In military science, a battery is a unit of artillery guns, mortars, or rockets, so grouped in order to facilitate battlefield communication and command and control, as well as to provide dispersion. Military Science is the process of translating National defence policy to produce Military capability by employing Military scientists including Artillery (from French artillerie) is a military Combat Arm which employs any apparātus machine A mortar is a muzzle-loading Indirect fire weapon that fires shells at low velocities short ranges and high-arcing ballistic trajectories A rocket or rocket vehicle is a Missile, Aircraft or other Vehicle which obtains Thrust by the reaction of the Communication is the process of conveying information from a sender to a receiver with the use of a medium in which the communicated information is understood the same way The term is also used in a naval context to describe groups of guns on warships. Naval Artillery or naval rifles refers to Warship -mounted Guns used in Naval warfare for attacking enemy vessels
On land, batteries are usually grouped in larger units sometimes called battalions, which are further grouped into regiments or brigades, which may be artillery or combined arms. A battalion is a Military unit of around 500-1500 men usually consisting of between two and seven companies and typically commanded by a Lieutenant Colonel A regiment is a Military unit, composed of a variable number of Battalions – commanded by a Colonel.
Historically the term 'battery' referred to a group of 'guns' in action, typically besieging a fortress or town. Such batteries could be a mixture of types of guns, howitzers or mortars. A siege could involve many batteries. The term also came to be used for a group of guns in a fixed fortification, for coastal or frontier defence, and for the placement of guns in a temporary field position during a battle. During the 18th Century 'battery' started being used as an organizational term for a permanent unit of artillery in peace and war. By the late 19th Century this use had become normal and mostly replaced earlier terms for artillery units such as company or troop.
Around the middle of the 19th Century some armies started grouping their batteries into larger field units. Previously groups of batteries, etc, were grouped for administrative purposes not field deployment. The term adopted for the field group of batteries has varied between armies and periods. They include 'battalion', 'field brigade', 'group' and 'regiment'. To further confuse the issue some armies have at various times grouped artillery battalions or regiments into 'regiments', 'groups' or 'brigades', and in a few cases 'artillery brigades' have been grouped into 'artillery divisions'. Coastal artillery sometimes had completely different organizational terms. Coastal artillery is the branch of Armed forces concerned with operating anti-ship Artillery or fixed gun batteries in coastal Fortifications.
Batteries also have sub-divisions. These too vary across armies and periods. They include 'platoon' or 'troop'. Individual guns may be called a 'section', or 'sub-section' where a section comprises two guns.
The rank of a battery commander has also varied, but is usually a captain or major.
The number of guns, howitzers, mortars or launchers in an organizational battery has also varied. The calibre of guns has usually been an important consideration. In the 19th Century 4 or 6 guns was usual. In the 20th it has varied between 1 and 12 for field artillery. Other types of artillery such as anti-tank or anti-aircraft have sometimes been larger. Some batteries have been 'dual-equipped' with two different types of gun or mortar, and taking whichever was most appropriate when they deployed for operations.
During the American Civil War, artillery batteries often consisted of six field pieces for the Union Army and four for the Confederate States Army, although this varied. Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South The Union Army was the army that fought for the Union during the American Civil War. The War Department was established by the Confederate Congress in an act on February 21, 1861. Batteries were divided into sections of two guns apiece, each section normally under the command of a lieutenant. Lieutenant (abbreviated Lt or Lieut) is a Military, Naval, Paramilitary, Fire service, Emergency medical services The full battery was typically commanded by a captain. Often, particularly as the war progressed, individual batteries were grouped into battalions under a major or colonel of artillery. Major is a Military rank the use of which varies according to country Colonel ( RP ˈkɜnəl GA ˈkɜrnəl is a Military rank of a Commissioned officer, with corresponding ranks existing in almost every country See Field Artillery in the American Civil War. Field artillery in the American Civil War refers to the important Artillery weapons equipment and practices used by the Artillery branch to support the Infantry
The term 'battery' has also been used in association with warships. Early warships that mounted guns, such as the ship of the line, mounted dozens of cannons, carronades, and other guns in broadsides, sometimes on several decks. A ship-of-the-line was a type of naval warship constructed from the 17th century through the mid-19th century to take part in the the naval tactic known as the Line of battle | NOTE Throughout this article "cannon" is used as BOTH the || singular and plural The carronade was a short Smoothbore, Cast iron Cannon, developed for the Royal Navy by the Carron Company, an Ironworks This remained the standard layout for centuries, until new designs, such as the revolving turret, made it obsolete.
One of the first rotating turrets was designed by John Ericsson, for use on the American ironclad USS Monitor. A gun turret is a device that protects the crew or mechanism of a projectile firing weapon and at the same time lets the weapon be aimed and fired in many directions This article is about John Ericsson the Swedish-American inventor An ironclad was a steam-propelled Warship of the later 19th century protected by Iron or Steel armor plates Design Monitor was one of three ironclad warships ordered by the U Other designs used open barbettes to house their main batteries on rotating mounts. For the early 20th Century female impersonator see Barbette (performer A barbette is a protective circular armor feature around a Cannon Both designs allowed naval engineers to dramatically reduce the number of guns present in the battery, by giving a handful of guns the ability to concentrate on either side of the ship.
A revolution in ship armament occurred in 1906, with the completion of HMS Dreadnought. Genesis Battleships of the era typically carried four large guns mounted fore and aft in twin turrets with a number of smaller-calibre guns ranged along the sides of the In previous battleship designs, the primary battery often consisted of four large caliber guns in two turrets, one in the front of the ship, and one aft. The ships also had a mixed secondary battery of smaller guns, but were also intended to be used offensively. The differences in gun calibers and ranges made it difficult to accurately judge shell splashes, and thus to fire the guns, which lead to decreased effectiveness of the ships. Dreadnought's design did away with the offensive secondary battery, and replaced it with ten heavy caliber guns, and a smaller secondary battery to be used for self defense. This leap in armament made all other battleships obsolete.
Often, ships have a primary battery for offensive purposes, and a seconday and sometimes even a tertiary battery for self defense. An example of this was the German battleship Bismarck, which carried a primary battery of eight 15 inch (380mm) guns, along with a secondary battery of twelve 5. Background Design of the ship started in the early 1930s following on from Germany's development of the ''Deutschland'' class cruisers and the ''Scharnhorst'' class 9 inch (150mm) guns for defense against destroyers and torpedo boats, as well as a tertiary battery of various anti-aircraft guns ranging in caliber from 4. 1 inch (105mm) to 20mm guns. Many later ships used dual-purpose guns to combine the secondary battery and the heavier guns of the tertiary batteries, in order to simplify the design. A dual purpose gun is a Naval artillery mounting designed to engage both surface and air targets
Most modern vessels have largely done away with conventional artillery, instead using cruise and guided missiles for most offensive and defensive purposes, respectively. Guns are retained for niche roles, such as the Phalanx CIWS, a multi-barrel rotary cannon used for point defense, or the Mark 45, which is used for close defense against surface combatants and shore bombardment. The Phalanx Close-In Weapon System (CIWS is an anti-missile system that was designed and manufactured by the General Dynamics Corporation, Pomona Division Point-defence (or point-defense; see spelling differences) is the defence of a single object or a limited area e
In modern military organization, the military unit typically has 6 to 8 howitzers or 6 to 9 rocket launchers and 100 to 200 personnel. A military organization is a way of structuring the armed forces of a State as a need to offer Military capability required by the National defence policy A howitzer is a type of Artillery piece that is characterized by a relatively short barrel and the use of comparatively small explosive charges to propel projectiles In the U. S. Army, generally a towed howitzer battery has 6 guns, where a self-propelled battery (such as an M 109 battery) contains 8. The M109 is an American -made self-propelled 155 mm Howitzer, first introduced in the early 1960s They are subdivided into:
The battery is typically commanded by a captain in U. S. forces and is equivalent to an infantry company. The Infantry is the oldest and most numerous of the Combat Arms in the Armed forces, and consists A company is a Military unit, typically consisting of 75-200 Soldiers Most companies are formed of three to five Platoons although the exact number may vary In United Kingdom and Commonwealth forces a battery commander (like his infantry company commander counterpart) is a Major. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Major is a Military rank the use of which varies according to country However, in these armies the battery commander leads the 'tactical group' and is usually located with the supported arm (infantry, armour, etc) and is rarely on the battery position. Increasingly these direct support battery commanders are responsible for the orchestration of all forms of fire support (mortars, attack helicopters, other aircraft and naval gunfire) as well as artillery. General support battery commanders are likely to be at brigade or higher headquarters.
A US battery is divided into the following units:
Other armies can be significantly different, however. For example: the basic field organization being the 'gun group' and the 'tactical group'. The former being reconnaissance and survey, guns, command posts, logistic and equipment support elements, the latter being the battery commander and observation teams that deploy with the supported arm. In these armies the guns may be split into several fire units, which may deploy dispersed over an extended area or be concentrated into a single position. It some cases batteries have operationally deployed as 6 totally separate guns, although sections (pairs) are more usual.
During the Cold War NATO batteries that were dedicated to a nuclear role generally operated as 'sections' comprising a single gun or launcher.
Groupings of mortars, when they are not operated by artillery, are usually referred to as platoons. A mortar is a muzzle-loading Indirect fire weapon that fires shells at low velocities short ranges and high-arcing ballistic trajectories A platoon is a military unit typically composed of two to four sections or Squads and containing about 30 to 50 soldiers