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Autumn (also known as fall in North American English) is one of the four temperate seasons. Nature, in the broadest sense is equivalent to the natural world, physical universe, material world or material universe. The weather is a set of all the phenomena occurring in a given Atmosphere at a given Time. A season is one of the major divisions of the Year, generally based on yearly periodic changes in Weather. Spring is one of the four Temperate Seasons Spring marks the transition from Winter into Summer. Summer is one of the four Temperate Seasons Summer marks the warmest time of year with the longest days Winter is one of the four Seasons of Temperate zones Calculated astronomically, it begins on the Solstice and ends on the Equinox The Tropics are centered on the Equator and limited in Latitude by the Tropic of Cancer in the northern hemisphere at approximately 23°26' (23 The dry season is a term commonly used when describing the weather in the Tropics. A wet season or rainy season is a Season in which the average Rainfall in a region is significantly increased A storm is any disturbed state of an astronomical body's atmosphere, especially affecting its surface and strongly implying Severe weather. A tornado is a violent rotating column of air which is in contact with both the surface of the earth and a Cumulonimbus cloud or in rare cases the base of a Cumulus A tropical cyclone is a storm system characterized by a low pressure center and numerous Thunderstorms that produce strong winds and Flooding Extratropical cyclones, sometimes called mid-latitude cyclones or wave cyclones, are a group of Cyclones defined as synoptic scale low A winter storm is an event in which the dominant varieties of precipitation are forms that only occur at cold Temperatures such as Snow or A blizzard is a severe Winter storm condition characterized by low Temperatures strong Winds and heavy blowing Snow Blizzards are formed when An ice storm is a type of Winter storm characterized by Freezing rain. In Meteorology, precipitation (also known as one class of hydrometeors, which are atmospheric water phenomena is any product of the condensation of atmospheric Fog is a cloud that is in contact with the ground Stratus clouds are usually the only clouds that touch the ground Drizzle (also called mizzle) is light precipitation consisting of liquid water drops smaller than that of Rain, and generally smaller than 0 Rain is Liquid precipitation. On Earth it is the condensation of atmospheric Water vapor into drops heavy enough to fall often making it to Freezing rain is a type of precipitation that begins as Snow at higher altitude falling from a Cloud towards earth melts completely on its way down while passing Ice pellets are a form of precipitation consisting of small Translucent ice balls Hail is a form of precipitation which consists of balls or irregular lumps of ice (hailstones "Snowfall" redirects here For other uses see Snow (disambiguation or Snowfall (disambiguation. Graupel (also called snow pellets) refers to precipitation that forms when supercooled Droplets of Water condense on a Snowflake forming This is a list of meteorology topics. The terms relate to Meteorology, the Interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on Meteorology (from Greek grc μετέωρος metéōros, "high in the sky" and grc -λογία -logia) is the Interdisciplinary Weather forecasting is the application of science and technology to predict the state of the atmosphere for a future time and a given location Climate encompasses the temperatures humidity rainfall atmospheric particle count and numerous other meteorogical factors in a given region over long periods of Air pollution is the human introduction into the atmosphere of Chemicals Particulate matter, or Biological materials that cause harm or discomfort North American English is a collective term used for the varieties of the English language that are spoken in North America, namely in the United States A season is one of the major divisions of the Year, generally based on yearly periodic changes in Weather. Autumn marks the transition from summer usually in September (northern hemisphere) or March (southern hemisphere) when the arrival of night becomes noticeably earlier. Summer is one of the four Temperate Seasons Summer marks the warmest time of year with the longest days Autumn starts on 22nd September and ends on 20th December, in the northern hemisphere. Autumn starts on or around 7 August and ends on about 6 November in solar term. Events 322 BC - Battle of Crannon between Athens and Macedon following the death of Alexander the Great. Events 355 - Roman Emperor Constantius II promotes his cousin Julian to the rank of Caesar, entrusting him with A solar term is one of 24 points in traditional East Asian Lunisolar calendars that matches a particular astronomical event or signifies some natural phenomenon
In Ireland, autumn begins on 1 August and ends 31 October, due to the Irish calendar. Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world Events 30 BC - Octavian (later known as Augustus enters Alexandria, Egypt, bringing it under the control of the Roman Events 445 BC – Ezra reads the Book of the Law to the Israelites in Jerusalem (see Nehemiah 91 NLTse The Irish calendar does not observe the typical astronomical seasons (beginning in the Northern Hemisphere on the Equinoxes and Solstices, or the meteorological seasons
The word autumn comes from the Old French word autompne (automne in modern French), and was later normalized to the original Latin word autumnus. Old French was the Romance Dialect continuum spoken in territories which span roughly the northern half of modern France and parts of modern Belgium Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome.  There are rare examples of its use as early as the 14th century, but it became common by the 16th century, around the same time as fall, and the two words appear to have been used interchangeably.
Before the 16th century, harvest was the term usually used to refer to the season. However as more people gradually moved from working the land to living in towns (especially those who could read and write, the only people whose use of language we now know), the word harvest lost its reference to the time of year and came to refer only to the actual activity of reaping, and fall and autumn began to replace it as a reference to the season.
The alternative word fall is now mostly a North American English word for the season. North American English is a collective term used for the varieties of the English language that are spoken in North America, namely in the United States It traces its origins to old Germanic languages. The Germanic languages are a group of related languages that constitute a branch of the Indo-European (IE Language family. The exact derivation is unclear, the Old English fiæll or feallan and the Old Norse fall all being possible candidates. Old Norse is the North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements during the Viking Age However, these words all have the meaning "to fall from a height" and are clearly derived either from a common root or from each other. The term came to denote the season in the 16th century, a contraction of Middle English expressions like "fall of the leaf" and "fall of the year". Middle English is the name given by Historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of
During the 17th century, English immigration to the colonies in North America was at its peak, and the new settlers took their language with them. While the term fall gradually became obsolescent in Britain, it became the more common term in North America, where autumn is nonetheless preferred in scientific and often in literary contexts.
Many ancient civilizations (such as the Amerindians and the ancient Hebrews) computed the years by autumns, while the Anglo-Saxons did so by winters. For indigenous peoples in the United States other than Hawaii and Alaska see also Native Americans in the United States. For their language see Anglo-Saxon language. Anglo-Saxon is the term usually used to describe the invading Tribes in the south Tacitus states that the ancient Germans were acquainted with all the other seasons of the year but had no notion of autumn — though this is likely to be wrong, especially as a blanket statement (Tacitus wrote about Germanic tribes without firsthand knowledge and thus promoted myths as well as actual information). Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (ca 56 &ndash ca 117 was a senator and a Historian of the Roman Empire. Linwood observed of the beginning of the several seasons of the year, that:
In alchemy, autumn is the time or season when the operation of the Philosopher's stone is brought to maturity and perfection. Alchemy a part of the Occult Tradition is both a philosophy and a practice with an ultimately unknown aim involving the improvement of the alchemist as well as the making of The philosopher's stone (lapis philosophorum Greek: Chrysopoeia) is a Legendary substance supposedly capable of turning inexpensive Metals  It is also symbolised by the Metal element in Chinese astrology. In traditional Chinese philosophy, Metal is classified as one of the Wu xing ( or the Five Elements, also translated as five phases
Autumn's association with the transition from warm to cold weather, and its related status as the season of the primary harvest, has dominated its themes and popular images. In Western cultures, personifications of autumn are usually pretty, well-fed females adorned with fruits, vegetables and grains and wheat that ripen at this time. Most ancient cultures featured autumnal celebrations of the harvest, often the most important on their calendars. Still extant echoes of these celebrations are found in the mid-autumn Thanksgiving holiday of the United States, and the Jewish Sukkot holiday with its roots as a full moon harvest festival of "tabernacles" (huts wherein the harvest was processed and which later gained religious significance). In the United States, Thanksgiving or Thanksgiving Day is an annual one-day legal holiday to express Gratitude for the things one has The United States of America —commonly referred to as the PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ Sukkot ( also known as Succoth, Sukkos, Feast of Booths or Feast of Tabernacles) is a Biblical Pilgrimage There's also the many North American Indian festivals tied to harvest of autumnally ripe foods gathered in the wild, the Chinese Mid-Autumn or Moon festival, and many others. The Mid-Autumn Festival, also known as the Moon Festival, or in Chinese Zhongqiu Jie ( is a popular harvest festival celebrated by Chinese The predominant mood of these autumnal celebrations is a gladness for the fruits of the earth mixed with a certain melancholy linked to the imminent arrival of harsh weather.
This view is presented in John Keats' poem To Autumn where he describes the season as a time of bounteous fecundity, a time of 'mellow fruitfulness'. To Autumn is a Poem written by English Romantic poet John Keats in 1819 (published 1820)
Autumn in poetry has often been associated with melancholy. The possibilities of summer are gone, and the chill of winter is on the horizon. Skies turn grey, and people turn inward, both physically and mentally.  Rainer Maria Rilke, a German poet, has expressed such sentiments in one of his most famous poems, Herbsttag (Autumn Day), which reads in part:
This translates roughly (there is no official translation) to:
Similar examples may be found in William Butler Yeats' poem The Wild Swans at Coole where the maturing season that the poet observes symbolically represents his own aging self. The Wild Swans at Coole is a collection of poems by William Yeats, first published in 1917. Like the natural world that he observes he too has reached his prime and now must look forward to the inevitability of old age and death. Paul Verlaine's "Chanson d'automne" ("Autumn Song") is likewise characterized by strong, painful feelings of sorrow. Paul-Marie Verlaine (vɛʁˈlɛn March 30, 1844 &ndash January 8, 1896) was a French poet associated with the Symbolist "Chanson d'automne" ("Autumn Song" is a poem by Paul Verlaine, one of the best known in the French language.
In the U. S. , autumn is also associated with the Halloween season (which in turn was influenced by Samhain, a Celtic autumn festival), and with it a widespread marketing campaign that promotes it. Halloween, or Hallowe’en, is a Holiday celebrated on the night of October 31. Samhain (ˈsaʊn or /ˈsɑːwɪn/ Irish /ˈsˠaunʲ/ from the Old Irish samain) is the word for November in a few Gaelic languages The television, film, book, costume, home decoration, and confectionery industries use this time of year to promote products closely associated with such holiday, with promotions going from early September to 31 October, since their themes rapidly lose strength once the holiday ends, and advertising starts concentrating on Christmas. Events 445 BC – Ezra reads the Book of the Law to the Israelites in Jerusalem (see Nehemiah 91 NLTse
Since 1997, Autumn has been one of the top 100 names for girls in the United States. 
Although colour change in leaves occurs wherever deciduous trees are found, coloured autumn foliage is most famously noted in two regions of the world: most of Canada and the United States; and Eastern Asia, including China, Korea, and Japan. Autumn leaf color is a phenomenon that affects the normally Green leaves of many Deciduous Trees and Shrubs by which they take on during Botany Autumn leaf color. See --> In Botany and Horticulture, deciduous Plants, including In Botany, a leaf is an above-ground Plant organ specialized for Photosynthesis. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page The United States of America —commonly referred to as the China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Korea is a geographic area composed of two sovereign countries a civilization and a former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. It can also be very significant in Argentina, Australia, Chile and New Zealand, but not to the same degree. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Chile, officially the Republic of Chile ( Spanish:) is a country in South America occupying a long and narrow Coastal strip wedged between the New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island
Eastern Canada and the New England region of the United States are famous for the brilliance of their fall foliage, and a seasonal tourist industry has grown up around the few weeks in autumn when the leaves are at their peak. History See also History of New England New England's earliest inhabitants were Algonquian -speaking Native Americans including the
Autumn with a rainbow on the background in Bratislava, Slovakia. ARTICLE TEXT BEGINS AFTER THESE COMMENTS - PLEASE READ 1 Please do not edit the lead without reading Slovakia (long form Slovak Republic; Slovak:, long form, is a Landlocked country in Central Europe with a population of over five million
Autumn leaves at Westonbirt Arboretum, Gloucestershire, England. Westonbirt Arboretum is an Arboretum near Tetbury in Gloucestershire, England, perhaps the most important and widely known arboretum in the History See also History of Gloucestershire Gloucestershire is a historic county mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in the 10th century England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland
Brilliant orange of sunlight autumn trees.
Autumn in Pennsylvania. The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania ( often colloquially referred to as PA (its abbreviation by natives and Northeasterners is a state located in the Northeastern
Autumn in the forests of New Jersey.
Autumn in the eastern United States.