|Atmospheric sciences [cat.]|
Atmospheric physics is the application of physics to the study of the atmosphere. Atmospheric sciences is an umbrella term for the study of the atmosphere, its processes the effects other systems have on the atmosphere and the effects of the atmosphere Meteorology (from Greek grc μετέωρος metéōros, "high in the sky" and grc -λογία -logia) is the Interdisciplinary The weather is a set of all the phenomena occurring in a given Atmosphere at a given Time. A tropical cyclone is a storm system characterized by a low pressure center and numerous Thunderstorms that produce strong winds and Flooding Climatology (from Greek grc κλίμα klima, "region zone" and grc -λογία -logia) is the study of Climate, scientifically Climate encompasses the temperatures humidity rainfall atmospheric particle count and numerous other meteorogical factors in a given region over long periods of Climate change is any long-term significant change in the “average weather” that a given region experiences Physics (Greek Physis - φύσις in everyday terms is the Science of Matter and its motion. Temperature and layers The temperature of the Earth's atmosphere varies with altitude the mathematical relationship between temperature and altitude varies among five Atmospheric physicists attempt to model Earth's atmosphere and the atmospheres of the other planets using fluid flow equations, chemical models, radiation balancing, and energy transfer processes in the atmosphere (as well as how these tie in to other systems such as the oceans). Temperature and layers The temperature of the Earth's atmosphere varies with altitude the mathematical relationship between temperature and altitude varies among five A planet, as defined by the International Astronomical Union (IAU is a celestial body Orbiting a Star or stellar remnant that is Fluid dynamics is the sub-discipline of Fluid mechanics dealing with fluid flow: Fluids ( Liquids and Gases in motion Chemistry (from Egyptian kēme (chem meaning "earth") is the Science concerned with the composition structure and properties In order to model weather systems, atmospheric physicists employ elements of scattering theory, wave propagation models, cloud physics, statistical mechanics and spatial statistics which are highly mathematical and related to physics. Cloud physics is the study of the physical processes that lead to the formation growth and precipitation of Clouds Clouds are composed of Microscopic droplets Statistical mechanics is the application of Probability theory, which includes mathematical tools for dealing with large populations to the field of Mechanics In Statistics, spatial analysis or spatial statistics includes any of the formal techniques which study entities using their Topological, Geometric It has close links to meteorology and climatology and also covers the design and construction of instruments for studying the atmosphere and the interpretation of the data they provide, including remote sensing instruments. Remote sensing is the small or large-scale acquisition of information of an object or phenomenon by the use of either recording or real-time sensing device(s that is not in physical
The sun emits radiation as a variety of wavelengths. Radiation, as in Physics, is Energy in the form of waves or moving Subatomic particles emitted by an atom or other body as it changes from a higher energy The amount of heat energy received at any location on the globe is a direct effect of sun angle of climate, as the angle at which Sunlight strikes the earth Visible light has wavelengths between 0. 4 and 0. 7 micrometers.  Shorter wavelengths are known as the ultraviolet (UV) part of the spectrum, while longer wavelengths are grouped into the infrared portion of the spectrum. Ultraviolet ( UV) light is Electromagnetic radiation with a Wavelength shorter than that of Visible light, but longer than X-rays Infrared ( IR) radiation is Electromagnetic radiation whose Wavelength is longer than that of Visible light, but shorter than that of  Ozone is most effective in absorbing radiation around 0. 25 micrometers, where UV-c rays lie in the spectrum. This increases the temperature of the nearby stratosphere. The stratosphere is the second major layer of Earth's atmosphere, just above the Troposphere, and below the Mesosphere. Snow reflects 88% of UV rays, while sand reflects 12%, and water reflects only 4% of incoming UV radiation.  The more glancing the angle is between the atmosphere and the sun's rays, the more likely that energy will be reflected or absorbed by the atmosphere. The Sun (Sol is the Star at the center of the Solar System. An atmosphere (from Greek ατμός - atmos, " Vapor " + σφαίρα - sphaira, " Sphere " 
Cloud physics is the study of the physical processes that lead to the formation, growth and precipitation of clouds. Cloud physics is the study of the physical processes that lead to the formation growth and precipitation of Clouds Clouds are composed of Microscopic droplets A cloud is a visible mass of droplets or frozen crystals floating in the atmosphere above the surface of the Earth or another Planetary body Clouds are composed of microscopic droplets of water (warm clouds), tiny crystals of ice, or both (mixed phase clouds). Under suitable conditions, the droplets combine to form precipitation, where they may fall to the earth.  The precise mechanics of how a cloud forms and grows is not completely understood, but scientists have developed theories explaining the structure of clouds by studying the microphysics of individual droplets. Advances in radar and satellite technology have also allowed the precise study of clouds on a large scale.
Atmospheric electricity is the regular diurnal variations of the Earth's atmospheric electromagnetic network (or, more broadly, any planet's electrical system in its layer of gases). Atmospheric electricity is the regular diurnal variations of the Earth 's atmospheric electromagnetic network (or more broadly any In Telecommunication, diurnal phase shift is the phase shift of electromagnetic signals associated with daily changes in the Ionosphere. EARTH was a short-lived Japanese vocal trio which released 6 singles and 1 album between 2000 and 2001 Temperature and layers The temperature of the Earth's atmosphere varies with altitude the mathematical relationship between temperature and altitude varies among five Electromagnetism is the Physics of the Electromagnetic field: a field which exerts a Force on particles that possess the property of An electrical network is an interconnection of Electrical elements such as Resistors Inductors Capacitors Transmission lines Voltage A planet, as defined by the International Astronomical Union (IAU is a celestial body Orbiting a Star or stellar remnant that is An atmosphere (from Greek ατμός - atmos, " Vapor " + σφαίρα - sphaira, " Sphere " The Earth’s surface, the ionosphere, and the atmosphere is known as the global atmospheric electrical circuit. A continent is one of several large Landmasses on Earth. They are generally identified by Convention rather than any strict criteria with seven regions The ionosphere is the uppermost part of the atmosphere, distinguished because it is Ionized by solar radiation  Lightning discharges 30,000 amperes, at up to 100 million volts, and emits light, radio waves, x-rays and even gamma rays. The ampere, in practice often shortened to amp, (symbol A is a unit of Electric current, or amount of Electric charge per second The volt (symbol V) is the SI derived unit of electric Potential difference or Electromotive force. X-radiation (composed of X-rays) is a form of Electromagnetic radiation. Gamma rays (denoted as &gamma) are a form of Electromagnetic radiation or light emission of frequencies produced by sub-atomic particle interactions  Plasma temperatures in lightning can approach 28,000 kelvins and electron densities may exceed 1024/m³. The kelvin (symbol K) is a unit increment of Temperature and is one of the seven SI base units The Kelvin scale is a thermodynamic The electron is a fundamental Subatomic particle that was identified and assigned the negative charge in 1897 by J 
The largest-amplitude atmospheric tides are mostly generated in the troposphere and stratosphere when the atmosphere is periodically heated as water vapour and ozone absorb solar radiation during the day. Atmospheric tides are global-scale periodic oscillations of the Atmosphere. The troposphere is the lowest portion of Earth's atmosphere. It contains approximately 75% of the atmosphere's mass and almost all of its Water vapor and The stratosphere is the second major layer of Earth's atmosphere, just above the Troposphere, and below the Mesosphere. The tides generated are then able to propagate away from these source regions and ascend into the mesosphere and thermosphere. This article is about the atmospheric mesosphere for the Earth's mantle see Mesosphere (mantle. The thermosphere is the layer of the Earth's atmosphere directly above the Mesosphere and directly below the Exosphere. Atmospheric tides can be measured as regular fluctuations in wind, temperature, density and pressure. Although atmospheric tides share much in common with ocean tides they have two key distinguishing features:
i) Atmospheric tides are primarily excited by the Sun's heating of the atmosphere whereas ocean tides are primarily excited by the Moon's gravitational field. This means that most atmospheric tides have periods of oscillation related to the 24-hour length of the solar day whereas ocean tides have longer periods of oscillation related to the lunar day (time between successive lunar transits) of about 24 hours 51 minutes. 
ii) Atmospheric tides propagate in an atmosphere where density varies significantly with height. A consequence of this is that their amplitudes naturally increase exponentially as the tide ascends into progressively more rarefied regions of the atmosphere (for an explanation of this phenomenon, see below). In contrast, the density of the oceans varies only slightly with depth and so there the tides do not necessarily vary in amplitude with depth.
Note that although solar heating is responsible for the largest-amplitude atmospheric tides, the gravitational fields of the Sun and Moon also raise tides in the atmosphere. The lunar gravitational atmospheric tide is significantly smaller than its solar counterpart, only accounting for about 0. 04 mb fluctuation per day. 
At ground level, atmospheric tides can be detected as regular but small oscillations in surface pressure with periods of 24 and 12 hours. Daily pressure maxima occur at 10 a. m. and 10 p. m. local time, while minima occur at 4 a. m. and 4 p. m. local time. The absolute maximum occurs at 10 a. m. while the absolute minimum occurs at 4 p. m.  However, at greater heights the amplitudes of the tides can become very large. In the mesosphere (heights of ~ 50 - 100 km) atmospheric tides can reach amplitudes of more than 50 m/s and are often the most significant part of the motion of the atmosphere. This article is about the atmospheric mesosphere for the Earth's mantle see Mesosphere (mantle.
In the UK, atmospheric studies are underpinned by the Met Office, the Natural Environment Research Council and the Science and Technology Facilities Council. For the UKMET model see Tropical cyclone forecast model. The Met Office (originally an abbreviation for Meteorological Office, The Natural Environment Research Council ( NERC) is a British research council that supports research training and The Science and Technology Facilities Council is a UK government body that carries out civil research in Science and Engineering, and funds UK research Divisions of the U. S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) oversee research projects and weather modeling involving atmospheric physics. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration ( NOAA) is a scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the The weather is a set of all the phenomena occurring in a given Atmosphere at a given Time. The US National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center also carries out studies of the high atmosphere. The Arecibo Observatory is a very sensitive Radio telescope located approximately south-southwest from the town of Arecibo in Puerto Rico. In Belgium, the Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy studies the atmosphere and outer space. The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those The Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy (DutchBelgisch Instituut voor Ruimte-Aëronomie - BIRA French Institut d'Aéronomie Spatiale de Belgique - IASB is a Belgian scientific Outer space, often simply called space, comprises the relatively empty regions of the Universe outside the escape velocities of Celestial bodies.