Die Partei, Breker's statue representing the spirit of the Nazi Party
Arno Breker (July 19, 1900 – February 13, 1991) was a German sculptor, best known for his public works in Nazi Germany, which were endorsed by the authorities as the antithesis of so-called "degenerate art". Art competitions formed part of the modern Olympic Games during its early years from 1912 to 1948 The 1936 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XI Olympiad, an International Multi-sport event which was held in 1936 in Berlin Art competitions were held as part of the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin, Germany. Events 711 - Muslim forces under Tariq ibn Ziyad defeat the Visigoths led by their king Roderic. Year 1900 ( MCM) was an exceptional Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar Events 1258 - Baghdad falls to the Mongols, and the Abbasid Caliphate is destroyed Year 1991 ( MCMXCI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar. Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers Degenerate art is the English translation of the German entartete Kunst, a term adopted by the Nazi
He was born in Elberfeld, now Wuppertal and died in Düsseldorf. See also Elberfeld Indiana. For the baseball player with this name see Kid Elberfeld. ||-||} Wuppertal (ˈvʊpɐtaːl is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Düsseldorf (ˈdʏsəldɔɐf is the capital city of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia.
Breker was born in Elberfeld, in the north of Germany, the son of a stone mason. He began to study architecture, along with stone-carving and anatomy, and at age 20 was accepted to the Düsseldolf Academy of Arts where concentrated on sculpture. He first visited Paris in 1924, shortly before finishing his studies. There he met with Jean Cocteau, Jean Renoir, Pablo Picasso, Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler, and Alfred Flechtheim. Jean Maurice Eugène Clément Cocteau (5 July 1889 &ndash 11 October 1963 was a French Poet, Novelist, Dramatist, Designer, Boxing Jean Renoir (French ʁəˈnwaʁ ( September 15, 1894 – February 12, 1979) born in the Montmartre district of Paris Pablo Diego José Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno María de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Martyr Patricio Clito Ruíz y Picasso (October 25 1881 &ndash April 8 1973 Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler ( June 25, 1884 - January 11, 1979) born in Germany, was an art historian an art collector and one of the In 1927 he moved to Paris, which he thereafter considered to be his home. He was quickly accepted by the art dealer Alfred Flechtheim. He also established close relationships with important figures in the art world, including Charles Despiau, Isamu Noguchi, Maurice de Vlaminck and André Dunoyer de Segonzac, of all of whom he later made portraits. Charles Despiau ( November 4 1874 – October 30 1946) was a French sculptor was a prominent Japanese American Artist and landscape architect whose artistic career spanned six decades from the 1920s onward Maurice de Vlaminck ( April 4, 1876 &ndash October 11, 1958) was a French painter. André Dunoyer de Segonzac ( July 7, 1884 – September 17, 1974) was a French painter and graphic artist He travelled to North Africa, producing lithographs which he published under the title "Tunisian Journey". Lithography is a method for Printing using a plate or stone with a completely smooth surface He also visited Aristide Maillol, who was later to describe Breker as "Germany's Michelangelo". Aristide Maillol ( December 8 1861 &ndash September 27 1944) was a French Catalan sculptor and painter
In 1932 he was awarded a prize by the Prussian Ministry of Culture, which allowed him to stay in Rome for a year. In 1934 he returned to Germany on the advice of Max Liebermann. Max Liebermann ( July 20 1847 &ndash February 8 1935) was a German painter and Printmaker in Etching and At this time Alfred Rosenberg, editor of the Nazi newspaper Völkischer Beobachter, actually denounced Breker as a degenerate artist. (12 January 1893 16 October 1946 was an early and intellectually influential member of the Nazi Party. The Völkischer Beobachter (" Völkisch Observer" or less strictly "People's Observer" was the newspaper of the National Degenerate art is the English translation of the German entartete Kunst, a term adopted by the Nazi However, Breker was supported by many Nazi leaders, especially Adolf Hitler. Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately He took commissions from the Nazis from 1933 through 1942, for example participating in a show of his work in occupied Paris in 1942, where he met Jean Cocteau, who appreciated his work. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city Jean Maurice Eugène Clément Cocteau (5 July 1889 &ndash 11 October 1963 was a French Poet, Novelist, Dramatist, Designer, Boxing He maintained personal relationships with Albert Speer and with Hitler. Berthold Konrad Hermann Albert Speer, commonly known as Albert Speer ( 19 March 1905 - 1 September 1981 was an Architect, author and for part of World In 1936 he won the commission for two sculptures representing athletic prowess, intended for the 1936 Olympic games, one represented a Decathlete (“Zehnkämpfer”) and the other The Victress (“Die Siegerin”). The decathlon is an Athletic event consisting of ten Track and field events In 1937 he married Demetra Messala, a Greek model, and also joined the Nazi Party to smooth the way for further patronage from Hitler. The, officially National Socialist German Workers' Party, ( abbreviated NSDAP) was a Political party in Germany between 1919 and 1945 "
The neoclassical nature of his work, with titles like Comradeship, Torchbearer, and Sacrifice, typified Nazi ideals, and suited the characteristics of Nazi architecture. Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the decorative and Nazi architecture was an architectural plan and integral part of the Nazi party 's plans to create a Cultural and On closer inspection, though, the proportions of his figures, the highly colouristic treatment of his surfaces (the strong contrasts between dark and light accents), and the melodramatic tension of their musculatures perhaps invites comparison with the Italian Mannerist sculptors of the 16th century. Mannerism is a period of European art which emerged from the later years of the Italian High Renaissance around 1520. This Mannerist tendency to Breker's neoclassicism may suggest closer affinities to concurrent expressionist tendencies in German Modernism than is acknowledged. Expressionism is the tendency of an artist to distort reality for an Emotional effect it is a subjective art form Modernism describes an array of Cultural movements rooted in the changes in Western society in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century
His twin sculptures The Party and The Army held a prominent position at the entrance to the Reich Chancellery. The Reich Chancellery ( German Reichskanzlei) was the traditional name of the office of the German Chancellor
Breker was a professor of visual arts in Berlin, until the fall of the Third Reich. While nearly all of his sculptures survived WWII, more than 90% of his public work was destroyed by the allies after the war.
Arno Breker's Grave in Düsseldorf
In 1948 Breker was designated as a "fellow traveller" of the Nazis and was fined. At this time he returned to Düsseldorf, which remained his base, with periods of residence in Paris. During this time he worked as an architect. However, he continued to receive commissions for sculptures, producing a number of works in his familiar classical style, working for businesses and individual patrons. He also produced many portrait sculptures. In 1970 he was commissioned by the king of Morocco to produce work for the United Nations Building in Casablanca, but the work was destroyed. Casablanca (in Standard Arabic: الدار البيضاء ad-Dār al-Bayḍāʼ; Moroccan Arabic: dar beïda الدار البيضا Many other portrait works followed, including Anwar Sadat and Konrad Adenauer. Konrad Hermann Josef Adenauer ( 5 January 1876 – 19 April 1967 was a German Statesman. Breker's rehabilitation continued, culminating in plans for the creation of a Breker museum, funded by the Bodenstein family, who set aside the castle of Nörvenich, between Aachen and Cologne for the purpose. The Arno Breker Museum was inaugurated in 1985.
Breker's rehabilitation led to backlashes from anti-Nazi activists, including controversy in Paris when some of his works were exhibited at the Pompidou Center in 1981. Centre Georges Pompidou (constructed 1971–1977 and known as the Pompidou Centre in English) is a complex in the Beaubourg area of the 4th arrondissement In the same year anti-Breker demonstrations accompanied an exhibition in Berlin. Breker's admirers insisted that he had never been a supporter of Nazi ideology (despite being a member of the Nazi Party), but had simply accepted their patronage.
Breker's last major work was a monumental sculpture of Alexander the Great intended to be located in Greece. Alexander the Great ( or, Mégas Aléxandros; July 20 356 BC June 10 or June 11 323 BC also known as Alexander III of Macedon (el Ἀλέξανδρος Γ'
Portraits (mostly in bronze)
- Baron vor Mirbach, 1920
- Friedrich Ebert, Berlin 1924 (erster Staatsauftrag)
- Walter Kaesbach, Düsseldorf, 1925
- Artur Kaufmann, 1925
- Herbert Eulenberg, 1925/26
- Otto Dix, Paris 1926/27
- Isamu Noguchi, Paris 1927
- Hermann Kesser, 1927
- Moissey Kogan, Paris 1927/28
- Inge Davemann, 1928
- Albert Lindgens, 1928
- Walter Lindgens, 1928
- Illa Fudickar, 1929
- Robert Gerling, 1929
- Arnold von Guilleaume, 1929
- Jean Marchand, 1929
- Mossey Kogan, 1929
- H. Wilhelm was a prominent Japanese American Artist and landscape architect whose artistic career spanned six decades from the 1920s onward R. von Langen, 1929
- Alberto Giacometti
- Isolde von Conta, 1930
- Abraham Frohwein, 1930
- Heinrich Heine, 1930
- Edith Arnthal, 1930/31
- Demetra Breker, 1931
- Nico Mazaraki, 1931
- Robert Valancey, Paris 1931
- Prince Georg of Bavaria, 1932
- Andreas von Siemens, Berlin 1932
- Nina Bausch, 1933
- Demetra Breker, 1933
- Olga von Dahlgreen, 1933
- Arthur Kampf, 1933
- Victor Manheimer, 1933
- Nora von Schnitzler, 1933
- Robert de Valencay, 1933
- Max Liebermann, 1934
- Gottfried Bermann-Fischer, 1934
- Max Baldner, 1934
- Kurt Edzard, 1934
- Graf von Luckner, 1934
- Anne-Marie Merkel, 1934/35
- Pütze von Siemens, 1934/35
- Kurt Edzard, 1935
- Anne-Marie Merkel, 1935
- Pütze von Siemens, 1935/36
- Carl Friedrich von Siemens, 1936
- Leo von König, 1936
- Joseph Goebbels, 1937
- Paul von Hindenburg, 1937
- Wolfgang Reindl, 1938
- Adolf Hitler
- Richard Wagner, 1939
- Gerda Bormann (wife of Martin Bormann), 1940
- Edda Göring (daughter of Hermann Göring), 1941
- Albert Speer, 1941
- Grete Speer (wife of Albert Speer), 1941
- Bernhard Rust
- Gerhart Hauptmann, 1942
- Serge Lifar, 1942/43
- Aristide Maillol, 1942/43
- Alfred Cortot, 1942/43
- Abel Bonnard, 1943
- Wilhelm Kreis, 1943
- Maurice de Vlaminck, 1943
- Claude Flammarion, 1944
- Gottfried Ude-Bernays, 1945
- Johannes Bork, 1946
- Lothar Albano Müller, 1950
- Ludwig Hölscher, 1952
- Gustav Lindemann, 1952
- Wilhelm Kempff, 1953
- Emperor Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia, 1955
- Rolf Gerling, 1956
- Hans Gerling
- Friedrich Sieburg, 1961
- Jean Cocteau, 1963
- Jean Marais, 1963
- Henry de Montherland, 1964
- Marcel Pagnol, 1964
- Roger Peyrefitte, 1964
- Jeanne Castel, 1964
- Paul Morand, 1965
- Jacques Benoist-Méchin, 1965
- Henry Picker
- André Dunoyer de Segonzac, 1966
- Marcel Midy
- Ezra Pound, 1967
- King Mohammed V of Morocco
- Princess Ira von Fürstenberg
- Louis-Ferdinand Céline, 1970
- Salvador Dalí, 1974/75
- Ernst Fuchs, 1976/77
- Leopold Sedar Senghor, 1978
- Anwar El Sadat, 1980
- Ernst Jünger, 1981/82
- Arno Breker, Selfportrait, 1991
- Prometheus (1935)
- Relief am Gebäude der Lebensversicherung Nordstern, Berlin (1936)
- Der Zehnkämpfer fürs Olympia-Stadion, Berlin (1936, Silvermedal)
- Die Siegerin fürs Olympia-Stadion, Berlin (1936)
- Dionysos fürs Olympia-Dorf, Berlin (1936)
- Der Verwundete (1938)
- Der Rosseführer (1938)
- Anmut (1938)
- Fackelträger („Die Partei“) im Hof der Neuen Reichskanzlei (1939)
- Schwertträger („Die Wehrmacht“) im Hof der Neuen Reichskanzlei (1939)
- Der Wäger (1939)
- Der Wager (1939)
- Bereitschaft (1939)
- Der Rächer (1940)
- Kameraden (1940), Breker-Museum
- Bannerträger (1940)
- Abschied (1940)
- Vernichtung (1940)
- Opfer (1940)
- Schreitende (1940)
- Der Wächter (1941)
- Psyche (1941)
- Berufung (1941)
- Der Künder (1942)
- Der Sieger (1942)
- Kniende (1942)
- Eos (1942)
- Flora (1943)
- Der Genius (1938)
- Der Kämpfer (1938)
- Apollo und Daphne
- Auszug zum Kampf (1941)
- Aufbruch der Kämpfer (1940/41)
- Der Rufer (1941)
- Orpheus and Eurydice (1944, Breker-Museum)
Books by and on Arno Breker
- Dominique Egret (Hg. Alberto Giacometti ( October 10, 1901 – January 11, 1966) was a Swiss sculptor, painter, draftsman, Prince Georg of Bavaria (Georg Franz Joseph Luitpold Maria Prinz von Bayern ( April 2, 1880 - May 31, 1943) was a member of the Bavarian Max Liebermann ( July 20 1847 &ndash February 8 1935) was a German painter and Printmaker in Etching and Carl Friedrich von Siemens ( September 5 1872 in Berlin – September 9 1941 in Heinendorf near Potsdam) was a German Entrepreneur Paul Joseph Goebbels (German pronunciation ˈɡœbəls English generally ˈɡɝbəlz (29 October 1897 1 May 1945 was a German politician and Reich Minister of Public Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg ( known universally as Paul von Hindenburg ( ( October 2, 1847 &ndash August 2 Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately Martin Ludwig Bormann (17 June 1900 – 2 May 1945 Hermann Wilhelm Göring (also spelled Goering) (12 January 1893 15 October 1946 was a German Politician, Military leader and a leading member Berthold Konrad Hermann Albert Speer, commonly known as Albert Speer ( 19 March 1905 - 1 September 1981 was an Architect, author and for part of World Gerhart Hauptmann ( November 15, 1862 — June 6, 1946) was a German Dramatist who received the Nobel Prize in Literature See also Serge Lifar (real name Сергей Михайлович Лифарь, Sergei Mihailovich Lifar) ( April 2, 1905 Aristide Maillol ( December 8 1861 &ndash September 27 1944) was a French Catalan sculptor and painter Alfred Denis Cortot ( Nyon, Switzerland September 26, 1877 &ndash Lausanne June 15, 1962) was a Franco-Swiss Pianist Abel Bonnard ( December 19, 1883 &ndash May 31, 1968) was a French poet novelist and politician Wilhelm Kreis (March 17 1873 &ndash August 13 1955 was a prominent German Architect and professor of architecture active through four political systems in German Maurice de Vlaminck ( April 4, 1876 &ndash October 11, 1958) was a French painter. Wilhelm Walter Friedrich Kempff ( November 25, 1895 &ndash May 23, 1991) was a world-renowned German Virtuoso Pianist Haile Selassie I ( Ge'ez: am ኃይለ፡ ሥላሴ "Power of the Trinity " 23 July 1892 &ndash 27 August 1975 born Tafari Makonnen, was Jean Maurice Eugène Clément Cocteau (5 July 1889 &ndash 11 October 1963 was a French Poet, Novelist, Dramatist, Designer, Boxing Marcel Pagnol ( February 28, 1895 – April 18, 1974) was a French Novelist, Playwright, and Filmmaker Roger Peyrefitte ( August 17, 1907 &ndash November 5, 2000) was a French Diplomat, Writer of Bestseller Paul Morand (b March 13 1888, Paris. d July 24 1976) was a French Diplomat, Novelist, Playwright André Dunoyer de Segonzac ( July 7, 1884 – September 17, 1974) was a French painter and graphic artist Ezra Weston Loomis Pound ( Hailey, Idaho Territory, United States October 30 1885 – Venice, Italy November 1 1972 was an American Expatriate Mohammed V ( August 10, 1909 &ndash February 26, 1961) (محمد الخامس was Sultan of Morocco from 1927 to Princess Virginia (Ira of Fürstenberg (German Ira Prinzessin zu Fürstenberg) (born April 18 1940) is a European Socialite, actress Louis-Ferdinand Céline was the Pen name of French writer and doctor Louis-Ferdinand Destouches (27 May 1894 &ndash 1 July 1961 Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech 1st Marquis of Púbol (May 11 1904 &ndash January 23 1989 was a Spanish Catalan Surrealist Ernst Fuchs may refer to Ernst Fuchs (artist, Austrian artist Ernst Fuchs (doctor, Austrian ophthalmologist Ernst Fuchs Sir Léopold Sédar Senghor ( 9 October 1906 20 December 2001) was a Senegalese Poet, politician and cultural theorist who Ernst Jünger ( March 29, 1895 — February 17, 1998) was a German Writer. ): Arno Breker. Ein Leben für das Schöne, A life for the Beautiful, 352 S. , 600 Photographs, 1997, German, English, French. ISBN 3-87847-157-2.
- Hermann Leber: Rodin, Breker, Hrdlicka ISBN 3-487-10722-8
- Volker G. Probst: Das Pietà-Motiv bei Arno Breker. 1985.
- Volker G. Probst: Der Bildhauer Arno Breker – Eine Untersuchung, Marco Edition, ISBN 3-921754-07-0.
- Volker G. Probst: Das Bildnis des Menschen im Werk von Arno Breker, Studio de L'Art 1981 Berlin, Marco-VG, ISBN 3-921754-13-5.
- Arno Breker: Schriften, 190 S. , zahlreiche Abbildungen, Einleitung F. J. Hall, Marco Bonn-Paris-New York, ISBN 3-921754-19-4.
- B. John Zavrel: Arno Breker - His Art and Life, 1985 West-Art USA, ISBN 0-914301-01-2
- Arno Breker: Begegnungen und Betrachtungen, 1987, Marco Paris-New York, ISBN 3-921754-27-5.
- Dr. Hans Klier: Arno Breker - Form und Schönheit, 1978 Salzburger Kulturvereinigung, Marco-Edition Bonn-Paris.
- B. John Zavrel: Interview with Arno Breker: The divine Beauty in Art, New York, 1982, West-Art USA ISBN 0-914301-04-7.
- Uwe Möller: Arno Breker - Zeichnungen - Drawings - Dessins 1927-1990, Bildband mit 110 Handzeichnungen, Museums-Edition.
- Roger Peyrefitte: Hommage a Arno Breker, 1980, Marco-Editeur Paris. mit 8 Originallithographien.
- Reagan/Bush/Carstens: Salut America (zu 300 Jahre Einwanderung USA), Lithographien von Arno Breker. West-Art, N. Y.
- Charles Despiau: Arno Breker, 1942, Bildband zur Retrospektive in der Orangerie Paris. Edition Flammarion/Frankreich.
- Paul Morand, Dali, Fuchs u. a. : Hommage a Arno Breker zum 75. Geburtstag des Künstlers 1975, Edition Mourlot/Marco Paris.
- Rolf Schilling: Eros und Ares - Begegnung mit Breker, 1994, Edition Arnshaugk ISBN 3-926370-21-1
- Arno Breker - Über allem Schönheit, Farb-Katalog als Festgabe zum 100. Geburtstag. Edition Dr. S. Nöhring/Museum Europäische Kunst
Films / Video
- Arno Breker - Skulpturen und Musik, by Marco J. Bodenstein, 20 Minuten, Marco-Edition Bonn.
- Arno Breker - Deutsche Lebensläufe, Farbfilm 60 Minuten, Marco-VG, Bonn
- Paris-Rom-Berlin und Arno Breker, and Interview with Albert Speer. Farbfilm, 60 Minuten, EKS Museum Europäische Kunst, Schloss 52388 Nörvenich.
- ^ Richard J. Evans, The Third Reich in Power, 2005, pp. Nazi architecture was an architectural plan and integral part of the Nazi party 's plans to create a Cultural and The Art of the Third Reich, the officially approved art produced in Nazi Germany between 1933 and 1945 was characterized by a style of Romantic realism based on Josef Thorak (b 7 February 1889 at Salzburg, Austria; d 26 February 1952 at Hartmannsberg, Germany Werner Peiner ( Dusseldorf, 20 July, 1897 &ndash Leichlingen, 19 August, 1984) was a German painter Adolf Wissel ( 19 April 1894 – 17 November 1973) was a German painter. Conrad Hommel ( Mainz, 1883 &ndash 1971 was a German painter. Professor Richard Evans (born 1947 is a British Historian of Germany. 167-168
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