An artificial reef is a man-made, underwater structure, typically built for the purpose of promoting marine life in areas of generally featureless bottom. Marine biology is the scientific study of living Organisms in the Ocean or other marine or Brackish bodies of water Artificial reefs may also serve to improve hydrodynamics for surfing or to control beach erosion. Fluid dynamics is the sub-discipline of Fluid mechanics dealing with fluid flow: Fluids ( Liquids and Gases in motion
Artificial reefs can be built in a number of different methods. Many reefs are built by deploying existing materials in order to create a reef. This can be done by sinking oil rigs (through the Rigs-to-Reefs program), scuttling ships (such as the USS Oriskany), or by deploying rubble, tires, or construction debris. Rigs-to-Reefs (RTR is a nationwide program developed by the Minerals Management Service of the U Scuttling is the act of deliberately sinking a ship by allowing water to flow into the hull. Construction The name Oriskany was originally assigned to, but that hull was renamed when the keel was laid in 1942 Other artificial reefs are purpose built (e. g. the enormously successful and effective reef balls) from PVC and/or concrete. The Reef Ball Foundation, Inc is a 501(c(3 publicly supported non-profit that functions as an international environmental NGO. Historic or modern shipwrecks become unintended artificial reefs when preserved on the sea floor. Regardless of construction method, artificial reefs are generally designed to provide hard surfaces to which algae and invertebrates such as barnacles, corals, and oysters attach; the accumulation of attached marine life in turn provides intricate structure and food for assemblages of fish. Algae ( sing. alga are a large and diverse group of simple typically Autotrophic organisms ranging from Unicellular to Multicellular forms A barnacle is a type of Arthropod belonging to infraclass Cirripedia in the subphylum Crustacea, and is hence distantly related to Corals are Marine organisms from the class Anthozoa and exist as small Sea anemone –like Polyps typically in colonies of many The common name oyster is used for a number of different groups of Bivalve Mollusks most of which live in marine habitats or Brackish water. A biocoenosis (alternatively biocoenose or biocenose) termed by Karl Möbius in 1877 describes all the interacting Organisms living together Fish are aquatic Vertebrate animals that are typically ectothermic (previously Cold-blooded) covered with scales, and equipped with two
The construction of artificial reefs is thousands of years old, although the historic usages were related to sea power rather than aquaculture. Naval warfare is Combat in and on Seas Oceans or any other major bodies of water such as large Lakes and wide Rivers History Aquaculture is the farming of freshwater and saltwater organisms including Molluscs Crustaceans and aquatic plants Ancient Persians blocked the mouth of the Tigris River to thwart Indian pirates by building an artificial reef, and during the First Punic War the Romans built a reef across the mouth of the Carthaginian harbor in Sicily to trap the enemy ships within and assist in driving the Carthaginians from the island. The Persian Empire was a series of Iranian empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland and beyond in Western Asia The Tigris is the eastern member of the two great Rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of southeastern India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country The First Punic War ( 264 to 241 BC) was the first of three major wars fought between Carthage and the Roman Republic. The Roman Republic was the phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a Republican form of government a period which began with the overthrow of the
The use of artificial reefs to increase fish yields or for algaculture also has a long history. See also Algae Algaculture is a form of Aquaculture involving the farming of species of Algae. During the 1600s reefs of building rubble and rocks were used in Japan to grow kelp, while the earliest recorded construction of artificial reef in the United States is from 1830s when logs from huts were used off the coast of South Carolina to improve fishing. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. Kelp are large Seaweeds ( Algae) belonging to the Brown algae and classified in the order Laminariales The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Events and trends Electromagnetic induction discovered by Michael Faraday. South Carolina ( is a state in the southern region ( Deep South) of the United States of America. 
In the early 1970s, a series of thousands of disused vehicle tires were dumped off the coast of Fort Lauderdale, Florida to form an artificial reef, causing environmental problems over time. This article is about tires used on road Vehicles including pneumatic tires and solid tires. Fort Lauderdale, known as the "Venice of America" due to its expansive and intricate Canal system is a city in Broward County, Florida, See Fort Lauderdale tire reef. Osborne Reef is an Artificial reef off the coast of Fort Lauderdale Florida constructed of concrete jacks in a 50-foot diameter circle
Artificial surfing reefs have been created for surfing, coastal protection, habitat enhancement and coastal research. The sarcastic fringehead, Neoclinus blanchardi, is a fish of the suborder Blenioidea The world's first attempt was made in El Segundo, near Los Angeles, in California. El Segundo is also the name of a champion Australian racehorse The next attempt was at Cables Stations Beach, Perth, Western Australia. Perth is the capital and largest city of the Australian state of Western Australia. This reef was constructed of large granite rocks placed in a pyramidal shape to form an appropriate breaking wave form that would suit surfers. An artificial reef constructed of over 400 massive, geotextile bags (each one larger than a bus) filled with sand was constructed in 2000 at Narrowneck on the Gold Coast of Queensland, Australia. This artificial reef had two objectives: stabilizing beach nourishment and improving surfing conditions. Initially the structure produced some exceptional surfing conditions, however settlement of the geotexile sandbags, as well as huge differences between the design and final reef shape means that the surfing has only been moderately improved.
Artificial surfing reefs typically resemble a "submerged breakwater", and proponents have suggested additional benefits beyond improving surfing conditions. In Hawaii and California, long stretches of coast are subject to powerful waves that crash directly onshore. An artificial reef situated 150-300 yards offshore might not only create surfing opportunities but, by dissipating wave energy before it strikes the shore, create safer swimming areas and reduce coastal erosion.
The USS Spiegel Grove was sunk in 2002 to make an artificial reef. Career Spiegel Grove was laid down on 7 September 1954 by the Ingalls Shipbuilding Corp In United States, in particular, complex coastal permitting requirements combined with environmental opposition provide a major obstacle to building surfing reefs. As of February 2006, the only reef built in the U. S. specifically for surfing purposes is "Pratte's Reef" in southern California. Chevron Reef, also known as Pratte's Reef, is an Artificial reef constructed in 2000 in Santa Monica Bay, offshore from Dockweiler State Beach Artificial reefs built for enhancement of marine habitat face far less environmental opposition, in part because they are located in much deeper water some distance offshore. A number of such man-made reefs exist off of Florida and in Hawaii.
Artificial surfaces are being grown using a process called mineral accretion. In mineral accretion, a low voltage current is applied to a metallic structure to cause limestone to accrete or build on the surface, upon which coral planulae can attach and grow. A planula is the free-swimming flattened ciliated, bilaterally symmetric Larva of a Jellyfish, a Hydrozoan Cnidarian or This greatly speeds the coral growth process on artificial surfaces. The voltage is low enough that it can be generated by floating solar panels or from wave motion.
A coalition of scientists known as the Global Coral Reef Alliance (GCRA) has been developing a technique called the Biorock Process using mineral accretion for reef restoration, mariculture, and shore Protection.
The multi-million-dollar cleanup of Osborne Reef, a tire dump near Fort Lauderdale, Florida, has prompted questions about the risks of creating artificial reefs. Osborne Reef is an Artificial reef off the coast of Fort Lauderdale Florida constructed of concrete jacks in a 50-foot diameter circle Fort Lauderdale, known as the "Venice of America" due to its expansive and intricate Canal system is a city in Broward County, Florida, In Florida, the tires posed a particular threat after breaking free from their restraints. The tires then migrated shoreward and ran into a living reef tract, climbed up its slope and killed everything in their path. According to The Ocean Conservancy, a Washington-based environmental group, the Florida reef may be an indication that the benefits of artificial reefs need to be re-examined. The Ocean Conservancy (founded as The Center for Environmental Education) is a nonprofit advocacy group based in Washington D Jack Sobel, a senior scientist at the group, has said "There's little evidence that artificial reefs have a net benefit. "