An arrow is a pointed projectile that is shot with a bow. A projectile is any object propelled through space by the exertion of a force which ceases after launch A bow is a Weapon that projects arrows powered by the elasticity of the bow It predates recorded history and is common to most cultures. Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning "to cultivate" generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic
A normal arrow consists of a shaft with an arrowhead attached to the front end, with fletchings and a nock at the other.
Arrow sizes vary greatly across cultures, ranging from eighteen inches to five feet (45 cm to 150 cm).  However, most modern arrows are two-and-a-half to three feet long (75 cm to 90 cm), similar to the length of English war arrows (which were made to be half the height of the man who shot them).  Very short arrows have been used, shot through a guide attached either to the bow (an "overdraw") or to the archer's wrist (the Turkish "siper").  These may fly further than heavier arrows, and an enemy without suitable equipment may find himself unable to return them.
The shaft is the primary structural element of the arrow, to which the other components are attached. Traditional arrow shafts are made from lightweight wood, bamboo or reeds, while modern shafts may be made from aluminium or carbon fiber reinforced plastic. Wood is hard fibrous lignified structural tissue produced as secondary Xylem in the stems of Woody plants notably trees but also shrubs Bamboo is a group of Woody perennial Evergreen Plants in the True grass family Poaceae, subfamily Phragmites australis, the common reed, is a large perennial grass found in Wetlands throughout temperate and tropical regions of the WikipediaNaming Carbon fiber reinforced plastic ( CFRP or CRP) is a very strong light and expensive Composite material or fiber reinforced plastic.
The stiffness of the shaft is known as its spine, referring to how little the shaft bends when compressed. Stiffness is the resistance of an elastic body to Deformation by an applied Force. Hence, an arrow which bends less is said to have more spine. In order to strike consistently, a group of arrows must be similarly-spined. "Center-shot" bows, in which the arrow passes through the central vertical axis of the bow riser, may obtain consistent results from arrows with a wide range of spines. However, most traditional bows are not center-shot and the arrow has to deflect around the handle in the archer's paradox; such bows tend to give most consistent results with a narrower range of arrow spine that allows the arrow to deflect correctly around the bow. The term archer's paradox refers to the flexing of an Arrow shaft that occurs when it is shot from a non-centershot bow. Higher draw-weight bows will generally require stiffer arrows, with more spine (less flexibility) to give the correct amount of flex when shot.
Sometimes a shaft will be made of two different types of wood fastened together, resulting in what is known as a footed arrow. Known by some as the finest of wood arrows, footed arrows were used both by early Europeans and Native Americans. For indigenous peoples in the United States other than Hawaii and Alaska see also Native Americans in the United States. Footed arrows will typically consist of a short length of hardwood near the head of the arrow, with the remainder of the shaft consisting of softwood. The term hardwood is used to describe Wood from broad-leaved angiosperm Trees mostly Deciduous, but not necessarily in the case of tropical Softwood is a generic term used in Woodworking and the Lumber industries for Wood from Conifers (needle-bearing trees from the order Pinales By reinforcing the area most likely to break, the arrow is more likely to survive impact, while maintaining overall flexibility and lighter weight.
The arrowhead or projectile point is the primary functional part of the arrow, and plays the largest role in determining its purpose. An arrowhead is point of an Arrow, or a shape resembling such a point as Archaeological artifacts arrowheads are a subclass of Projectile points Obsidian is a naturally occurring Glass formed as an extrusive Igneous rock. In Archaeology, a projectile point is an object that was hafted and used either as Knife or Projectile tip or both commonly called an Arrowhead Some arrows may simply use a sharpened tip of the solid shaft, but it is far more common for separate arrowheads to be made, usually from metal, horn, or some other hard material. Arrowheads are usually separated by function:
Arrowheads may be attached to the shaft with a cap, a socketed tang, or inserted into a split in the shaft and held by a process called hafting. The tang of a Sword or fixed-blade Knife is that part of the Blade extending into and usually through the grip that is fastened to it Hafting is a process by which an Artifact, often bone, metal or stone, is attached to a handle or strap  Points attached with caps are simply slid snugly over the end of the shaft, or may be held on with hot glue. Glue gun redirects here for the band Glue Gun see Glue Gun (band. Split-shaft construction involves splitting the arrow shaft lengthwise, inserting the arrowhead, and securing it using a ferrule, sinew, or wire. A ferrule (a corruption of Latin viriola "small bracelet" under the influence of ferrum "iron 
Fletchings are found at the back of the arrow and provide a small amount of drag used to stabilize the flight of the arrow. They are designed to keep the arrow pointed in the direction of travel by strongly damping down any tendency to pitch or yaw. Flight dynamics is the science of air and space vehicle orientation and control in three dimensions Some cultures, for example most in New Guinea, did not use fletching on their arrows. New Guinea, located just north of Australia, is the world's second largest island, having become separated from the Australian mainland when the area now known 
Fletchings are traditionally made from feathers (often from a goose or turkey) bound to the arrow's shaft, but are now often made of plastic (known as "vanes"). Feathers are one of the epidermal growths that form the distinctive outer covering or Plumage, on Birds They are considered the most complex integumentary structures Goose (plural geese) is the English name for a considerable number of Birds belonging to the family Anatidae. A turkey is either of two extant Species of large Birds in the Genus Meleagris native to North America. Plastic is the general common term for a wide range of synthetic or semisynthetic organic solid materials suitable for the manufacture of industrial products Historically, some arrows used for the proofing of armour used copper vanes. The proofing of armour refers to the process of testing Armour for its defensive ability most commonly used to historical testing of Plate armour and Chainmail Copper (ˈkɒpɚ is a Chemical element with the symbol Cu (cuprum and Atomic number 29  Flight archers may use razor blades for fletching, in order to reduce air resistance.
Artisans who make arrows by hand are known as "fletchers," a word related to the French word for arrow, flèche. French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people This is the same derivation as the verb "fletch", meaning to provide an arrow with its feathers. Glue and/or thread are the main traditional methods of attaching fletchings. A "fletching jig" is often used in modern times, to hold the fletchings in exactly the right orientation on the shaft while the glue hardens.
Fletchings may be straight, or arranged with a slight offset around the shaft of the arrow to provide a slight rotation which improves accuracy. Most arrows will have three fletches, but some have four or even more. Fletchings generally range from two to six inches in length; flight arrows intended to travel the maximum possible distance typically have very low fletching, hunting arrows with broadheads require long and high fletching to stabilize them against the aerodynamic effect of the head.
With conventional three-feather fletching, one feather, called the "cock" feather, is at a right angle to the nock, and is conventionally placed so that it will not contact the bow when the arrow is shot. However, many modern target archers have no "cock" feather on their arrows, thus improving accuracy. Four-feather fletching has the advantage that there is no cock feather, so making nocking the arrow slightly easier; this may help very young children in particular to enjoy archery.
A flu-flu is a form of fletching, normally made by using long sections of full length feathers, in most cases six or more sections are used rather than the traditional three. Flu-Flu is a type of Arrow specifically designed to travel a short distance and this is particularly useful when shooting at aerial targets or for certain types of recreational Alternatively two long feathers can be spiraled around the end of the arrow shaft. The extra fletching generates more drag and slows the arrow down rapidly after a short distance, about 30m or so.
Flu-Flu arrows are often used for hunting birds, or for children's archery, and can be used to play Flu-Flu Golf. Flu-Flu is a type of Arrow specifically designed to travel a short distance and this is particularly useful when shooting at aerial targets or for certain types of recreational
The nock serves to keep the arrow in place on the string as the bow is being drawn. Nocks may be simple slots cut in the back of the arrow, or separate pieces made from wood, plastic, or horn that are then attached to the end of the arrow.  Modern nocks, and traditional Turkish nocks, are often so constructed as to curve around the string or even pinch it slightly, so that the arrow is unlikely to slip off.