(L.) Le Jolis
Ascophyllum nodosum is a large, common, brown alga, in the Class Phaeophyceae. Carl Linnaeus (Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as, May 23 new style (13 May old style 1707 who laid the foundations for The Phaeophyceae or brown algae, (singular alga is a large group of mostly marine multicellular Algae including many Seaweeds of colder A class is the Taxonomic rank in the Biological classification of organisms in Biology below phylum and above order. The Phaeophyceae or brown algae, (singular alga is a large group of mostly marine multicellular Algae including many Seaweeds of colder It is seaweed of the northern Atlantic Ocean, also known as Norwegian Kelp, Knotted Kelp, knotted wrack or egg wrack. Seaweed is a loose colloquial term encompassing macroscopic Multicellular, benthic marine Algae. It is common on the north-western coast of Europe (from Svalbard to Portugal) including east Greenland  and the north-eastern coast of North America. Svalbard is an Archipelago in the Arctic Ocean north of mainland Europe, about midway between Norway and the North Pole. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat meaning "Land of the Greenlanders" Grønland is a self-governing Danish Province located between the 
Ascophyllum is very popular amongst the science community and has been claimed to be both the best known seaweed on the planet as well as the most researched by the academic community. 
Ascophyllum nodosum has long fronds with large egg-shaped air-bladders set in series at regular intervals in the fronds and not stalked. A frond is a large Leaf with many divisions to it and the term is typically used for the leaves of palms Ferns or Cycads A frond is The fronds can reach 2 m in length and are attached by a holdfast to rocks and boulders. The metre or meter is a unit of Length. It is the basic unit of Length in the Metric system and in the International A holdfast is a Root -like structure that anchors aquatic Sessile organisms such as Seaweed, other sessile Algae, stalked The fronds are olive-brown in color and somewhat compressed but without a mid-rib. 
This seaweed grows quite slowly and can live for several decades; it may take approximately five years before becoming fertile.
Life history is of one diploid plant and gametes. "Haplo" redirects here For the fictional character see The Death Gate Cycle. A gamete (from Ancient Greek γαμέτης; translated gamete = wife gametes = husband is a cell that fuses with another gamete The gametes are produced in conceptacles embedded in yellowish receptacles on short branches. In Phycology, conceptacles are specialised cavities of Seaweeds that contain the reproductive organs 
Polysiphonia lanosa (L. Polysiphonia is a Genus of Red algae with about 19 Species on the coasts of the British Isles   It is in the Order Ceramiales ) Tandy is a small red alga, commonly found growing in dense tufts on Ascophyllum. The rhizoids penetrate the host. Rhizoids are a structure in plants and fungi that functions like a root in support or absorption  It is considered by some as parasitic.
Several different varieties and forms of this species have been described.
There are free floating ecads of this species such as Ascophyllum nodosum mackaii Cotton, which is found at very sheltered locations, such as at the heads of sea lochs in Scotland and Ireland. A loch (usually Lough as a name element outside Scotland) is a body of Water which is either a Lake or Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world 
The species is found in a range of coastal habitats from sheltered estuaries to moderately exposed coasts, often it dominates the inter-tidal zone (although sub-tidal populations are known to exist in very clear waters). An estuary is a semi-enclosed Coastal body of Water with one or more Rivers or Streams flowing into it and with a free connection to the open However it is rarely found on exposed shores, and if it is found the fronds are usually small and badly scratched.
It has been recorded as an accidental introduction to San Francisco, California, and eradicated as a potential invasive species there. The City and County of San Francisco is the fourth most populous city Introduced species|Weed Invasive species is a phrase with several definitions 
Recorded in Europe from: Faroe Islands,  Norway,  Ireland, Britain and Isle of Man  Netherlands  North America: Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia, Baffin Island, Hudson Strait, Labrador and Newfoundland. The Faroe Islands or Faeroe Islands or simply Faroe(s or Faeroes (Føroyar meaning " Sheep Islands" Færøerne Old Norse Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands The Isle of Man (Ellan Vannin ˈɛlʲən ˈvanɪn or Mann (Mannin) is a self-governing Crown dependency, located in the Irish Sea at the geographical The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Tides Folklore in the Mi'kmaq First Nation claims that the tides in the Bay of Fundy are caused by a giant whale splashing in the water Nova Scotia (ˌnəʊvəˈskəʊʃə ( Latin for New Scotland; Alba Nuadh Nouvelle-Écosse is a Canadian province located on Canada 's Baffin Island (ᕿᑭᖅᑖᓗᒃ Qikiqtaaluk, Île de Baffin Old Norse: Helluland) in the territory of Nunavut is the largest member Hudson Strait links the Atlantic Ocean to Hudson Bay in Canada. Modern Labrador Just like its island neighbour Newfoundland early settlement in Labrador was tied to the sea as demonstrated by the Montagnais, Innu and Newfoundland — ˈn(jufənˌlænd (Terre-Neuve Talamh an Éisc — is a large island 15 km off the east coast of 
Ascophyllum nodosum is harvested for use in alginates, fertilisers and for the manufacture of seaweed meal for animal and human consumption. Alginic acid ( algin, alginate) is a viscous gum that is abundant in the cell walls of Brown algae. Fertilizers ( also spelt fertiliser are chemical compounds given to Plants to promote growth they are usually applied either through the soil for uptake by plant It has long been used as an organic and mainstream fertilizer for many varieties of crops due to its combination of both macronutrient, (eg. A nutrient is food or chemicals that an organism needs to live and grow or a substance used in an organism's metabolism which must be taken in from its environment N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S) and micronutrients (eg. Nitrogen (ˈnaɪtɹəʤɪn is a Chemical element that has the symbol N and Atomic number 7 and Atomic weight 14 Phosphorus, (ˈfɒsfərəs is the Chemical element that has the symbol P and Atomic number 15 Potassium (pəˈtæsiəm is a Chemical element. It has the symbol K (kalium from qalīy Atomic number 19 and Atomic mass 39 Calcium (ˈkælsiəm is the Chemical element with the symbol Ca and Atomic number 20 Magnesium (mægˈniːziəm is a Chemical element with the symbol Mg, Atomic number 12 Atomic weight 24 Sulfur or sulphur (ˈsʌlfɚ see spelling below) is the Chemical element that has the Atomic number 16 Dietary minerals are the Chemical elements required by living Organisms other than the four elements Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, and Mn, Cu, Fe, Zn, etc. Manganese (ˈmæŋgəniːz is a Chemical element, designated by the symbol Mn. Copper (ˈkɒpɚ is a Chemical element with the symbol Cu (cuprum and Atomic number 29 Iron (ˈаɪɚn is a Chemical element with the symbol Fe (ferrum and Atomic number 26 Zinc (ˈzɪŋk from Zink is a Metallic Chemical element with the symbol Zn and Atomic number 30 ) It also host to cytokinins, auxin-like, gibberellins, betaines, mannitol, organic acids, polysaccharides, amino acids, and proteins which are all very beneficial and widely used in agriculture. Cytokinins (CK are a class of Plant growth substances ( Plant Hormones that promote Cell division. Auxins are a class of Plant growth substance (often called Phytohormone or Plant hormone) Gibberellins (GAs are Plant hormones that regulate growth and influence various developmental processes, including "stem elongation Secondary growth Mannitol or hexan-123456-hexol (C6H8(OH6 is a Polyol that is used as an osmotic Diuretic agent and a An organic acid is an Organic compound with Acidic properties Polysaccharides are relatively complex Carbohydrates They are Polymers made up of many Monosaccharides joined together by Glycosidic bonds In Chemistry, an amino acid is a Molecule containing both Amine and Carboxyl Functional groups In Biochemistry, this 
Ascophyllum nodosum may reduce, or even eliminate, not only bacterial plaque and dental caries but also arteriosclerotic plaque, atherosclerotic plaque, pleural plaque, renal calculus, biliary calculus, and prostatic calculus. 
Furthermore, the medicinal and dental uses have been recognized for well over a century.