The Atlantic World is an organizing concept for the historical study of the Atlantic Ocean rim from the beginning Age of Exploration (the First European colonization wave (15th century–19th century)). The Age of Discovery or Age of Exploration was a period from the early 15th century and continuing into the early 17th century during which Europeans explored The first European colonization wave took place from the early 15th century until the early 19th century and primarily involved the European colonization of the Americas, though The history of the "Atlantic world" culminates in the "Atlantic Revolutions" of the late 18th century. " Atlantic Revolutions " is a cover term for a wave of late eighteenth century and early nineteenth century revolutions associated with the Enlightenment. Atlantic slave trade continued into the 19th century, subsiding with the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution outlawing slavery in 1865 and the abolishment of slavery in Brazil in 1888. The Atlantic Slave trade, also known as the transatlantic slave trade, was the trade of African people supplied to the Colonies of the New World The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution officially abolished and continues to prohibit Slavery, and with limited exceptions such as those |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld
The Atlantic World comprises the five continents bordering the Atlantic Ocean: Europe, Africa, North America, South America, Antarctica; the Arabian and Caribbean subcontinents are the furthest extent of the Atlantic rim from East to West. South America is a Continent of the Americas, situated entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a The Arabian Plate is one of three Tectonic plates (the African Arabian and Indian crustal plates) which have been moving northward over millions of The Caribbean Plate is a mostly oceanic Tectonic plate underlying Central America and the Caribbean Sea off the north coast of South The Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea in the Old World, as well as the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico in the New World, represent the core of global affairs on either side of the Rim. The Black Sea is an inland Sea bounded by southeastern Europe, the Caucasus and the Anatolian peninsula ( Turkey The Old World consists of those parts of Earth known to Europeans Asians and Africans in the 15th century For the region see Caribbean. The Caribbean Sea (kəˈrɪbiən or /ˌkærɨˈbiːən/ is a tropical Sea in the Western Hemisphere The Gulf of Mexico ( Spanish: Golfo de México) is the ninth largest Body of water in the world The New World is one of the names used for the non-Eurasian/non-African parts of the Earth specifically the Americas and Australia. The Arctic Ocean and Antarctic Ocean are Northern and Southern frontiers on the Atlantic Rim. The Arctic Ocean, located in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Arctic north polar region is the smallest and shallowest of the world's five major The Southern Ocean, also known as the Great Southern Ocean, the Antarctic Ocean and the South Polar Ocean, comprises the southernmost waters of
Until the invention of aircraft in the twentieth century, seafaring was the primary--in many cases, the only--mode of long-distance travel. New settlements were typically established on seacoasts; over time the population gradually spread inland. The Atlantic rim was a community created by maritime traffic on the Atlantic Ocean. Distant settlements were linked by elaborate sea-based trading networks. The Atlantic Rim is in many respects a counterpart to the Pacific Rim. The Pacific Rim refers to the countries and cities located around the edge of the Pacific Ocean.
The study of the Mediterranean Basin already existed since time immemorial, tying all the surrounding lands into a common economy and culture, even a unified government in the case of the Roman Empire. The Mediterranean Basin refers to the lands around and surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea. The history of the Mediterranean region is the History of the interaction of the cultures and peoples of the lands surrounding the Mediterranean Sea The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial Fernand Baudel first conceptualized this unified Mediterranean history in his book The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II. Between the Fall of Constantinople and Treaty of Lunéville, European countries successfully settled the the Americas. The Fall of Constantinople refers to the capture of the Byzantine Empire's capital by the Ottoman Empire on Tuesday May 29, 1453 (Julian Calendar The Treaty of Lunéville was signed on February 9 1801 between the French Republic and the Holy Roman Empire by Joseph Bonaparte and The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the Continents of North America and South America After the Napoleonic Wars, Europeans acquired vast dominion over Africa. The Napoleonic Wars (1803-1815 involved Napoleon's French Empire and a shifting set of European allies and opposing coalitions The Scramble for Africa, also known as the Race for Africa, was the proliferation of conflicting European claims to African territory during the New
From the Age of Discovery to the present, this has been an important section of the globe. The Age of Discovery or Age of Exploration was a period from the early 15th century and continuing into the early 17th century during which Europeans explored Pre-Columbian affairs are speculative (e. The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences g. Atlantis) in other cases than Macaronesia, Iceland, Greenland and Vinland. Atlantis (in Greek,, "island of Atlas " is the name of a Legendary Island, first mentioned in Plato 's dialogues Macaronesia is a modern collective name for several groups of Islands in the North Atlantic Ocean near Europe and North Africa belonging Iceland, officially the Republic of Iceland ( ( Ísland or Lýðveldið Ísland ( Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat meaning "Land of the Greenlanders" Grønland is a self-governing Danish Province located between the Vinland was the name given to an area of North America by the Norseman Leifr Eiríksson, about the year A Prince Henry the Navigator of Portugal sponsored voyages of exploration in the Atlantic and down the western coast of Africa. The Infante Henrique Duke of Viseu ( Porto, March 4, 1394 – Sagres, November 13, 1460) pron Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. In 1441, a Portuguese ship reached Cape Blanco in present-day Mauritania. Ras Nouadhibou ( رأس نواذيبو) is a 40-mile Peninsula or headland called also known as Cap Blanc ( French) or Mauritania (موريتانيا Mūrītāniyā officially the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, is a country Before long, Portuguese ships pushed even further down the coast of West Africa. West Africa or Western Africa is the Westernmost Region of the African Continent. Their primary goal was to obtain gold from the region, but they also carried a small number of African slaves to Portugal, Spain, the Canary Islands, and the Azores. Gold (ˈɡoʊld is a Chemical element with the symbol Au (from its Latin name aurum) and Atomic number 79 Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. The Canary Islands ( English pronunciation kəˈnæriː ˈaɪləndz Spanish: Islas Canarias, ˈizlas kaˈnarjas are a Spanish The Azores ( Açores ɐˈsoɾɨʃ or) is a Portuguese Archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean, about 1500 km (950  mi) from The Atlantic slave trade thus emerged some decades before European colonization of the Americas. The Atlantic Slave trade, also known as the transatlantic slave trade, was the trade of African people supplied to the Colonies of the New World The start of the European colonization of the Americas is typically dated to 1492 although there was at least one earlier colonization effort
The beginning of extensive contact between Europe, Africa, and the Americas had sweeping implications for the environmental history of all the regions involved. In a process known as the Columbian exchange, numerous plants, animals, and diseases were transplanted--both deliberately and inadvertently--from one continent to another. The Columbian Exchange has been one of the most significant events in the history of world Ecology, Agriculture, and Culture. Many foods that are common in present-day Europe, including tomatoes and potatoes, originated in the New World and were unknown in Europe before the sixteenth century. The tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum, syn Lycopersicon lycopersicum) is a herbaceous usually sprawling plant in the Solanaceae or nightshade family The potato is a Starchy Tuberous crop Vegetable from the perennial Solanum tuberosum of the Solanaceae Similarly, some staple crops of present-day West Africa, including cassava and peanuts, originated in the New World. The cassava, yuca, manioc, or mandioca ( Manihot esculenta) is a woody Shrub of the Euphorbiaceae (spurge family native The peanut, or Groundnut ( Arachis hypogaea) is a species in the Legume family Fabaceae native to South America, Mexico Some of the staple crops of Latin America, such as coffee and sugarcane, were introduced by European settlers in the course of the Columbian Exchange. CoFFEE is an Open source Software for computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL in a digital classroom Sugarcane ( Saccharum) is a genus of 6 to 37 species (depending on taxonomic interpretation of tall perennial grasses (family Poaceae tribe Andropogoneae The Columbian Exchange has been one of the most significant events in the history of world Ecology, Agriculture, and Culture.
The slave trade played a role in the history of the Atlantic world almost from the beginning. As European powers began to conquer and claim large territories in the Americas in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the role of chattel slavery and other forced labor systems in the development of the Atlantic world expanded. As a social-economic system slavery is a legal institution under which a Person (called "a slave" is compelled to work for another European powers typically had vast territories that they wished to exploit through agriculture, mining, or other extractive industries, but they lacked the work force that they needed to exploit their lands effectively. Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture Mining is the extraction of valuable Minerals or other geological materials from the earth usually (but not always from an Ore body Consequently, they turned to a variety of coercive labor systems to meet their needs. Native Americans were employed through Indian slavery and through the Spanish system of encomienda. Indian Slavery was the practice of using Indigenous peoples of the Americas as Slaves. The encomienda system is a Trusteeship labor system that was employed by the Spanish crown during the Spanish colonization of the Americas and the European workers arrived as indentured servants or transported felons. An indentured servant is a form of Debt bondage worker The Laborer is under Contract of an Employer for some period of time usually three to Penal labour or penal servitude is a form of Unfree labour. The term may refer to two different notions labour as a form of punishment and labour as a form of occupation African workers were imported via the Atlantic slave trade and were used extensively throughout North and South America. The Atlantic Slave trade, also known as the transatlantic slave trade, was the trade of African people supplied to the Colonies of the New World
The extent of voluntary immigration to the Atlantic world varied considerably by region, nationality, and time period. Immigration refers to the movement of people among countries While the movement of people has existed throughout human history at various levels modern immigration implies long-term Many European nations, particularly the Netherlands and France, failed to obtain as many voluntary European immigrants as they hoped to. In New Netherland, the Dutch coped by recruiting immigrants of other nationalities. New Netherland (Dutch Nieuw-Nederland, Latin Novum Belgium or Nova Belgica) 1614–1674 is the name of the former Dutch territory on the eastern coast In New England, the massive Puritan migration of the first half of the seventeenth century created a large free workforce and thus obviated the need to use unfree labor on a large scale. History See also History of New England New England's earliest inhabitants were Algonquian -speaking Native Americans including the A Puritan of 16th and 17th century England was an associate of any number of religious groups advocating for more "purity" of Worship and Doctrine, Colonial New England's reliance on the labor of free men, women, and children, organized in individual farm households, is called the family labor system.
The French colony of Saint-Domingue was one of the first American jurisdictions to end slavery, in 1794. Saint-Domingue was a French Colony on the Caribbean island of Hispaniola from 1659 to 1804 when it became the independent nation of Brazil was last nation in the Western Hemisphere to end slavery, in 1888.
The Spanish conquistadores conquered the Aztec empire in present-day Mexico and the Inca empire in present-day Peru with ease, assisted by horses, guns, and unfamiliar diseases such as smallpox. This article is about the Spanish explorer soldiers of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuriesfor other uses see Conquistador (disambiguation A Conquistador Aztec is a term used to refer to certain ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those groups who spoke the Nahuatl language and who achieved political The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. Peru (Perú Piruw Piruw officially the Republic of Peru ( reˈpuβlika del peˈɾu is a country in western South America. Indeed, Native American imperialism in Mesoamerica and the Andes region paved the way for Spanish imperialism. The Aztec and Inca subjects, who were already accustomed to obeying a strong imperial government, became relatively pliable subjects and workers in the new Spanish empire.
One of the problems that most European governments faced in the Americas was how to exercise authority over vast expanses of territory. Spain, which colonized Mexico, Central America, and the greater part of South America, established a network of viceroyalties to administer different regions of its New World holdings: the Viceroyalty of New Spain (1535), the Viceroyalty of Peru (1542), the Viceroyalty of New Granada (1717/1739), and the Viceroyalty of Rio de la Plata (1776). The Viceroyalty of New Spain (Virreinato de Nueva España was a name given to the Viceroy -ruled territories of the Spanish Empire in North America, Created in 1542 the Viceroyalty of Peru (in Spanish, Virreinato del Perú) was a Spanish colonial administrative district that originally contained most of Spanish-ruled The Viceroyalty of New Granada (Virreinato de la Nueva Granada was the name given on May 27, 1717 to a Spanish colonial jurisdiction in northern South America The Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata was the last and most shortlived Viceroyalty created by Spain in 1776 Britain approached the task of governing its New World territories in a similar, though less centralized, manner, establishing about twenty distinct colonies in North America and the Caribbean from 1585 onward. Each British colony had its own governor and elected assembly. In both New Spain and British North America, each viceroyalty or colony interacted directly with the Spanish or British Crown and had no formal relationship with the other American colonies that belonged to its mother country.
Independence movements in the New World began with the American Revolutionary War and the Haitian Revolution soon followed. In this article the inhabitants of the thirteen colonies that supported the American Revolution are primarily referred to as "Americans" with occasional references to "Patriots" The Revolution (1791–1804 was the most successful of African Slave rebellions in the Western Hemisphere The Quasi-War, Louisiana Purchase, Barbary Wars, War of 1812, Monroe Doctrine and American Colonization Society signified stability and aggressive autonomy on the part of Americans. The Quasi-War was an Undeclared war fought entirely at sea between the United States and France from 1798 to 1800 For the film see Louisiana Purchase (film. The Louisiana Purchase (French Vente de la Louisiane "Louisiana Sale" The Barbary Wars (or Tripolitan Wars were two wars between the United States of America and Barbary States in North Africa in the early 19th century The War of 1812 was fought between the United States of America and the British Empire, particularly Great Britain and her North American colonies The Monroe Doctrine is a US doctrine which on December 2 1823 stated that European powers were no longer to colonize or interfere with The American Colonization Society (in full The Society for the Colonization of Free People of Color of America was an organization that helped in founding Liberia, a Colony The New World equalized its power to the Old, in the quagmire of vicious wars raging throughout Europe and abundance of land to expand in under Manifest Destiny. Manifest Destiny was the belief that the United States was destined to expand from the Atlantic seaboard to the Pacific Ocean. Ultimately, Americans as Age of Enlightenment successors of the English Renaissance Virginia colony and Age of Reason Virginia Company would inherit colonial economic competition and political conditions from the Wars of the Three Kingdoms in the form of the violent American Civil War. The Age of Enlightenment or The Enlightenment is a term used to describe a phase in Western philosophy and cultural life centered upon the eighteenth century The English Renaissance was a cultural and artistic movement in England dating from the early 16th century to the early 17th century The Colony of Virginia (also known frequently as the Virginia Colony and occasionally as the Dominion and Colony of Virginia) was the English colony 17th century philosophy in the Western world is generally regarded as being the start of Modern philosophy, and a departure from the medieval approach The Virginia Company refers collectively to a pair of English joint stock companies chartered by James I in 1606 with the purposes of establishing The Wars of the Three Kingdoms (sometimes known as the Wars of the Three Nations) formed an intertwined series of conflicts that took place in Scotland, Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South Remnants of the Cavalier London Company and Roundhead Plymouth Company would resurrect in their respective forms of Confederacy and Union. Cavalier was the name used by Parliamentarians for a Royalist supporter of King Charles I during the English Civil War ( 1642 &ndash 1651 The London Company (also called the Charter of the Virginia Company of London) was an English Joint stock company established by royal charter by " Roundheads " was the Nickname given to the Puritan supporters of Parliament during the English Civil War. The Plymouth Company (the Plymouth Adventurers, also called the Virginia Company of Plymouth or simply Virginia Bay Company) was an English The Confederate States of America (also called the Confederacy, the Confederate States, and CSA) formed as the government set up from 1861 During the American Civil War, the Union was a name used to refer to the federal government of the United States, which was supported by the twenty-three
Historian Bernard Bailyn traces the concept of the Atlantic world to an editorial published by journalist Walter Lippmann in 1917. Bernard Bailyn (b 1922 Hartford Connecticut) is an American historian author and professor specializing in U Walter Lippmann ( September 23, 1889 - December 14, 1974) was an influential American Writer, Journalist, and  The alliance of the United States and Great Britain in World War II, and the subsequent creation of NATO, heightened historians' interest in the history of interaction between societies on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. The North Atlantic Treaty 
In American and British universities, Atlantic World history is supplementing (and possibly supplanting) the study of specific European colonial societies in the Americas, e. g. British North America or Spanish America. Atlantic world history differs from traditional approaches to the history of colonization in its emphasis on inter-regional and international comparisons and its attention to events and trends that transcended national borders. Atlantic world history also emphasizes how the colonization of the Americas reshaped Africa and Europe.