Attalus I (in Greek Attalos) Soter (Greek: "Savior"; 269 BC – 197 BC) ruled Pergamon, a Greek polis in what is now Turkey, first as dynast, later as king, from 241 BC to 197 BC. A bust is a sculpted or cast representation of the upper part of the human figure depicting a person's head and Neck, as well as a variable portion of The Pergamon Museum ( German: Pergamonmuseum) is among the museums on Museum Island in Berlin. Berlin is the capital city and one of sixteen states of Germany. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly A polis ( πόλις, pronunciation, in English-- plural poleis ( πόλεις, pronunciation, in English --is a City, a Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches A dynasty is a succession of rulers who belong to the same family for generations He was the second cousin (some say the grand-nephew) and the adoptive son of Eumenes I, whom he succeeded, and was the first of the Attalid dynasty to assume the title of king in 238 BC. Eumenes I of Pergamon was Dynast (ruler of the city of Pergamon in Asia Minor from 263 BC until his death in 241 BC The Attalid dynasty was a Hellenistic dynasty that ruled the city of Pergamon after the death of Lysimachus, a general of Alexander the Great  He was the son of Attalus (in Greek Attalos) and wife Antiochis, Princess of Syria. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly The Seleucid Empire /sə'lusɪd/ ( 312 - 63 BC) was a Hellenistic empire i
Attalus won an important victory over the Galatians, newly arrived Celtic tribes from Thrace, who had been, for more than a generation, plundering and exacting tribute throughout most of Asia Minor without any serious check. Ancient Galatia was an area in the highlands of central Anatolia in modern Turkey. Celts (ˈkɛlts or /ˈsɛlts/, see Names of the Celts Thrace (Тракия Trakiya or "Trakija" or Trakia, Θράκη Thráki, Trakya is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe Anatolia (Anadolu Ανατολία Anatolía) or Asia minor, comprising most of modern Turkey, is the geographic region bounded by the Black This victory, celebrated by the triumphal monument at Pergamon, famous for its Dying Gaul, and the liberation from the Gallic "terror" which it represented, earned for Attalus the name of "Soter", and the title of "king. The Dying Gaul (in Italian: Galata Morente) is an ancient Roman Marble copy of a lost Hellenistic sculpture that "
A courageous and capable general and loyal ally of Rome, he played a significant role in the first and second Macedonian Wars, waged against Philip V of Macedon. Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC The Macedonian and Seleucid wars were a series of conflicts fought by Rome during and after the Second Punic war, in the eastern Mediterranean, the Adriatic Philip V ( Greek Φίλιππος Ε΄) (238 BC - 179 BC was King of Macedon from 221 BC to 179 BC He conducted numerous naval operations, harassing Macedonian interests throughout the Aegean, winning honors, collecting spoils, and gaining for Pergamon possession of the Greek islands of Aegina during the first war, and Andros during the second, twice narrowly escaping capture at the hands of Philip. Etymology In ancient times there were various explanations for the name Aegean. Aegina ( Greek: Αίγινα ( Egina) is one of the Saronic Islands of Greece in the Saronic Gulf, 17 miles (30 km from Andros, or Andro (Άνδρος an Island of the Greek Archipelago, the most northerly of the Cyclades, approximately 10 km
He died in 197 BC, shortly before the end of the second war, at the age of 72, having suffered an apparent stroke while addressing a Boeotian war council some months before. A stroke is the rapidly developing loss of brain functions due to a disturbance in the blood vessels supplying blood to the brain Boeotia, Beotia, or Bœotia ( Greek: Βοιωτία - English biːˈoʊʃiə formerly Cadmeis was a region of Ancient Greece, north of the He enjoyed a famously happy domestic life, shared with his wife and four sons. He was succeeded as king by his son Eumenes II. Eumenes II of Pergamon (Εὐμένης Α' τῆς Περγάμου (ruled 197 - 159 BC was king of Pergamon and a member of the Attalid dynasty.
Little is known about Attalus' early life. He was the son of Attalus, and Antiochis. 
The elder Attalus was the son of a brother (also called Attalus) of both Philetaerus, the founder of the Attalid dynasty, and Eumenes, the father of Eumenes I, Philetaerus' successor; he is mentioned, along with his uncles, as a benefactor of Delphi. Philetaerus ( Greek:, Philétairos, ca 343 BC&ndash263 BC was the founder of the Attalid dynasty of Pergamon in Anatolia. The Attalid dynasty was a Hellenistic dynasty that ruled the city of Pergamon after the death of Lysimachus, a general of Alexander the Great Eumenes I of Pergamon was Dynast (ruler of the city of Pergamon in Asia Minor from 263 BC until his death in 241 BC Delphi ( Greek,) ( pronounce and dialectal forms) is an archaeological site and a modern town in Greece on the south-western He won fame as a charioteer, winning at Olympia, and was honored with a monument at Pergamon. Olympia ( Greek: Olympí'a or Olýmpia, older transliterations Olimpia, Olimbia) a sanctuary of ancient Greece Attalus was a young child when his father died, sometime before 241 BC, after which he was adopted by Eumenes I, the incumbent dynast.
Attalus' mother, Antiochis, was probably related to the Seleucid royal family (perhaps being the granddaughter of Seleucus I Nicator) with her marriage to Attalus' father likely arranged by Philetaerus to solidify his power. The Seleucid Empire /sə'lusɪd/ ( 312 - 63 BC) was a Hellenistic empire i Seleucus I (surnamed for later generations Nicator, Greek: Σέλευκος Νικάτωρ, i This would be consistent with the conjecture that Attalus' father had been Philetaerus' heir designate, but was succeeded by Eumenes, since Attalus I was too young when his father died.
According to Pausanias, "the greatest of his achievements" was the defeat of the "Gauls" (Γαλάται). The Dying Gaul (in Italian: Galata Morente) is an ancient Roman Marble copy of a lost Hellenistic sculpture that Pausanias ( Greek:) was a Greek traveller and Geographer of the 2nd century CE, who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus Gaul (Gallia was the Roman name for the region of Western Europe comprising present day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western  Pausanias was referring to the Galatians, immigrant Celts from Thrace, who had recently settled in Galatia in central Asia Minor, and whom the Romans and Greeks called Gauls, associating them with the Celts of what is now France, Switzerland, and northern Italy. Celts (ˈkɛlts or /ˈsɛlts/, see Names of the Celts Thrace (Тракия Trakiya or "Trakija" or Trakia, Θράκη Thráki, Trakya is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe Ancient Galatia was an area in the highlands of central Anatolia in modern Turkey. Anatolia (Anadolu Ανατολία Anatolía) or Asia minor, comprising most of modern Turkey, is the geographic region bounded by the Black This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Since the time of Philetaerus, the uncle of Eumenes I and the first Attalid ruler, the Galatians had posed a problem for Pergamon, indeed for all of Asia Minor, by exacting tributes to avoid war or other repercussions. Philetaerus ( Greek:, Philétairos, ca 343 BC&ndash263 BC was the founder of the Attalid dynasty of Pergamon in Anatolia. Eumenes I had (probably), along with other rulers, dealt with the Galatians by paying these tributes. Attalus however refused to pay them, being the first such ruler to do so.  As a consequence, the Galatians set out to attack Pergamon. Attalus met them near the sources of the river Caïcus and won a decisive victory, after which, following the example of Antiochus I, Attalus took the name of Soter, which means "savior", and claimed the title of king. Antiochus I Soter (unknown - 261 BC was a king of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire. The victory brought Attalus legendary fame. A story arose, related by Pausanias, of an oracle who had foretold these events a generation earlier:
Pausanius adds that by "son of a bull" the oracle "meant Attalus, king of Pergamon, who was styled bull-horned".  On the acropolis of Pergamon was erected a triumphal monument, which included the famous sculpture the Dying Gaul, commemorating this battle. The Dying Gaul (in Italian: Galata Morente) is an ancient Roman Marble copy of a lost Hellenistic sculpture that
Several years after the first victory over the Gauls, Pergamon was again attacked by the Gauls together with their ally Antiochus Hierax, the younger brother of Seleucus II Callinicus, and ruler of Seleucid Asia Minor from his capital at Sardis. Philetaerus ( Greek:, Philétairos, ca 343 BC&ndash263 BC was the founder of the Attalid dynasty of Pergamon in Anatolia. ATHENA was an Antimatter research project that took place at the AD Ring at CERN. Antiochus Hierax (in Greek Aντιoχoς Ιεραξ; killed 226 BC so called from his grasping and ambitious character was a separatist ruler of the Greek Seleucus II Callinicus or Pogon (the epithets meaning "beautiful victor" and "bearded" respectively was a ruler of the Hellenistic Sardis, also Sardes ( Lydian: Sfard, Greek: Σάρδεις, Persian: Sparda) modern Sart in Attalus defeated the Gauls and Antiochus at the battle of Aphrodisium and again at a second battle in the east. Subsequent battles were fought and won against Antiochus alone: in Hellespontine Phrygia, where Antiochus was perhaps seeking refuge with his father-in law, Ziaelas the king of Bithynia; near Sardis in the spring of 228 BC; and, in the final battle of the campaign, further south in Caria on the banks of the Harpasus, a tributary of the Maeander. Ziaelas (reigned c 254&ndash228 BC third king of Bithynia, was a son of Nicomedes I and Ditizele Description Several major cities sat on the fertile shores of the Propontis (which is now known as Sea of Marmara) Nicomedia, Chalcedon, Cius Municipalities of Caria Cramer's detailed catalog of Carian towns in Classical Greece is based entirely on ancient sources The Büyük Menderes River (historically the Maeander also spelled Meander) Turkish: Büyük Menderes Nehri, Ancient Greek: 
As a result of these victories, Attalus gained control over all of Seleucid Asia Minor north of the Taurus Mountains. For the Taurus Mountains on the moon see Montes Taurus. For Mount Taurus outside Cold Spring New York, see Bull Hill.  He was able to hold onto these gains in the face of repeated attempts by Seleucus III Ceraunus, eldest son and successor of Seleucus II, to recover the lost territory, culminating in Seleucus III himself crossing the Taurus with his army, only to be assassinated in 223 BC. Seleucus III Soter, called Seleucus Ceraunus (ca 243 BC - 223 BC was a ruler of the Hellenistic Seleucid kingdom, the eldest son of
Achaeus, who had accompanied Seleucus III, assumed control of the army. Achaeus ( Greek:; died 213 BC was a general and later a separatist ruler of part of the Greek Seleucid kingdom. He was offered and refused the kingship in favor of Seleucus III's younger brother Antiochus III the Great, who then made Achaeus governor of Seleucid Asia Minor north of the Taurus. Antiochus III the Great, ( Greek; ca 241&ndash187 BC ruled 222&ndash187 BC younger son of Seleucus II Callinicus Within two years Achaeus had recovered all the lost Seleucid territories, "shut up Attalus within the walls of Pergamon," and assumed the title of king. 
After a period of peace, in 218 BC, while Achaeus was involved in an expedition to Selge south of the Taurus, Attalus, with some Thracian Gauls, recaptured his former territories. Selge (in Greek Σελγη) was an important city in Pisidia, on the southern slope of Mount Taurus, at the part where the river Eurymedon  However Achaeus returned from victory in Selge in 217 BC and resumed hostilities with Attalus.
Antiochus, under a treaty of alliance with Attalus, crossed the Taurus in 216 BC, attacked Achaeus and besieged Sardis, and in 214 BC, the second year of the siege, was able to take the city. However the citadel remained under Achaeus' control.  Under the pretense of a rescue, Achaeus was finally captured and put to death, and the citadel surrendered By 213 BC, Antiochus had regained control of all of his Asiatic provinces.
Thwarted in the east, Attalus now turned his attention westward. Perhaps because of concern for the ambitions of Philip V of Macedon, Attalus had sometime before 219 BC become allied with Philip's enemies the Aetolian League, a union of Greek states in Aetolia in central Greece, having funded the fortification of Elaeus, an Aetolian stronghold in Calydonia, near the mouth of the river Achelous. Philip V ( Greek Φίλιππος Ε΄) (238 BC - 179 BC was King of Macedon from 221 BC to 179 BC The Aetolian League was a confederation of states in Ancient Greece centered on the cities of Aetolia in central Greece Aetolia is a mountainous region of Greece on the north coast of the Gulf of Corinth forming the eastern part of the modern prefecture of Aetolia-Acarnania Calydon ( Greek: Καλυδών was an ancient Greek city in Aetolia, situated on the west bank of the river Evenus. In Greek mythology, Achelous (English ækɨˈloʊəs Greek: (Achelōos was the patron deity of the "silver-swirling" Acheloos River, which 
Philip's alliance with Hannibal of Carthage in 215 BC also caused concern in Rome, then involved in the Second Punic War. Hannibal (Pronounced in Phoenician: Hanniba'al means " Ba'al is my grace " or " Ba'al has given me grace " 247 BC &ndash Carthage (Καρχηδών Karkhēdōn, Carthago from the Phoenician קרת חדשת phn-Latn Qart-ḥadašt meaning new town) refers Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 The Second Punic War (referred to as "The War Against Hannibal" by the Romans lasted from 218 to 201 BC and involved combatants in the western  In 211 BC, a treaty was signed between Rome and the Aetolian League, a provision of which allowed for the inclusion of certain allies of the League, Attalus being one of these.  Attalus was elected one of the two strategoi (generals) of the Aetolian League, and in 210 BC his troops probably participated in capturing the island of Aegina, acquired by Attalus as his base of operations in Greece. For the board game see Stratego. "Strategus" redirects here Aegina ( Greek: Αίγινα ( Egina) is one of the Saronic Islands of Greece in the Saronic Gulf, 17 miles (30 km from 
In the following spring (209 BC), Philip marched south into Greece. Under command of Pyrrhias, Attalus' colleague as strategos, the allies lost two battles at Lamia. Lamia (Λαμία is a city in central Greece. It is a site of Archaeological excavation (a castle dating from the pre-classical years reconstructed in the  Attalus himself went to Greece in July and was joined on Aegina by the Roman proconsul P. Sulpicius Galba who wintered there. Ancient Rome In the Roman Republic, a proconsul was a Promagistrate (like a Propraetor) who after serving as Consul, spent a year Publius Sulpicius Galba Maximus was a Consul of Rome in 211 BC when he defended the city against the surprise attack by Hannibal.  The following summer (208 BC) the combined fleet of thirty-five Pergamene and twenty-five Roman ships failed to take Lemnos, but occupied and plundered the countyside of the island of Peparethos (Skopelos), both Macedonian possessions. Lemnos (Λήμνος is an island in the northern part of the Aegean Sea. 
Attalus and Sulpicius then attended a meeting in Heraclea Trachinia of the Council of the Aetolians, at which the Roman argued against making peace with Philip. Trachis was a region in ancient Greece. Situated south of the river Spercheios, it was populated by the Malians. When hostilities resumed, they sacked both Oreus, on the northern coast of Euboea and Opus, the chief city of eastern Locris. Oreus was a town in northern Euboea. Demosthenes describes its conquest by Philip II of Macedon in the Third Philippic. For the mythological figure see Euboea (mythology Euboea ( Modern Greek, Εύβοια - Évia &mdash Opus (also Opous, Ancient Greek:) in Ancient Greece, the chief city of Opuntian or Eastern Locris. Locris ( Greek, Modern Lokrida, Ancient Lokris) was a region of Ancient Greece, the homeland of the Locrians, made up of two districts 
The spoils from Oreus had been reserved for Sulpicius, who returned there, while Attalus stayed to collect the spoils from Opus. With their forces divided, Philip attacked Opus. Attalus, caught by surprise, was barely able to escape to his ships. 
Attalus was now forced to return to Asia, for he had learned at Opus that, at the urging of Philip, Prusias I king of Bithynia, related to Philip by marriage, was moving against Pergamon. Prusias I Cholus (Προυσίας Α' ὁ Χωλός "the Lame ") (ca Soon after, the Romans also abandoned Greece to concentrate their forces against Hannibal, their objective of preventing Philip from aiding Hannibal having been achieved. 
In 206 BC the Aetolians sued for peace on conditions imposed by Philip. A treaty was drawn up at Phoenice in 205 BC, formally ending the First Macedonian War. The First Macedonian War (214 BC - 205 BC was fought by Rome, allied (after 211 BC with the Aetolian League and Attalus I of Pergamon, against The "Peace of Phoenice" also ended the war with Prusias, and Attalus retained Aegina.
Prevented by the treaty of Phoenice from expansion in the east, Philip set out to extend his power in the Aegean and in Asia Minor. Etymology In ancient times there were various explanations for the name Aegean. In the spring of 201 BC he took Samos and the Egyptian fleet stationed there. Samos (Σάμος is a Greek island in the North Aegean Sea, south of Chios, north of Patmos and the Dodecanese, and off Ancient Egypt was an Ancient Civilization in eastern North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now He then besieged Chios to the north. Chios (Χίος pronounced ˈçio̞s alternative transliterations Khíos and Híos) is the fifth largest of the Greek islands, situated
These events caused Attalus, allied with Rhodes, Byzantium and Cyzicus, to enter the war. Rhodes (Ρόδος Ródos, ˈɾo̞ðo̞s Rodi ردوس Rodos; Ladino: Rodi or Rodes) is a Greek island This article is about the city See also Byzantine Empire. Byzantium ( Greek: Βυζάντιον Latin: la BYZANTIVM Cyzicus ( Κύζικος) was an ancient town of Mysia in Anatolia, situated on the shoreward side of the present peninsula of Kapu-Dagh (Arctonnesus which A large naval battle occurred in the strait between Chios and the mainland, just southwest of Erythrae. Erythrae or Erythrai (Ἐρυθραί later Litri, was one of the twelve Ionian cities of Asia Minor, situated 22 km north-east of According to Polybius, fifty-three decked warships and over one hundred and fifty smaller warships, took part on the Macedonian side, with sixty-five decked warships and a number of smaller warships on the allied side. Polybius (ca 203 &ndash 120 BC, Greek) was a Greek historian of the Hellenistic Period noted for his book called The Histories  During the battle Attalus, having become isolated from his fleet and pursued by Philip, was forced to run his three ships ashore, narrowly escaping by spreading various royal treasures on the decks of the grounded ships, causing his pursuers to abandon the pursuit in favor of plunder. 
Also during 201 BC, Philip invaded Pergamon; although unable to take the easily defended city, in part due to precautions taken by Attalus to provide for additional fortifications, he demolished the surrounding temples and altars.  Meanwhile, Attalus and Rhodes sent envoys to Rome, to register their complaints against Philip. 
In 200 BC, Attalus became involved in the Second Macedonian War. The Second Macedonian War ( 200 &ndash 197 BC) was fought between Macedon, led by Philip V of Macedon, and Rome, allied with Pergamon Acarnanians with Macedonian support invaded Attica, causing Athens, which had previously maintained its neutrality, to seek help from the enemies of Philip. Acarnania is a region of west-central Greece that lies along the Ionian Sea, west of Aetolia, with the Achelous River for a boundary and north Attica (Αττική Attikí;) is a periphery (subdivision in Greece, containing Athens, the capital of Greece Athens (ˈæθənz Αθήνα Athina,) the Capital and largest city of Greece, dominates the Attica periphery as one of the world's  Attalus, with his fleet at Aegina, received an embassy from Athens, to come to the city for consultations. Informed that Roman ambassadors were also at Athens, Attalus went there in haste. His reception at Athens was extraordinary.  Polybius writes:
|“||… in company with the Romans and the Athenian magistrates, he began his progress to the city in great state. For he was met, not only by all the magistrates and the knights, but by all the citizens with their children and wives. And when the two processions met, the warmth of the welcome given by the populace to the Romans, and still more to Attalus, could not have been exceeded. At his entrance into the city by the gate Dipylum the priests and priestesses lined the street on both sides: all the temples were then thrown open; victims were placed ready at all the altars; and the king was requested to offer sacrifice. Finally they voted him such high honors as they had never without great hesitation voted to any of their former benefactors: for, in addition to other compliments, they named a tribe after Attalus, and classed him among their eponymous heroes. ||”|
Sulpicius Galba, now consul, convinced Rome to declare war on Philip and asked Attalus to meet up with the Roman fleet and again conduct a naval campaign, harassing Macedonian possessions in the Aegean. Consul (abbrev cos; Latin plural consules) was the highest elected office of the Roman Republic and an appointive office under the Empire  In the spring of 199 BC, the combined Pergamon and Roman fleets took Andros in the Cyclades, the spoils going to the Romans and the island to Attalus. Andros, or Andro (Άνδρος an Island of the Greek Archipelago, the most northerly of the Cyclades, approximately 10 km The CYCLADES Packet switching network was an extremely influential French network system in the early 1970s similar to the ARPANET. From Andros they sailed south, made a fruitless attack on another Cycladic island, Kithnos, turned back north, scavenged the fields of Skiathos off the coast of Magnesia, for food, and continued north to Mende, where the fleets were wracked by storm. Kythnos or Kithnos (Κύθνος is a Greek Island and municipality in the Western Cyclades between Kea and Serifos Skiathos ( Greek: Σκιάθος Latin forms Sciathos and Sciathus is a small island in the Aegean Sea belonging to Greece. Magnesia (Μαγνησία Magnisía, maɣniˈsia deriving from the tribe name Magnetes, is the name of the southeastern area of Thessaly Mende (Μένδη was an ancient Greek city located in the western coast of Pallene peninsula in Chalkidiki facing the coast of Pieria across the narrow On land they were repulsed at Cassandrea, suffering heavy loss. Cassandra (Greek Κασσάνδρα Kassandra, modern transliteration Kassandra) was one of the most important cities in Ancient Macedonia founded by They continued northeast along the Macedonian coast to Acanthus, which they sacked, after which they returned to Euboea, their vessels laden with spoils. Acanthus or Akanthos ( Greek: or Modern Greek: Aχανθος (modern town of Ierissos, also Erisso) was an ancient Greek city 
On their return, Attalus and the Roman commander went to Heraclea to meet with the Aetolians, who under the terms of their treaty asked Attalus for a thousand soldiers. Attalus refused, citing the Aetolians' own refusal to honor Attalus' request to attack Macedonia during Philip's attack on Pergamon two years earlier. Resuming operations, Attalus and the Romans attacked but failed to take Oreus and, deciding to leave a small force to invest it, attacked across the straight in Thessaly. Thessalia redirects here For the Butterfly Genus, see Thessalia (butterfly. When they returned to Oreus, they again attacked, this time successfully, the Romans taking the captives, Attalus the city.  The campaigning season over, Attalus, after attending the Eleusinian Mysteries, returned to Pergamon after an absence of more than two years. The Eleusinian Mysteries (Ἐλευσίνια Μυστήρια were initiation ceremonies held every year for the cult of Demeter and Persephone 
In the spring of 198 BC, Attalus returned to Greece with twenty-three quinqueremes and joined a fleet of twenty decked Rhodian warships at Andros, to complete the conquest of Euboea begun the previous year. A quinquereme (Latin or penteres (Greek is a type of ancient oar-propelled warship that was used by the Greeks of the Hellenistic period and later by the Carthaginians Soon joined by the Romans, the combined fleets took Eretria and later Carystus. This is an article about the Greek city of Eretria on Euboea It should not be confused with Eretria in western Magnesia, Greece or the modern African nation For the Genus of Grass skipper Butterflies, see Carystus (butterfly. Thus, the allies controlled all of Euboea except for Chalcis. Chalcis or Chalkida, Halkida, Halkis or Chalkis ( Greek, Modern Χαλκίδα xal'ciða Ancient/ Katharevousa: -ίς  After a failed attempt to take Corinth, the Romans left for Corcyra, while Attalus sailed for Piraeus. Corfu (Κέρκυρα Kérkyra, ˈkʲe̞ɾkʲiɾa Κέρκυρα or Κόρκυρα Corcyra Corfù is a Greek island in the Ionian Sea Piraeus (pɪˈræʊs Πειραιάς, piɾeˈas Πειραιεύς, piɾeˈefs is a city in the periphery of Attica, Greece, and a 
Early in 197 BC, Titus Quinctius Flamininus, the Roman consul, summoned Attalus to a Boeotian council in Thebes to discuss which side Boeotia would take in the war. Titus Quinctius Flamininus (c 228 BC &ndash 174 BC was a Roman politician and general instrumental in the Roman conquest of Greece. Boeotia, Beotia, or Bœotia ( Greek: Βοιωτία - English biːˈoʊʃiə formerly Cadmeis was a region of Ancient Greece, north of the Thebes ( Classic Greek Θῆβαι, Mod Θήβα) is a city in Greece, situated to the north of the Cithaeron range which divides Attalus was the first to speak in the council, but during his address he stopped talking and collapsed, with one side of his body paralyzed.  Attalus was taken back to Pergamon, where he died the following fall, perhaps having heard of the news of the decisive Roman victory at the Battle of Cynoscephalae, bringing about the end of the Second Macedonian War. For the earlier battle fought here see Battle of Cynoscephalae (364 BC.
Attalus married Apollonis, from Cyzicus. Cyzicus ( Κύζικος) was an ancient town of Mysia in Anatolia, situated on the shoreward side of the present peninsula of Kapu-Dagh (Arctonnesus which They had four sons, Eumenes, Attalus, Philetaerus and Athenaeus (after Apollonis' father). Eumenes II of Pergamon (Εὐμένης Α' τῆς Περγάμου (ruled 197 - 159 BC was king of Pergamon and a member of the Attalid dynasty. Attalus II Philadelphus (in Greek Attalos II Philadelphos Ἄτταλος Β' ὁ Φιλάδελφος) (220 BC&ndash138 BC was a King of Pergamon  Polybius describes Apollonis as:
|“||… a woman who for many reasons deserves to be remembered, and with honor. Polybius (ca 203 &ndash 120 BC, Greek) was a Greek historian of the Hellenistic Period noted for his book called The Histories Her claims upon a favourable recollection are that, though born of a private family, she became a queen, and retained that exalted rank to the end of her life, not by the use of meretricious fascinations, but by the virtue and integrity of her conduct in private and public life alike. Above all, she was the mother of four sons with whom she kept on terms of the most perfect affection and motherly love to the last day of her life. ||”|
The filial "affection" of the brothers as well as their upbringing is also remarked on by several ancient sources. A decree of Antiochus IV praises
|“||… king Attalus and queen Apollonis … because of their virtue and goodness, which they preserved for their sons, managing their education in this way wisely and well. Another Antiochus IV Epiphanes was king in Commagene under Caligula and Claudius. ||”|
An inscription at Pergamon represents Apollonis as saying that
|“||… she always considered herself blessed and gave thanks to the gods, not for wealth or empire, but because she saw her three sons guarding the eldest and him reigning without fear among those who were armed. ||”|
Polybius, describing Attalus' life says:
|“||… and what is more remarkable than all, though he left four grown-up sons, he so well settled the question of succession, that the crown was handed down to his children's children without a single dispute. ||”|
Attalus died in 197 BC at the age of 72. He was succeeded by his son Eumenes II.
In 205 BC, after the "Peace of Phoenice", Rome turned to Attalus, as its only friend in Asia, for help concerning a religious matter. An unusual number of meteor showers caused concern in Rome, and an inspection was made of the Sibylline Books, which discovered verses saying that if a foreigner were to make war on Italy, he could be defeated if the Magna Idaea, the Mother Goddess, associated with Mount Ida in Phrygia, were brought from Pessinus to Rome. The Sibylline Books or Libri Sibyllini were a collection of oracular utterances set out in Greek Hexameters purchased from a Sibyl Two sacred mountains are called Mount Ida in Greek mythology, equally named "Mount of the Goddess In antiquity Phrygia (Φρυγία was a kingdom in the west central part of Anatolia, in what is now modern-day Turkey. M. Valerius Laevinus heading a distinguished delegation, was dispatched to Pergamon, to seek Attalus' aid. Marcus Valerius Laevinus was a Roman magistrate who was active during both the Second Punic War and the First Macedonian War. According to Livy, Attalus received the delegation warmly, "and conducted them to Pessinus in Phrygia" where he "handed over to them the sacred stone which the natives declared to be "the Mother of the Gods," and bade them carry it to Rome". Titus Livius (traditionally 59 BC &ndash AD 17 known as Livy in English, was a Roman historian who wrote a monumental history of Rome  In Rome the goddess became known as the Magna Mater. Originally a Hittite and Phrygian Goddess, Cybele (Κυβέλη was a deification of the Earth Mother and was worshipped in
|Attalid Ruler||Succeeded by|
|NAME||Attalus I Soter|
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Attalos I (alternative transliteration)|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||Greek dynast and king|
|DATE OF BIRTH||269 BC|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Unknown|
|DATE OF DEATH||197 BC|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Pergamon|