de Barthelasse) on its way to Villeneuve-lès-Avignon. Villeneuve-lès-Avignon is a commune in the Gard department in southern France. The bridge was initially built between 1171 and 1185, with an original length of some 900 m (2950 ft), but it suffered frequent collapses during floods and had to be reconstructed several times. Several arches were already missing (and spanned by wooden sections) before the remainder was damaged destroyed in 1660.
Today, Avignon hosts a study abroad program for American students run through the Institute for American Universities (IAU). Classes focus on learning French, liberal arts and European history.
Avignon is twinned with: