Automated teller machine (ATM) is a computerized telecommunications device that provides the customers of a financial institution with access to financial transactions in a public space without the need for a human clerk or bank teller. A customer is someone who makes use of the paid products of an individual or Organization. In Financial economics, a financial institution acts as an agent that provides Financial services for its clients or members A financial transaction involves a change in the Status of the finances of two or more businesses or individuals Clerk, the vocational title commonly refers to a White-collar worker who conducts general office or in some instances sales tasks A bank teller is an employee of a Bank who deals directly with most customers On most modern ATMs, the customer is identified by inserting a plastic ATM card with a magnetic stripe or a plastic smartcard with a chip, that contains a unique card number and some security information, such as an expiration date or CVC (CVV). An ATM card (also known as a bank card, client card, key card or cash card) is an ISO 7810 card issued by a Bank, A magnetic stripe card is a type of card capable of storing Data by modifying the Magnetism of tiny iron-based magnetic particles on a band of magnetic material A smart card, chip card, or Integrated circuit card ( ICC) is any pocket-sized card with embedded integrated The Card Security Code ( CSC) sometimes called Card Verification Value (CVV, Card Verification Value Code (CVVC, Card Verification Code (CVC Security is provided by the customer entering a personal identification number (PIN). Security is the condition of being protected against danger loss and criminals A personal identification number (PIN is a secret numeric Password shared between a user and a system that can be used to authenticate the user to the system
Using an ATM, customers can access their bank accounts in order to make cash withdrawals (or credit card cash advances) and check their account balances. In Accountancy, an account is a label used for recording and reporting a Quantity of almost anything Cash usually refers to Money in the form of Currency, such as Banknotes and Coins In Bookkeeping and Finance, A credit card is part of a system of Payments named after the small Plastic card issued to users of the system ATMs are known by various casual terms including automated banking machine, money machine, bank machine, cash machine, hole-in-the-wall, cashpoint or Bancomat (in Europe and Russia).
A mechanical cash dispenser was developed and built by Luther George Simjian and installed in 1939 in New York City by the City Bank of New York, but removed after 6 months due to the lack of customer acceptance. Luther George Simjian ( January 28, 1905 in Turkey &ndash October 23, 1997) was an American Inventor of numerous The City of New York Citibank is a major international Bank, founded in 1812 as the City Bank of New York, later First National City Bank of New York. 
The ATM got smaller, faster and easier over the years. Thereafter, the history of ATMs paused for over 25 years, until De La Rue developed the first electronic ATM, which was installed first in Enfield Town in North London, United Kingdom on 27 June 1967 by Barclays Bank. De La Rue plc ( is a British security printing papermaking and cash handling systems company headquartered in Basingstoke, Hampshire. Enfield Town is a location in the London Borough of Enfield. It is north north-east of Charing Cross. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Events 1358 - Republic of Dubrovnik is founded 1709 - Peter the Great defeats Charles XII of Sweden Year 1967 ( MCMLXVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. Barclays PLC is a major global financial services provider operating in Europe, North America, the Middle East, Latin America, Australia  This instance of the invention is credited to John Shepherd-Barron, although various other engineers were awarded patents for related technologies at the time. An invention is a new form composition of matter device or Process. John Adrian Shepherd-Barron (born 23 June 1925 Shillong, Assam, India) is a Scottish  Shepherd-Barron was awarded an OBE in the 2005 New Year's Honours List. The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British Order of chivalry established on 4 June 1917 by King George V. The British honours system is a means of rewarding individuals' personal bravery achievement or service to the United Kingdom.  The first person to use the machine was the British variety artist and actor Reg Varney. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Reginald Alfred Varney (born 11 July 1916, Canning Town, East London) (now London E  The first ATMs accepted only a single-use token or voucher, which was retained by the machine. These worked on various principles including radiation and low-coercivity magnetism that was wiped by the card reader to make fraud more difficult. Radiation, as in Physics, is Energy in the form of waves or moving Subatomic particles emitted by an atom or other body as it changes from a higher energy In Physics, magnetism is one of the Phenomena by which Materials exert attractive or repulsive Forces on other Materials.  The machine dispensed pre-packaged envelopes containing ten pounds sterling. The Pound Sterling ( symbol £; ISO code: GBP) subdivided into 100 pence (singular penny) is the Currency The idea of a PIN stored on the card was developed by the British engineer James Goodfellow in 1965. James Goodfellow (born 1937 in Paisley, Renfrewshire) is a Scottish Inventor. 
However, the modern, networked ATM was invented in Dallas, Texas, by Don Wetzel in 1968. Wetzel was a department head at an automated baggage-handling company called Docutel. In 1995 the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History recognized Docutel and Wetzel as the inventors of the ATM.
ATMs first came into wide UK use in 1973; the IBM 2984 was designed at the request of Lloyds Bank. Lloyds Bank Plc was a British Commercial bank which operated in England and Wales (and to a much lesser extent Scotland) from 1833 until its The 2984 CIT (Cash Issuing Terminal) was the first true Cashpoint, similar in function to today's machines; Cashpoint is still a registered trademark of Lloyds TSB in the U. A trademark or trade mark, represented by the symbols ™ and ®, or mark is a distinctive sign or indicator used by an individual K. All were online and issued a variable amount which was immediately deducted from the account. A small number of 2984s were supplied to a USA bank. Notable historical models of ATMs include the IBM 3624 and 473x series, Diebold 10xx and TABS 9000 series, and NCR 5xxx series. A successor to the IBM 3614, the IBM 3624 was a late 1970s second-generation Automatic teller machine The Diebold 10xx (or Modular Delivery System MDS series is a third and fourth generation family of Automated teller machines manufactured by Diebold NCR Corporation ( is a technology company specializing in products for the retail and financial sectors
ATMs are placed not only near or inside the premises of banks, but also in locations such as shopping centers/malls, airports, grocery stores, petrol/gas stations, restaurants, or any place large numbers of people may gather. These represent two types of ATM installations: on and off premise. On premise ATMs are typically more advanced, multi-function machines that complement an actual bank branch's capabilities and thus more expensive. Off premise machines are deployed by financial institutions and also ISOs (or Independent Sales Organizations) where there is usually just a straight need for cash, so they typically are the cheaper mono-function devices. In Canada, when an ATM is not operated by a financial institution it is known as a "White Label ATM". White Label ABMs in Canada provide alternative source of cash dispensing vis-à-vis traditional Automatic banking machines (ABMs from banks
In North America, banks often have drive-through lanes providing access to ATMs. A drive-through, or drive-thru, is a type of service provided by a business that allows customers to purchase products without leaving their cars
Many ATMs have a sign above them indicating the name of the bank or organization owning the ATM, and possibly including the list of ATM networks to which that machine is connected. This type of sign is called a topper.
Most ATMs are connected to interbank networks, enabling people to withdraw and deposit money from machines not belonging to the bank where they have their account or in the country where their accounts are held (enabling cash withdrawals in local currency). An interbank network, also known as an ATM consortium or ATM network, is a computer network that connects the ATMs of different Banks Some examples of interbank networks include PLUS, Cirrus, Interac and LINK. Cirrus is a worldwide Interbank network operated by MasterCard Worldwide. Interac Association is a Canadian organization linking enterprises that have proprietary networks so that they may communicate with each other for the purpose LINK is a shared Interbank ATM network operating in the United Kingdom.
ATMs rely on authorization of a financial transaction by the card issuer or other authorizing institution via the communications network. A financial transaction involves a change in the Status of the finances of two or more businesses or individuals This is often performed through an ISO 8583 messaging system. ISO 8583 Standard for Financial Transaction Card Originated Messages - Interchange message specifications is the International Organization for Standardization standard for systems
Many banks charge ATM usage fees. ATM usage fees are the fees many banks and Interbank networks charge for the use of their Automated Teller Machines (ATMs In some cases, these fees are charged solely to users who are not customers of the bank where the ATM is installed; in other cases, they apply to all users. Many people oppose these fees because ATMs are actually less costly for banks than withdrawals from human tellers.
In order to allow a more diverse range of devices to attach to their networks, some interbank networks have passed rules expanding the definition of an ATM to be a terminal that either has the vault within its footprint or utilizes the vault or cash drawer within the merchant establishment, which allows for the use of a scrip cash dispenser. A scrip cash dispenser is a computerized telecommunications device that allows a Financial institution 's Customers a Secure method of receiving cash in a
ATMs typically connect directly to their ATM Controller via either a dial-up modem over a telephone line or directly via a leased line. An ATMC ( ATM Controller is a system used in financial institutions to route financial transactions between ATMs core banking systems and other banks Modem (from mo dulator- dem odulator is a device that modulates an analog carrier signal to encode Digital information Basic principle A traditional landline telephone system also known as "plain old telephone service" (POTS, commonly handles both signaling and audio information Leased lines are preferable to POTS lines because they require less time to establish a connection. Leased lines may be comparatively expensive to operate versus a POTS line, meaning less-trafficked machines will usually rely on a dial-up modem. That dilemma may be solved as high-speed Internet VPN connections become more ubiquitous. Common lower-level layer communication protocols used by ATMs to communicate back to the Bank include SNA over SDLC, TC500 over Async, X.25, and TCP/IP over Ethernet. Systems Network Architecture ( SNA) is IBM 's proprietary networking architecture created in 1974 Synchronous Data Link Control (SDLC is a Computer Communications protocol. In Telecommunications, Asynchronous communication is transmission of data without the use of an external clock signal X25 is an ITU-T standard Network layer protocol for packet switched Wide area network (WAN communication The Internet Protocol Suite (commonly TCP/IP) is the set of Communications protocols used for the Internet and other similar networks Ethernet is a family of frame -based Computer networking technologies for Local area networks (LANs
In addition to methods employed for transaction security and secrecy, all communications traffic between the ATM and the Transaction Processor may also be encrypted via methods such as SSL. Transport Layer Security ( TLS) and its predecessor Secure Sockets Layer ( SSL) are Cryptographic protocols that provide secure 
There are no hard international or government-compiled numbers totaling the complete number of ATMs in use worldwide. officially, is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan and located on the eastern side of the main island Honshū. A rapid transit, underground, subway, elevated railway or metro(politan system is an electric passenger railway Estimates developed by ATMIA place the number of ATMs in use at over 1. 5 million as of August 2006. 
For the purpose of analyzing ATM usage around the world, financial institutions generally divide the world into seven regions, due to the penetration rates, usage statistics, and features deployed. Four regions (USA, Canada, Europe, and Japan) have high numbers of ATMs per million people and generally slowing growth rates.  Despite the large number of ATMs, there is additional demand for machines in the Asia/Pacific area as well as in Latin America.  ATMs have yet to reach high numbers in the Near East/Africa. 
The world's most northerly installed ATM is located at Longyearbyen, Svalbard, Norway. This is a list of various different northernmost things on earth Longyearbyen is the Administrative centre of Svalbard and is located on Spitsbergen, the largest island of the Svalbard Archipelago. Svalbard is an Archipelago in the Arctic Ocean north of mainland Europe, about midway between Norway and the North Pole. Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional 
The world's most southerly installed ATM is located at McMurdo Station, Antarctica. Cities and settlements Shops and service facilities Brand names Geography Land (ice covered the Geographic South McMurdo Station is an American Antarctic research center located on the southern tip of Ross Island on the shore of McMurdo Sound, 2200 
While ATMs are ubiquitous on modern cruise ships, ATMs can also be found on some US Navy ships. A cruise ship or cruise liner is a Passenger ship used for pleasure voyages where the voyage itself and the ship's amenities are part of the experience 
In the United Kingdom, an ATM may be colloqually referred to as a "Cashpoint", named after the Lloyds Bank ATM brand, or hole-in-the-wall. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located 
An ATM is typically made up of the following devices:
Recently, due to heavier computing demands and the falling price of computer-like architectures, ATMs have moved away from custom hardware architectures using microcontrollers and/or application-specific integrated circuits to adopting a hardware architecture that is very similar to a personal computer. A function key is a key on a Computer or terminal keyboard which can be programmed so as to cause an operating system command interpreter or application A Touch Screen is a display which can detect the presence and location of a touch within the display area A bank vault is a secure space where Money, valuables records and documents can be stored A microcontroller (also MCU or µC is a functional Computer system-on-a- chip. A personal computer ( PC) is any Computer whose original sales price size and capabilities make it useful for individuals and which is intended to be operated Many ATMs are now able to use operating systems such as Microsoft Windows and Linux. Linux (commonly pronounced ˈlɪnəks Although it is undoubtedly cheaper to use commercial off-the-shelf hardware, it does make ATMs vulnerable to the same sort of problems exhibited by conventional computers. Commercial off-the-shelf ( COTS) is a term for Software or Hardware, generally technology or computer products that are ready-made and available for sale
The vault of an ATM is within the footprint of the device itself and is where items of value are kept. Scrip cash dispensers do not incorporate a vault. A scrip cash dispenser is a computerized telecommunications device that allows a Financial institution 's Customers a Secure method of receiving cash in a
Mechanisms found inside the vault may include:
ATM vaults are supplied by manufacturers in several grades. Cash usually refers to Money in the form of Currency, such as Banknotes and Coins In Bookkeeping and Finance, Factors influencing vault grade selection include cost, weight, regulatory requirements, ATM type, operator risk avoidance practices, and internal volume requirements. 
Industry standard vault configurations include Underwriters Laboratories UL-291 "Business Hours" and Level 1 Safes, RAL TL-30 derivatives, and CEN EN 1143-1:2005 - CEN III/VdS and CEN IV/LGAI/VdS. Underwriters Laboratories Inc (UL is a US non-profit privately owned and operated Product safety testing and certification organization 
ATM manufacturers recommend that vaults be attached to the floor to prevent theft. 
With the migration to commodity PC hardware, standard commercial "off-the-shelf" operating systems and programming environments can be used inside of ATMs. Wincor Nixdorf ( is a German Corporation that provides retail and retail banking hardware software and services Windows 2000 (also referred to as Win2K) is a preemptive, interruptible graphical and business-oriented Operating system designed to work with Typical platforms used in ATM development include RMX, OS/2, and Microsoft operating systems (such as MS-DOS, PC-DOS, Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows XP Professional, or Windows XP Embedded). This article is about the iRMX Operating System for the mail protocol see Reverse MX. OS/2 is a computer Operating system, initially created by Microsoft and IBM, then later developed by IBM exclusively Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational Computer technology Corporation, which rose to dominate the Home computer MS-DOS (short for M icro' s' oft D isk O perating S ystem is an Operating system commercialized by Microsoft. IBM PC-DOS is a DOS operating system for the IBM Personal Computer, sold throughout the 1980s and 1990s Windows NT is a family of Operating systems produced by Microsoft, the first version of which was released in July 1993 Windows 2000 (also referred to as Win2K) is a preemptive, interruptible graphical and business-oriented Operating system designed to work with Windows XP is a family of 32-bit and 64-bit Operating systems produced by Microsoft for use on Personal computers including home and Windows XP has been released in several editions since its original release in 2001 Java, Linux and Unix may also be used in these environments. Java refers to a number of Computer software products and specifications from Sun Microsystems that together provide a system for developing Application software Linux (commonly pronounced ˈlɪnəks Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX, sometimes also written as Unix with Small caps) is a computer
Linux is also finding some reception in the ATM marketplace. Linux (commonly pronounced ˈlɪnəks An example of this is Banrisul, the largest bank in the south of Brazil, which has replaced the MS-DOS operating systems in its ATMs with Linux. Banrisul is the largest Bank in Southern Brazil and operates primarily in the state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS over a network that serves 364 cities (73% |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld MS-DOS (short for M icro' s' oft D isk O perating S ystem is an Operating system commercialized by Microsoft. Banco do Brasil is also migrating ATMs to Linux. Banco do Brasil SA ( English: Bank of Brazil; BOV: BBAS3SA is a major Brazilian bank headquartered in Brasília.
Common application layer transaction protocols, such as Diebold 911 or 912, IBM PBM, and NCR NDC or NDC+ provide emulation of older generations of hardware on newer platforms with incremental extensions made over time to address new capabilities. Diebold Inc ( (ˈdiːboʊld is a United States -based security systems Corporation that is engaged primarily in the sale manufacture installation and service International Business Machines Corporation abbreviated IBM and nicknamed "Big Blue", is a multinational Computer Technology An emulator duplicates (provides an emulation of the functions of one System using a different system so that the second system behaves like (and appears to Most major ATM manufacturers provide software packages that implement these protocols. Newer protocols such as IFX have yet to find wide acceptance by transaction processors. Interactive Financial Exchange (IFX is an XML specification for financial transactions such as Bill presentment and payment business to business and consumer to 
With the move to a more standardized software base, financial institutions have been increasingly interested in the ability to pick and choose the application programs that drive their equipment. WOSA/XFS, now known as CEN XFS (or simply XFS), provides a common API for accessing and manipulating the various devices of an ATM. CEN/XFS or XFS provides a client-server architecture for financial applications on the Microsoft Windows platform especially peripheral devices such as EFTPOS CEN/XFS or XFS provides a client-server architecture for financial applications on the Microsoft Windows platform especially peripheral devices such as EFTPOS
J/XFS is a Java implementation of the CEN XFS API. 
While the perceived benefit of XFS is similar to the Java's "Write once, run anywhere" mantra, often different ATM hardware vendors have different interpretations of the XFS standard. " Write once run anywhere " ( WORA) or sometimes Write once run everywhere (WORE is a slogan created by Sun Microsystems to illustrate the The result of these differences in interpretation means that ATM applications typically use a middleware to even out the differences between various platforms. Middleware is computer Software that connects Software components or applications
Notable XFS middleware platforms include Triton PRISM, Diebold Agilis, CR2 BankWorld, KAL Kalignite, NCR Corporation Aptra Edge, Phoenix Interactive VISTAatm, and Wincor Nixdorf Protopas. Diebold Inc ( (ˈdiːboʊld is a United States -based security systems Corporation that is engaged primarily in the sale manufacture installation and service NCR Corporation ( is a technology company specializing in products for the retail and financial sectors Wincor Nixdorf ( is a German Corporation that provides retail and retail banking hardware software and services
With the move of ATMs to industry-standard computing environments, concern has risen about the integrity of the ATM's software stack. 
Security, as it relates to ATMs, has several dimensions. Security is the condition of being protected against danger loss and criminals ATMs also provide a practical demonstration of a number of security systems and concepts operating together and how various security concerns are dealt with.
Early ATM security focused on making the ATMs invulnerable to physical attack; they were effectively safes with dispenser mechanisms. A number of attacks on ATMs resulted, with thieves attempting to steal entire ATMs by ram-raiding. Ram-raiding is a variation on Burglary in which a Van, SUV, car or other heavy vehicle is driven through the windows or doors of a closed shop usually  Since late 1990s, criminal groups operating in Japan improved ram-raiding by stealing and using a truck loaded with a heavy construction machinery to effectively demolish or uproot an entire ATM and any housing to steal its cash. 
Another attack method is to seal all openings of the ATM with silicone and fill the vault with a combustible gas or to place an explosive inside, attached, or near the ATM. Silicones are largely inert compounds with a wide variety of forms and uses This gas or explosive is ignited and the vault is opened or distorted by the force of the resulting explosion and the criminals can break in.
Modern ATM physical security, per other modern money-handling security, concentrates on denying the use of the money inside the machine to a thief, by means of techniques such as dye markers and smoke canisters. 
The security of ATM transactions relies mostly on the integrity of the secure cryptoprocessor: the ATM often uses commodity components that are not considered to be "trusted systems". In the Security engineering subspecialty of Computer science, a trusted system is a system that is relied upon to a specified extent to enforce a specified security
Encryption of personal information, required by law in many jurisdictions, is used to prevent fraud. Sensitive data in ATM transactions are usually encrypted with DES, but transaction processors now usually require the use of Triple DES. The Data Encryption Standard ( DES) is a Cipher (a method for Encrypting information selected by NBS as an official Federal Information In Cryptography, Triple DES is a Block cipher formed from the Data Encryption Standard (DES Cipher by using it three times  Remote Key Loading techniques may be used to ensure the secrecy of the initialization of the encryption keys in the ATM. Message Authentication Code (MAC) or Partial MAC may also be used to ensure messages have not been tampered with while in transit between the ATM and the financial network. A cryptographic message authentication code (MAC is a short piece of information used to Authenticate a message A cryptographic message authentication code (MAC is a short piece of information used to Authenticate a message
There have also been a number of incidents of fraud where criminals have attached fake keypads or card readers to existing machines. or BTMU, is a Japanese Bank that was established on January 1, 2006, with the merger of The Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi Ltd These have then been used to record customers' PINs and bank card information in order to gain unauthorized access to their accounts. Various ATM manufacturers have put in place countermeasures to protect the equipment they manufacture from these threats. 
Alternate methods to verify cardholder identities have been tested and deployed in some countries, such as finger and palm vein patterns, iris, and facial recognition technologies. Cost of integrating and implementing these technologies along with concerns about consumer acceptance have limited their deployment so far. 
Openings on the customer-side of ATMs are often covered by mechanical shutters to prevent tampering with the mechanisms when they are not in use. Alarm sensors are placed inside the ATM and in ATM servicing areas to alert their operators when doors have been opened by unauthorized personnel.
Rules are usually set by the government or ATM operating body that dictate what happens when integrity systems fail. Depending on the jurisdiction, a bank may or may not be liable when an attempt is made to dispense a customer's money from an ATM and the money either gets outside of the ATM's vault, or was exposed in a non-secure fashion, or they are unable to determine the state of the money after a failed transaction.  Bank customers often complain that banks have made it difficult to recover money lost in this way, but this is often complicated by the Bank's own internal policies regarding suspicious activities typical of the criminal element. 
In some areas, multiple security cameras and security guards are a common feature. Closed-circuit television ( CCTV) is the use of Video cameras to transmit a signal to a specific place limited set of monitors A security guard or security officer is usually a privately and formally employed person who is paid to protect Property, assets or people  The NY State Comptroller's Office has criticized the NY State Department of Banking for not following through on safety inspections of ATMs in high crime areas. 
Critics of ATM operators assert that the issue of customer security appears to have been abandoned by the banking industry; it has been suggested that efforts are now more concentrated on deterrent legislation than on solving the problem of forced withdrawals. 
At least as far back as July 30, 1986, critics of the industry have called for the adoption of an emergency PIN system for ATMs, where the user is able to send a silent alarm in response to a threat. Events 1419 - First Defenestration of Prague. 1502 - Christopher Columbus lands at Guanaja in the Bay Islands off Year 1986 ( MCMLXXXVI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar) For the Bloc Party album see Silent Alarm (album. A silent alarm is a Burglar alarm that makes no noise that is audible to the  Legislative efforts to require an emergency PIN system have appeared in Illinois, Kansas and Georgia, but none have succeeded as of yet. The State of Illinois ( roughly ill-i-NOY is a state of the United States of America, the 21st to be admitted to the Union. Kansas ( is a Midwestern state in the central region of the United States of America, an area often referred to as the American " The State of Georgia ( is a state in the United States and was one of the original Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule
Although ATMs were originally developed as just cash dispensers, they have evolved to include many other bank-related functions. In some countries, especially those which benefit from a fully integrated cross-bank ATM network (e. g. : Multibanco in Portugal), ATMs include many functions which are not directly related to the management of one's own bank account, such as:
Increasingly Banks are seeking to use the ATM as a sales device to deliver pre approved loans and targeted advertising using products such as ITM (the Intelligent Teller Machine) from CR2 or Aptra Relate from NCR.
In Canada, ATMs are called guichets automatiques in French and sometimes "Bank Machines" in English. French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people The Interac shared cash network does not allow for the selling of goods from ATMs due to specific security requirements for PIN entry when buying goods. Interac Association is a Canadian organization linking enterprises that have proprietary networks so that they may communicate with each other for the purpose 
ATMs can also act as an advertising channel for companies to advertise their own products or third-party products and services. 
Manufactures have demonstrated and have deployed several different technologies on ATMs that have not yet reached worldwide acceptance, such as:
Before an ATM is placed in a public place, it typically has undergone extensive testing with both test money and the backend computer systems that allow it to perform transactions. Test Money (or Test Notes Test Bills Funny Money Monopoly Money are a part of the test apparatus that are often used with currency handling equipment such as Automatic Front-end and back-end are generalized terms that refer to the initial and the end stages of a process Banking customers also have come to expect high reliability in their ATMs, which provides incentives to ATM providers to minimize machine and network failures. Financial consequences of incorrect machine operation also provide high degrees of incentive to minimize malfunctions. 
ATMs and the supporting electronic financial networks are generally very reliable, with industry benchmarks typically producing 98. 25% customer availability for ATMs and up to 99. 999% availability for host systems. If ATMs do go out of service, customers could be left without the ability to make transactions until the beginning of their bank's next time of opening hours.
Of course, not all errors are to the detriment of customers; there have been cases of machines giving out money without debiting the account, or giving out higher value notes as a result of incorrect denomination of banknote being loaded in the money cassettes. Denomination is a proper description of a Currency amount usually for Coins or Banknotes Denominations may also be used with other means of payment like A banknote (often known as a bill, paper money or simply a note) is a kind of Negotiable instrument, a Promissory note made by a Errors that can occur may be mechanical (such as card transport mechanisms; keypads; hard disk failures); software (such as operating system; device driver; application); communications; or purely down to operator error. A machine is any device that uses Energy to perform some activity An operating system (commonly abbreviated OS and O/S) is the software component of a Computer system that is responsible for the management and coordination In computing a device driver or software driver is a Computer program allowing higher-level computer programs to interact with a Hardware device Application software is a subclass of Computer software that employs the capabilities of a computer directly and thoroughly to a task that the user wishes to perform In Telecommunications, information transfer is the process of moving messages containing User information from a source to a sink
To aid in reliability, some ATMs print each transaction to a roll paper journal that is stored inside the ATM, which allows both the users of the ATMs and the related financial institutions to settle things based on the records in the journal in case there is a dispute. In some cases, transactions are posted to an electronic journal to remove the cost of supplying journal paper to the ATM and for more convenient searching of data.
Improper money checking can cause the possibility of a customer receiving counterfeit banknotes from an ATM. A counterfeit is an imitation that is made usually with the intent to deceptively represent its content or origins While Bank personnel are generally trained better at spotting and removing counterfeit cash, the resulting ATM money supplies used by banks provide no absolute guarantee for proper banknotes, as the Federal Criminal Police Office of Germany has confirmed that there are regularly incidents of false banknotes having been provided through bank ATMs. The Federal Criminal Police Office of Germany (in German: Bundeskriminalamt or BKA is the national investigative Police agency of  Some ATMs may be stocked and wholly owned by outside companies, which can further complicate this problem when it happens. Bill validation technology can be used by ATM providers to help ensure the authenticity of the cash before it is stocked in an ATM; ATMs that have cash recycling capabilities include this capability. A currency detector is a device that determines if a piece of currency is or is not counterfeit 
As with any device containing objects of value, ATMs and the systems they depend on to function are the targets of fraud. Fraud against ATMs and people's attempts to use them takes several forms.
The first known instance of a fake ATM was installed at a shopping mall in Manchester, Connecticut in 1993. Manchester is a town in Hartford County, Connecticut, United States. By modifying the inner workings of a Fujitsu model 7020 ATM, a criminal gang known as The Bucklands Boys were able to steal information from cards inserted into the machine by customers. is a Japanese company specializing in Semiconductors Computers ( Supercomputers Personal computers, servers, Telecommunications 
In some cases, bank fraud could occur at ATMs whereby the bank accidentally stocks the ATM with bills in the wrong denomination, therefore giving the customer more money than should be dispensed.  The result of receiving too much money may be influenced on the Card Holder Agreement in place between the customer and the Bank. 
In a variation of this, WAVY-TV reported an incident in Virginia Beach of September 2006 where a hacker who had probably obtained a factory-default admin password for a gas station's white label ATM caused the unit to assume it was loaded with $5 USD bills instead of $20s, enabling himself--and many subsequent customers--to walk away with four times the money they said they wanted to withdraw. WAVY-TV is the NBC affiliate serving the Norfolk / Portsmouth / Newport News Virginia television market ( DMA) 
ATM behavior can change during what is called "stand-in" time, where the Bank's cash dispensing network is unable to access databases that contain account information (possibly for database maintenance). In order to give customers access to cash, customers may be allowed to withdraw cash up to a certain amount that may be less than their usual daily withdrawal limit, but may still exceed the amount of available money in their account, which could result in fraud. 
In an attempt to prevent criminals from shoulder surfing the customer's PINs, some banks draw privacy areas on the floor. In Computer security, shoulder surfing refers to using direct observation techniques such as looking over someone's shoulder to get information
For a low-tech form of fraud, the easiest is to simply steal a customer's card. A later variant of this approach is to trap the card inside of the ATM's card reader with a device often referred to as a Lebanese loop. A Lebanese loop is a device used to commit Fraud and Identity theft by exploiting Automated teller machines (ATMs When the customer gets frustrated by not getting the card back and walks away from the machine, the criminal is able to remove the card and withdraw cash from the customer's account.
Another simple form of fraud involves attempting to get the customer's bank to issue a new card and stealing it from their mail. 
The concept and various methods of copying the contents of an ATM card's magnetic stripe on to a duplicate card to access other people's financial information was well known in the hacking communities by late 1990. 
In 1996 Andrew Stone, a computer security consultant from Hampshire in the UK was convicted of stealing in excess of £1 million Sterling (at the time equivalent to US$1. 6 million) by pointing high definition video cameras at ATMs from a considerable distance, and by recording the card numbers, expiry dates, etc. from the embossed detail on the ATM cards along with video footage of the PINs being entered. After getting all the information from the videotapes, he was able to produce clone cards which not only allowed him to withdraw the full daily limit for each account, but also allowed him to sidestep withdrawal limits by using multiple copied cards. In court, it was shown that he could withdraw as much as £10,000 per hour by using this method. Stone was sentenced to five years and six months in prison. 
By contrast, a newer high-tech modus operandi involves the installation of a magnetic card reader over the real ATM's card slot and the use of a wireless surveillance camera or a modified digital camera to observe the user's PIN. Modus operandi (often used in the abbreviated forms MO or simply Method) is a Latin phrase approximately translated as " mode of operation Card data is then cloned onto a second card and the criminal attempts a standard cash withdrawal. The availability of low-cost commodity wireless cameras and card readers has made it a relatively simple form of fraud, with comparatively low risk to the fraudsters. 
In an attempt to stop these practices, countermeasures against card cloning have been developed by the banking industry, in particular by the use of smart cards which cannot easily be copied or spoofed by un-authenticated devices, and by attempting to make the outside of their ATMs tamper evident. A smart card, chip card, or Integrated circuit card ( ICC) is any pocket-sized card with embedded integrated Tamper-evident describes a device or process that makes unauthorised access to the protected object easily detected Older chip-card security systems include the French Carte Bleue, Visa Cash, Mondex, Blue from American Express and EMV '96 or EMV 3.11. Carte Bleue ("Blue Card" is a major Debit card payment scheme operating in France. Visa Cash is a Smart card Electronic cash system owned by VISA. Mondex is a Smart card Electronic cash system which was originally developed by National Westminster Bank in the United Kingdom and subsequently American Express ( sometimes known as " AmEx " or " Amex " is a diversified global Financial services company headquartered in EMV is a standard for interoperation of IC cards ("Chip cards" and IC capable POS terminals and ATM 's for authenticating credit The most actively developed form of smart card security in the industry today is known as EMV 2000 or EMV 4.x. EMV is a standard for interoperation of IC cards ("Chip cards" and IC capable POS terminals and ATM 's for authenticating credit
EMV is widely used in the UK (Chip and PIN) and parts of Europe, but when it is not available in a specific area, ATMs must fallback to using the easy to copy magnetic stripe to perform transactions. EMV is a standard for interoperation of IC cards ("Chip cards" and IC capable POS terminals and ATM 's for authenticating credit Chip and PIN is the name of a government-backed initiative in the United Kingdom to implement the EMV standard for secure payments This fallback behaviour can be exploited.  However the fallback option has been removed by several UK banks, meaning if the chip is not read, the transaction will be declined.
A Talking ATM is a type of ATM that provides audible instructions so that persons who cannot read an ATM screen can independently use the machine. A Talking ATM is a type of Automated teller machine (ATM that provides audible instructions so that persons who cannot read an ATM screen can independently use the machine All audible information is delivered privately through a standard headphone jack on the face of the machine. In Electronics, a jack is generally a Socket (female connector but because the related term Jack plug is often abbreviated to just jack confusion can Alternatively, some banks such as the Nordea and Swedbank use a built-in external speaker which may be invoked by pressing the talk button on the keypad. Nordea Bank AB is a Nordic financial services group operating in Northern Europe, based in Stockholm. Swedbank AB (formerly called FöreningsSparbanken) is a leading Nordic - Baltic Banking group with 8 Information is delivered to the customer either through pre-recorded sound files or via text-to-speech speech synthesis. Sound' is Vibration transmitted through a Solid, Liquid, or Gas; particularly sound means those vibrations composed of Frequencies Speech synthesis is the artificial production of human speech.
A postal interactive kiosk may also share many of the same components as an ATM (including a vault), but only dispenses items relating to postage. An Interactive kiosk is a Computer terminal that provides information access via electronic methods 
A scrip cash dispenser may share many of the same components as an ATM, but lacks the ability to dispense physical cash and consequently requires no vault. A scrip cash dispenser is a computerized telecommunications device that allows a Financial institution 's Customers a Secure method of receiving cash in a Instead, the customer requests a withdrawal transaction from the machine, which prints a receipt. The customer then takes this receipt to a nearby sales clerk, who then exchanges it for cash from the till. 
A Teller Assist Unit may also share many of the same components as an ATM (including a vault), but they are distinct in that they are designed to be operated solely by trained personnel and not the general public, they do not integrate directly into interbank networks, and are usually controlled by a computer that is not directly integrated into the overall construction of the unit. Teller assist units (TAU also known as automatic teller safes (ATS or teller cash dispensers (TCD are devices used in Retail banking for the disbursement