The architecture of the Song Dynasty (960–1279) was based upon the accomplishments of its predecessors, much like every subsequent dynastic period of China. The following is a Chronology of the dynasties in Chinese history. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National The hallmarks of Chinese architecture during the Song period were its towering Buddhist pagodas, enormous stone and wooden bridges, its lavish tombs, and palatial architecture. The term architecture (from Greek αρχιτεκτονικήarchitektoniki) can be used to mean a process a profession or documentation The Song Dynasty ( Wade-Giles: Sung Ch'ao was a ruling dynasty in China between 960&ndash1279 CE it succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices A pagoda is the general term in the English language for a tiered Tower with multiple Eaves common in China, Japan, Korea The list of bridges is a link page for any Bridges that are notable enough to have an article or that are likely to have an article in the future See also:CategoryMemorials, Cenotaph, Monument, Catacombs, Cemetery, Pyramid, List of Cemeteries, A palace is a grand residence especially the home of a Head of state or some other high-ranking Public figure. Although literary works on architecture existed beforehand, during the Song Dynasty literature on architecture blossomed into maturity and held a greater professional outlook, described dimensions and working materials in a concise manner, and overall had a greater style of organization than previous works. Architecture in Song artwork and illustrations in published books showing building diagrams also aid modern historians in understanding all the nuances of architecture originating from the Song period.
The profession of the architect, craftsman, carpenter, and structural engineer were not seen as high professions equal to the likes a Confucian scholar-official in pre-modern China. An architect is a licensed individual who leads a design team in the Planning and Design of buildings and participates in oversight of Building Construction A carpenter (builder is a skilled craftsman who performs carpentry - a wide range of Woodworking that includes constructing buildings, Structural engineers analyze design plan and research structural components and Structural systems Their work takes account mainly of technical economic and environmental Confucianism ( is a Chinese ethical and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of the fifth century B Architectural knowledge was passed down orally for thousands of years in China, from a father craftsman to his son (if the son wished to continue the legacy of his father). However, there were government agencies of construction and building along with engineering schools. The Song literature of building manuals aided not only the various private workshops, but also the government employees enlisted as craftsmen for the central government.
During the Han Dynasty (202 BC–220 AD) of China, the idea of the Buddhist stupa entered Chinese culture, as a means to house and protect scriptural sutras. The Han Dynasty ( 206 BC–220 AD followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices A stupa (from Sanskrit and Pāli: m स्तूप stūpa, literally meaning "heap" is a mound-like structure containing Buddhist The Culture of China (traditional Chinese 中國文化 simplified Chinese 中国文化 is home to one of the world's oldest and most complex Civilizations covering a history During the Southern and Northern Dynasties period, the distinct Chinese pagoda was developed, its predecessor being the tall watchtowers and towering residential apartments of the Han Dynasty (as seen through Han-era tomb models). This article is about the Southern and Northern Dynasties in China. A pagoda is the general term in the English language for a tiered Tower with multiple Eaves common in China, Japan, Korea  During the Sui (581–618) and Tang (618–907) periods, Chinese pagodas were reverted from purely wooden architecture into articulated stone and brick, which could more easily survive lightning fires, arson, and avoid the natural rotting of wooden material over the ages. The Sui Dynasty ( 581 - 618 AD and in the undertaking of other construction projects including the reconstruction of the Great Wall. The Tang Dynasty ( Middle Chinese: dhɑng (June 18 618&ndashJune 4 907 was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by The Chinese Pagoda is a Landmark in Birmingham, England. It is a stone carving of a Chinese pagoda, carved in Fujian, China Articulation, in art and architecture is first of all a joint Masonry is the building of structures from individual units laid in and bound together by mortar, and the term "masonry" can also refer to the units themselves A brick is a block of Ceramic material used in Masonry construction laid using mortar. The earliest existent brick pagoda is the Songyue Pagoda built in 523, while a good example of a Tang era stone pagoda would be the Giant Wild Goose Pagoda constructed by 652. The Songyue Pagoda, constructed in 523 CE is located at the Songyue Monastery on Mount Song, in Henan province China. Giant Wild Goose Pagoda or Big Wild Goose Pagoda ( is a Buddhist pagoda located in southern Xi'an, Shaanxi province China. Although Buddhism in China had waned in influence after the late Tang period, during the Song Dynasty there were numerous Buddhist pagoda towers built. Tall Chinese pagodas were often built in the surrounding countryside instead of within the city walls, due to its foreign origin in India, and the Chinese not wanting it to compete with the cosmic-imperial authority embodied in the cities' drum-towers and gate-towers.  However, there were pagodas that were built within the city's walls; an example would be the Giant Wild Goose Pagoda, built in a city ward of what was southeastern Chang'an. Chang'an ( is an ancient Capital of more than ten dynasties in Chinese history. Chang'an ( is an ancient Capital of more than ten dynasties in Chinese history.
The 'Iron Pagoda' of Youguo Temple in Kaifeng is an excellent example of Song-era architecture, earning its name because of the iron-grey color of the glazed-bricks forming the tower. The Iron Pagoda (鐵塔 of Youguo Temple (佑國寺 Kaifeng City Henan province is a Buddhist Chinese pagoda built in 1049 AD Youguo Temple ( is a Buddhist Monastery complex located northeast of Kaifeng, in Henan province, China. Kaifeng ( formerly known as Bianliang ( Bianjing ( Daliang ( or simply Liang ( is a Prefecture-level city in eastern Originally built as a wooden pagoda by the architect Yu Hao, it was struck by lightning and burned down in 1044 during the Northern Song period. Yu Hao ( fl 970 AD was an eminent Chinese Structural engineer and Architect during the Song Dynasty period ( 960 - 1279 In 1049 the pagoda was rebuilt as it appears today, under the order of Emperor Renzong of Song. Emperor Renzong ( May 30, 1010 &ndash April 30, 1063) was the fourth emperor of the Song Dynasty of China. This octagonal-base pagoda structure stands at a current height of 56. Regular octagons A regular octagon is an octagon whose sides are all the same length and whose internal angles are all the same size 88 meters (186. 56 feet tall), and with a total of 13 story levels.  It's glazed tile bricks feature carved artwork of dancing figures, solemn ministers, and Buddhist themes (see Gallery below).
However, China also featured real iron-cast pagodas, such as the Iron Pagoda of Yuquan Temple (Jade Springs Temple), Dangyang, Hubei Province. Dangyang City (当阳市 in Hubei Province China, lies 70 km east of the Gezhouba Dam on the Yangtze River. ( Postal map spelling: Hupeh) is a central province of the People's Republic of China. Built in 1061 AD during the Northern Song, it holds a weight of 53848 kg (53 t) of cast iron, at a standing height of 21. Cast iron usually refers to grey cast iron, but identifies a large group of Ferrous Alloys which solidify with a Eutectic. 28 m (70 ft tall).  In mock and model after the roofing tiles of actual wooden, stone, or brick pagodas of the Song period, this iron pagoda also features delicate sloping eaves, and has an octoganal-shaped base. 
The Liuhe Pagoda, or Six Harmonies Pagoda, is another famous Song-era work of pagoda architecture. Liuhe Pagoda ( literally Six Harmonies Pagoda or Six Harmonies Tower, is multi-storied Chinese Pagoda in southern Hangzhou, Zhejiang It is located in the Southern Song capital of Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China, at the foot of the Yuelun Hill facing the Qiantang River. ( Postal map spelling: Hangchow) is a Sub-provincial city located in the Yangtze River Delta in the People's Republic of China, Zhejiang ( is an eastern coastal province of the People's Republic of China. The Qiantang River ( also known as the Qian River is a southeast Chinese River that originates in the borders of Anhui and Jiangxi provinces Although the original was destroyed in 1121, the current tower was erected in 1156, fully restored by 1165. It stands at a height of 59. 89 m (196 ft tall), constructed from a red-brick frame with 13 layers of wooden eaves. The Liuhe Pagoda, being of considerable size and stature, served as a permanent lighthouse from nearly its beginning, to aid sailors in seeking anchorage for their ships at night (as described in the Hangzhou Fu Zhi). A lighthouse is a Tower, building or framework designed to emit light from a system of lamps and lenses or in older times from a fire and used as an An anchor is an object often made out of metal that is used to attach a ship to the bottom of a body of water at a specific point  During the Southern Song period, it was one of the crowning pieces of architecture for the capital city.
The Twin Pagodas of Kaiyuan Temple in Quanzhou are also renowned within China. "Zaytun" redirects here For the South Korean military division in Iraq see Zaytun Division. The first pagoda, the Zhenguo Pagoda, was originally built of wood during the Xiantong period (860–873). Emperor Tang Yizong (唐懿宗李漼 November 14 833 &ndash 873) born Li Cui was the 17th emperor of the Tang dynasty of China Its twin structure, the Renshou Pagoda (also originally constructed with wood) was built in 916 AD. After being destroyed several times by fire and other calamity, the present Renshou Pagoda was built of stone in 1228 AD, while its twin structure of the Zhenguo Pagoda was also built of stone in 1238 AD (sponsored by a Buddhist monk known as Bengong). Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices MONK is a Monte Carlo software package for simulating nuclear processes particularly for the purpose of determining the neutron multiplication factor or k-effective The Renshou Pagoda is 44. 6 m tall, while the Zhenguo Pagoda is slightly taller, at a height of 48. 24 m tall.
The Zhengjue Temple Pagoda in Pengxian County of Sichuan Province (near Chengdu) is a brick pagoda that was built between 1023 and 1026 AD, according to its inscriptions along the first story of the pagoda. ( Postal map spelling: Szechwan and Szechuan) is a province in western China with its capital in Chengdu. ( located in southwest People's Republic of China, is the capital of Sichuan province and a Sub-provincial city. The pagoda has a square base on a sumeru pedestal, stands at thirteen stories in a total of 28 m in height, and its multiple layers of eaves are similar in style to the earlier Tang Dynasty pagodas found in Chang'an, the Giant Wild Goose Pagoda and Small Wild Goose Pagoda. Sumeru ( Sanskrit) or Sineru ( Pāli) is the name of the central world-mountain in Buddhist cosmology. The Tang Dynasty ( Middle Chinese: dhɑng (June 18 618&ndashJune 4 907 was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by Chang'an ( is an ancient Capital of more than ten dynasties in Chinese history. Giant Wild Goose Pagoda or Big Wild Goose Pagoda ( is a Buddhist pagoda located in southern Xi'an, Shaanxi province China. The Small Wild Goose Pagoda, sometimes Little Wild Goose Pagoda ( is one of two significant pagodas in the city of Xi'an, China, the site of Inside the pagoda the staircase reaches up to the fourth story under a vault ceiling.
The Liao Dynasty to the north was also famous for its Buddhist pagoda architecture. The Liao Dynasty ( 907 - 1125, also known as the Khitan Empire (契丹國 was an empire in northern China that ruled over the regions of Manchuria Although many brick and stone pagodas, and brick-stone/wood hybrid pagodas built beforehand have survived the ages, the tallest and oldest fully-wooden pagoda still standing in China was of Liao-Khitan making, the Pagoda of Fogong Temple (also called Sakyamuni Pagoda). The Sakyamuni Pagoda of Fogong Temple ( of Ying County Shanxi province China, is a wooden Chinese pagoda built in 1056 during the Siddhārtha Gautama ( Sanskrit; Pali: Siddhattha Gotama) was a spiritual Teacher from Ancient India and the founder  Located in Ying County of Shanxi Province, the octogonal-base pagoda was built in 1056 AD, as a crowning architectural masterpiece of the Fugong Temple. ( Postal map spelling: Shansi) is a province in the northern part of the People's Republic of China. The pagoda stands at a height of 67. 13 m (220. 18 ft) tall, making it taller than both the Iron Pagoda and the Liuhe Pagoda of the Song Dynasty.  The pagoda also features just under sixty different kinds of bracket arms in its construction. Brackets are Punctuation marks used in pairs to set apart or interject text within other text  The pagoda was built in a similar style to the Liuhe Pagoda, with its delicate wooden eaves and curving tiles, and along with the other pagodas it is a site of tourist attraction in modern times. Apparently, the pagoda was built by Emperor Daozong of Liao (Hongji) at the site of his grandmother's family home.  The pagoda reached such fame that it was simply nicknamed the "Mu-ta" (Timber Pagoda) in China.  While the Yingxian Pagoda is the oldest existent fully-wooden pagoda in China, the oldest-existent fully-wooden building in China is the main temple hall at Nanchan Monastery of Mount Wutai, Shanxi, built in 782 during the Tang Dynasty (it is a common misconception that the larger East Hall of nearby Foguang Temple, built in 857, is the oldest existent Tang era wooden building). Mount Wutai () also known as Wutai Mountain, located in Shanxi, China, is one of the Four Sacred Mountains in Chinese Buddhism. ( Postal map spelling: Shansi) is a province in the northern part of the People's Republic of China. The Tang Dynasty ( Middle Chinese: dhɑng (June 18 618&ndashJune 4 907 was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by 
Wood-and-brick hybrid pagodas were also built, such as the 42 m (137 ft) tall Lingxiao Pagoda of 1045. The Lingxiao Pagoda ( is a Chinese pagoda west of the Xinglong Temple in Zhengding, Hebei Province China. The first four floors of this octagonal pagoda are brick (with wooden eaves), while the 5th floor up is entirely made of wood. Even fully brick and stone pagodas featured architectural elements that were typical of wooden Chinese buildings, such as the Pizhi Pagoda built from 1056 to 1063, which features the typical dougong brackets of wooden architecture that hold up pent, shingled roofs and tiers. The Pizhi Pagoda ( is an 11th century Chinese pagoda located at Lingyan Temple, Changqing near Jinan, Shandong province China. Dougong ( is a unique structural element of interlocking wooden brackets, one of the most important elements in traditional Chinese, Japanese, and Both of these pagodas feature interior staircases, although the staircase for the Lingxiao Pagoda only reaches the fourth floor, and the Pizhi Pagoda's interior staircase only reaches the fifth floor. However, the Pizhi Pagoda features winding exterior steps which allow one to visit the top ninth floor where the iron steeple is located.
Although the Pagoda of Fogong Temple is the tallest existent wooden pagoda, the tallest existent Chinese pagoda of the pre-modern age is the Liaodi Pagoda. The Liaodi Pagoda ( of Kaiyuan Monastery Dingzhou, Hebei Province China is the tallest existing pre-modern Chinese pagoda, built in the Completed in the year 1055, it stands at a height of 84 m (275 ft) tall, with an octagonal base on a large platform. Regular octagons A regular octagon is an octagon whose sides are all the same length and whose internal angles are all the same size It surpasses the height of the 69 m (227 ft) tall Qianxun Pagoda, which was earlier the tallest pagoda in China when built in the 9th century by the Kingdom of Dali. The Three Pagodas are an ensemble of three independent pagodas arranged on the corners of a symmetric triangle near the town of Dali, Yunnan province, China Dali (大理國 Pinyin: Dàlǐguó was a Bai kingdom centred in what is now Yunnan Province of China. Although Liaodi served its religious purpose as a Buddhist landmark in the Kaiyuan Monastery of Ding County, Hebei province, with its great height it served another valuable purpose as a military watchtower used to spot enemy movements of the Khitan Liao Dynasty. A watchtower is a type of Fortification used in many parts of the world  Besides watchtowers, towers could also serve as large astronomical observatories. An observatory is a location used for observing terrestrial and/or celestial events This includes the Gaocheng Astronomical Observatory built in 1276 AD, still standing today. Gaocheng Astronomical Observatory is situated in Duke Zhou Gong 's shrine Gaocheng Town near Dengfeng in Henan Province.
Bridges over waterways had been known in China since the ancient Zhou Dynasty, and even floating pontoon bridges were mentioned from the Zhou period (Song era pontoon bridges include the Dongjin Bridge, 400 meters long, which is still seen today). A bridge is a Structure built to span a Gorge, Valley, Road, railroad track, River, Body of water The Zhou Dynasty ( POJ: Chiu Tiau 1122 BC to 256 BC was preceded by the Shang Dynasty and followed by the Qin Dynasty in China. A pontoon bridge or floating bridge is a Bridge that floats on water supported by barge-or-boat-like pontoons to support the bridge deck and its dynamic The Dongjin Bridge (东津桥 in Ganzhou, Jiangxi province China is a Pontoon bridge constructed over the Zhang River and Gong Bridges of the Zhou Dynasty were often built entirely of wood, while some featured stone piers. The first bridge in China to be built entirely of stone was an arch bridge of 135 AD, spanning a transport canal in the Eastern Han capital of Luoyang. Luoyang ( is a Prefecture-level city in western Henan province, People's Republic of China.  With brilliant engineers such as Li Chun of the Sui period, grand bridge-works like the Zhaozhou Bridge of 605 AD were built. The Zhaozhou Bridge ( is the world's oldest open-spandrel stone segmental Arch bridge. In terms of global history, this bridge is famous for being the world's first open-spandrel stone segmental arch bridge. A spandrel (less often spandril or splaundrel) is the space between two Arches or between an arch and a rectangular enclosure Although the bridge of Roman Emperor Trajan over the Danube featured wooden-built open-spandrel segmental arches on stone piers (Trajan's Bridge), the first purely-stone segmental arch bridge built in Europe was the Ponte Vecchio Bridge of Florence, built in 1335. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus, commonly known as Trajan ( September 18 53 &ndash August 9 117) was a Roman Emperor who The Danube (In Donau from earlier Danuvius, Celtic *dānu, meaning "to flow run" Slovak and Polish Dunaj See also Roman Dacia Trajan's Bridge (Podul lui Traian Serbian: Трајанов мост Trajanov Most) or Bridge of Apollodorus History and construction The bridge spans the Arno at its narrowest point where it is believed that a bridge was first built in Roman times when the Via Cassia Florence ( Italian: Firenze Florentia and Fiorenza) is the Capital City of the Italian region of Tuscany The Zhaozhou Bridge would continue to influence later Chinese bridges, such as the similar Yongtong Bridge near Zhaoxian in Hebei. ( Postal map spelling: Hopeh) is a northern province of the People's Republic of China. The Yongtong Bridge is a 26 m (85 ft) long stone segmental-arch bridge built in 1130 by the Song structural engineer Pou Qianer. 
During the Song Dynasty, bridge construction reached an even greater height of sophistication and grand extent. There were large trestle-structure bridges built during the Song, like the one built by Zhang Zhongyan in 1158 AD.  There were also large bridges built entirely of stone, such as the Ba Zi Bridge of Shaoxing, built in 1256 AD, which still stands today. Administration The Prefecture-level city of Shaoxing administers 1 district, 3 county-level cities and 2 counties.  Bridges with stylish Chinese pavilions crowning their central spans were often featured in painted artwork, like the landscape paintings of Xia Gui (1195–1224). In Architecture a pavilion (from French, "pavillon" from Latin "papilio" has two main significations Xia Gui ( c 1195–1224 Chinese Scroll painter of the Song Dynasty, who was one of the great masters of the Southern Song landscape style There were also long roof-covered corridor bridges built, such as the 12th century Rainbow Bridge in Wuyuan, Jiangxi province, which has wide stone-base piers and a top-level wooden frame. ( Postal map spelling: Kiangsi is a southern province of the People's Republic of China, spanning from the banks of the Yangtze River While he was an administrator for Hangzhou, the famous Chinese poet, travel writer, and government official Su Shi (1037–1101) had a large pedestrian causeway built across the West Lake, which still bears his name: sudi (蘇堤). ( Postal map spelling: Hangchow) is a Sub-provincial city located in the Yangtze River Delta in the People's Republic of China, Su Shi ( 1037–1101 was a writer, poet, Artist, calligrapher, Pharmacologist, and Statesman of the Song Dynasty In modern usage a causeway is a road or railway elevated by a bank usually across a broad Body of water or Wetland. In 1221, the Daoist traveler Qiu Changchun once visited Genghis Khan in Samarkand, describing various Chinese bridges in his travels there through the Tian Shan Mountains, east of Kuldja. Genghis Khan ( or;, Chinggis Khaan, ʧiŋgɪs χaːŋ Činggis Qaɣan; 1162–1227 born (meaning "ironworker" was the Mongol founder Samarkand (Samarqand Самарқанд سمرقند UniPers: "Samarqand" is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of The Tian Shan (天山 Pinyin: Tiān Shān "celestial mountains" also commonly spelled Tien Shan, is a Mountain range located in Central Yining ( Uighur غۇلجا Ghulja also Ili Yili Kuldja Kulja Ghulja Ining Kulca is a county-level city in western Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of northwestern The historian Joseph Needham quotes him as saying:
[The road had] 'no less than 48 timber bridges of such width that two carts can drive over them side by side'. It had been built by Chang Jung [Zhang Rong] and the other engineers of the Chagatai some years before. The wooden trestles of Chinese bridges from the -3rd century (BC) onwards were no doubt similar to those supposed to have been employed in Caesar's bridge of -55 (BC) across the Rhine, or drawn by Leonardo, or found in use in Africa. The Rhine (Rhein Rijn Rhin Reno Rain Rhenus is one of the longest and most important Rivers in Europe at 1320 kilometres (820 mi with an average discharge Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci ( April 15 1452 – May 2 1519 was an Italian Polymath, having been a scientist Mathematician, Engineer But where in +13th century (AD) Europe could a two-lane highway like Chang Jung's have been found?
In medieval-era Fujian Province, there were enormous beam bridges built during the Song Dynasty. This article is about the People's Republic of China province Some of these bridges were built at a length of 1219. 2 m (4,000 ft), with the length of their individual spans of up to 22. 33 m (70 ft) in length, and the construction of which necessitated the moving of massive stones that weighed 203200 kg (200 t).  Unfortunately, no names of the engineers of the Fujian bridges were recorded or featured on inscriptions of the bridges. The only names featured were merely the names of the Song-era local officials that sponsored them and gave oversight of their construction and repair.  However, the historian Joseph Needham points out that there might have been an engineering school of Fujian headed by a prominent engineer of the time known as Cai Xiang (1012–1067). Cai Xiang (simplified Chinese 蔡襄 (born in Xianyou, Fujian in 1012 died in Xianyou 1067 was a Chinese Cai was a noted scholar, an author of books on lichi fruit and tea, and who had risen to the seat of a governmental prefect in Fujian. Prefect (from the Latin praefectus, perfect participle of praeficere: "make in front" i Near Quanzhou, Cai Xiang planned and supervised the construction of the large Wanan Bridge (once called the Luoyang Bridge, constructed from 1053–1059 AD), a stone bridge similar to other bridges found in Fujian. "Zaytun" redirects here For the South Korean military division in Iraq see Zaytun Division.  The bridge still stands today, and features ship-like piers that reduce the amount of rapid river water friction. Friction is the Force resisting the relative motion of two Surfaces in contact or a surface in contact with a fluid (e Its dimensions are 731 m (2,398 ft) in length, 5 m (16 ft) in width, and 7 m (22 ft) in height.
Located southwest of Gongyi city in Gongxian County in Henan province, the large tombs of the Northern Song Dynasty include a total of some 1,000 tombs, including individual tombs for Song emperors, empresses, princes, princesses, consorts, and extended family. Gongyi ( Chinese 巩义市 Pinyin Gǒngyì Shì is a County-level city belonging to the city of Zhengzhou in Henan province Henan ( is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the central part of the country The size of the complex has an area of approximately 7 km (4. 3 miles) running east to west by 8 km (5 miles) running north to south.  Construction on the complex began in 963 AD, during the reign of the first Song ruler Emperor Taizu of Song, whose father is also buried at the site. Ancestry and early life His family was of fairly modest origins and cannot be traced back with certainty further than the late Tang dynasty.  The only Northern Song emperors not buried there are Emperor Huizong of Song and Emperor Qinzong of Song, who died in captivity after the Jurchen invasion of northern China in 1127. Emperor Huizong ( November 2, 1082 – June 4, 1135) was the eighth and one of the most famous emperors of the Song Dynasty of Emperor Qinzong ( May 23, 1100 &ndash June 14, 1161) was the ninth emperor of the Song Dynasty of China, and the last The Jurchens ( were a Tungus people who inhabited the region of Manchuria ( Northeast China) until the 17th century when they adopted the name Manchu Lining the avenues of the tomb complex are hundreds of Song Dynasty sculptures and statues of tigers, rams, lions, horse and groom, horned beasts and mythical creatures, government officials, military generals, foreign ambassadors, and others featured in an enormous display of Song era artwork. A statue is a Sculpture in the round representing a person or persons an animal or an event normally full-length as opposed to a bust, and at least close to life-size The Song Dynasty (960–1279 AD was a culturally-rich and sophisticated age for China.
The layout and style of the Song tombs resemble those found in the contemporary Tangut kingdom of the Western Xia, which also had an auxiliary burial site associated with each tomb. The Tangut ( identified with the state of Western Xia, were a Qiangic - Tibetan people who moved to northwestern China sometime before Xi Xia redirects here For a Chinese general whose name may be transliterated as Xi Xia see Xi Qia The Western Xia Dynasty ( or  At the center of each burial site in the complex is a truncated pyramidal tomb, each tomb once guarded by a four-walled enclosure with four centered gates and four corner towers.  About 100 km from Gongxian is the well-excavated Baisha Tomb, a grand example of Song era subterranean tomb architecture, with "elaborate facsimiles in brick of Chinese timber frame construction, from door lintels to pillars and pedestals to bracket sets, that adorn interior walls. " The Baisha Tomb had two large separated chambers with cone-shaped ceilings, and leading down to the entrance doors of the subterranean tomb is a large stair case. 
During the Song Dynasty, previous works on architecture were brought to more sophisticated levels of description, such as the Yili Shigong, written by Li Ruogui in 1193 AD.  One of the most difinitive works, however, was the earlier Mu Jing ('Timberwork Manual'), ascribed to the Master-Carpenter (Du Liao Jiang) known as Yu Hao, written sometime between 965 to 995. Yu Hao ( fl 970 AD was an eminent Chinese Structural engineer and Architect during the Song Dynasty period ( 960 - 1279 Yu Hao was responsible for the construction of an elegant wooden pagoda tower in Kaifeng, one that unfortunately was burnt down by lightning and replaced by the brick Iron Pagoda soon after. The Iron Pagoda (鐵塔 of Youguo Temple (佑國寺 Kaifeng City Henan province is a Buddhist Chinese pagoda built in 1049 AD In his time, books on architecture were still considered a lowly scholarly achievement since it was associated with a middle-class craft, therefore it was not even recorded in the official court bibliography.  Although the Timberwork Manual was lost to history, the scientist and statesman Shen Kuo wrote of his work extensively in his Dream Pool Essays of 1088, praising the Timberwork Manual as a work of architectural genius, and that no one in his own time could reproduce such a work. Shen Kuo or Shen Kua ( (1031&ndash1095 style name Cunzhong and pseudonym Mengqi Weng, was a Polymathic Chinese The Dream Pool Essays ( Pinyin: Meng Xi Bi Tan; Wade-Giles: Meng Ch'i Pi T'an Chinese: 夢溪筆談／梦溪笔谈  However, several years later, there was such a man, known as Li Jie (1065–1110), who wrote the Yingzao Fashi ('Treatise on Architectural Methods' or 'State Building Standards'). The Yingzao Fashi (營造法式 'Treatise on Architectural Methods' or 'State Building Standards' is a technical treatise on architecture and craftsmanship written by the  Although others existed before, such as the Yingshan Ling (National Building Law) of the early Tang Dynasty (618–907), Li's book is the oldest existent technical manual on Chinese architecture to have survived in full. The Tang Dynasty ( Middle Chinese: dhɑng (June 18 618&ndashJune 4 907 was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by 
In his youth, Li Jie was well educated, since his father had been the Minister of Revenue at the Song court.  Besides his later work on architecture, Li Jie also published books on geography, history, and philology, and was also a painter. Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία - geografia) is the study of the Earth and its lands features inhabitants and phenomena Chinese civilization originated in various city-states along the Yellow River ( valley in the Neolithic era See Comparative linguistics for the narrower field of "comparative philology" Chinese art is Art that whether ancient or modern originated in or is practiced in China or by Chinese artists or performers  When Shen Kuo was in office, Li Jie was an up-and-coming official in the Bureau of Imperial Sacrifices, and by 1092 he had been moved to the Directorate of Buildings and Construction, where he showed much promise as an architect.  He revised many older treatises on architecture from 1097 until 1100. His written work was complete in 1100, and he presented his work to Emperor Zhezong of Song in his last year of reign. Emperor Zhezong ( January 4, 1076 &ndash February 23, 1100) was the seventh emperor of the Song Dynasty of China.  His successor Emperor Huizong of Song had Li's book officially published three years later in 1103, so that it could benefit tons of foremen, architects, and literate craftsmen. Emperor Huizong ( November 2, 1082 – June 4, 1135) was the eighth and one of the most famous emperors of the Song Dynasty of  His book was aimed not only at providing standard regulations for the engineering agencies of the central government, but also the many workshops and artisan families throughout China who could benefit from using a well-written government manual on building practices. A workshop is a room or Building which provides both the area and Tools (or machinery) that may be required for the manufacture or repair An artisan, also called a Craftsman, is a skilled manual worker who crafts items that may be functional or strictly decorative including furniture clothing  With his printed book becoming a noted success throughout the country, Li Jie was promoted by Huizong as the Director of Palace Buildings.  Thereafter Li became well-known for the oversight in construction of administrative offices, palace apartments, gates and gate-towers, the ancestral temple of the Song Dynasty, along with numerous Buddhist temples. Buddhist Temples monasteries, Stupas and Pagodas sorted by location  In 1145 a second edition of Li's book was published by Wang Huan. 
Li's written work included building codes and regulations, accounting information, materials used in construction, and classification of different crafts.  Written in 34 chapters, the book outlined units of measurement, the construction of moats and fortifications, stonework, greater woodwork, lesser woodwork, including specifications (and illustration) for makiing bracketing units with inclined arms and joints for columns and beams, wood carving, turning and drilling, sawing, bamboo work, tiling, wall building, painting and decoration, recipes for decorative paints, glazes, and coatings, mixture proportions for mortars in masonry, brickwork, glazed tile making, and provided drawn illustrations of all these practices and standards. A moat is deep broad Trench, usually filled with Water, that surrounds a structure installation or town normally to provide it with a preliminary line of Fortifications are Military Constructions and Buildings designed for defense in Warfare Humans have constructed defensive works for Stone carving is an ancient activity where pieces of rough natural stone are shaped by the controlled removal of stone Brackets are Punctuation marks used in pairs to set apart or interject text within other text A joint is the location at which two or more Bones make contact A column in Structural engineering is a vertical structural element that transmits through compression, the weight of the structure above to other structural Beam may refer to Beam (structure, a construction element Beam (nautical, the most extreme width (or breadth of a nautical vessel or a Wood carving is a form of working wood by means of a cutting tool held in the hand (this may be a power tool resulting in a wooden figure or figurine (this may be abstract A drill (from Dutch Drillen) is This article describes the method of execution Sawing is also a method of manufacturing Bamboo is a group of Woody perennial Evergreen Plants in the True grass family Poaceae, subfamily Chinese city walls ( refer to civic defensive systems used to protect towns and Cities in China in pre-modern times Chinese painting is one of the oldest continuous artistic traditions in the world A recipe is a set of instructions that show how to prepare or make something especially a culinary dish. Coating is a Covering that is applied to an object The aim of applying coatings is to improve surface properties of a bulk material usually referred to as a substrate Mortar is a workable paste formed by mixture of Cement, Water and fine aggregate Masonry to bind construction blocks together and fill the gaps between Masonry is the building of structures from individual units laid in and bound together by mortar, and the term "masonry" can also refer to the units themselves A brick is a block of Ceramic material used in Masonry construction laid using mortar.  His book outlined structural carpentry in great detail, providing standard dimensional measurements for all components used. A carpenter (builder is a skilled craftsman who performs carpentry - a wide range of Woodworking that includes constructing buildings,  In this he developed a standard 8-grade system of different size timber elements known as the cai-fen system of units, which could be universally applied in buildings.  About 8% of Li Jie's book took material from preexisting written material on architecture, while the majority of the book documented the inherited traditions of craftsmen and architects.  Li's book provided a full glossary of technical terms that included mathematical formulae, building proportions and construction, and incorporated topography in estimations on how to build on different sites. See also List of glossaries A glossary is a list of terms in a particular domain of knowledge with the definitions for those terms Topography ( topo-, "place" and graphia, "writing" is the study of Earth 's Surface features or those of Planets  He also estimated the monetary costs of hiring laborers of different skill levels and crafts, on the basis of a day's work, the materials needed, and the seasons employed in. 
In 1919, a Zhu Qiqian was so intrigued by reading an 1145 AD printed edition of the Yingzao Fashi at the Nanjing Provincial Library, he printed a photolithographic edition in the same year and established the Institute for Research into Chinese Architecture (Zhongguo Yingzao Xueshe). ( Chinese: 南京 Romanizations Nánjīng ( Pinyin) Nan-ching ( Wade-Giles Photolithography (also called optical lithography) is a process used in Microfabrication to selectively remove parts of a thin film (or the bulk of a substrate  Soon after the book was reprinted in 1925, the institute Zhu had established began studying the book in greater detail, while fragments of other medieval editions were discovered in Qing Dynasty court documents. Not to be confused with Qin Dynasty, the first dynasty of Imperial China  The 1925 publication spurred worldwide interest in Chinese architecture, with French author Paul Demièville, British scholar W. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Perceval Yetts, and Japanese scholar Takuichi Takeshima. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics.  The Yingzao Fashi was printed again in the years 1932 and 1983. 
In his Dream Pool Essays of 1088, the Song scientist and statesman Shen Kuo was one to praise the architectural and structural written work of Yu Hao, who once had a marvelous wooden Chinese pagoda built at the Song capital of Kaifeng. The Dream Pool Essays ( Pinyin: Meng Xi Bi Tan; Wade-Giles: Meng Ch'i Pi T'an Chinese: 夢溪筆談／梦溪笔谈 Shen Kuo or Shen Kua ( (1031&ndash1095 style name Cunzhong and pseudonym Mengqi Weng, was a Polymathic Chinese Yu Hao ( fl 970 AD was an eminent Chinese Structural engineer and Architect during the Song Dynasty period ( 960 - 1279 Kaifeng ( formerly known as Bianliang ( Bianjing ( Daliang ( or simply Liang ( is a Prefecture-level city in eastern Below is a passage from one of Shen's books outlining the basics contained in Yu's 10th century work on early Song-era architecture:
In the first quote, Shen Kuo describes a scene were Yu Hao gives advice to another artisan architect about slanting struts for diagonal wind bracing:
When Mr. See also Strut (disambiguation StRUT ( St udents R ecycling U sed T echnology are three separate organizations Qian (Weiyan) was Governor of the two Zhejiang provinces, he authorized the building of a wooden pagoda at the Fantian Si (Brahma-Heaven Temple) in Hangzhou with a design of twice three stories. Zhejiang ( is an eastern coastal province of the People's Republic of China. Brahma is the Hindu god ( deva) of creation and one of the Trimurti, the others being Vishnu and Shiva. ( Postal map spelling: Hangchow) is a Sub-provincial city located in the Yangtze River Delta in the People's Republic of China, While it was under construction General Qian went up to the top and was worried because it swayed a little. But the Master Builder explained that as the tiles had not yet been put on, the upper part was still rather light, hence the effect. So then they put on all the tiles, but the sway continued as before. Being at a loss what to do, he privately sent his wife to see the wife of Yu Hao with a present of golden hair pins, and enquire about the cause of the motion. Gold (ˈɡoʊld is a Chemical element with the symbol Au (from its Latin name aurum) and Atomic number 79 Hairpin can mean A long device used to hold a person's hair in place see below Hairpin bend A Stem-loop in biochemistry (Yu) Hao laughed and said: 'That's easy, just fit in struts to settle the work, fixed with (iron) nails, and it will not move any more. Iron (ˈаɪɚn is a Chemical element with the symbol Fe (ferrum and Atomic number 26 ' The Master Builder followed his advice, and the tower stood quite firm. This is because the nailed struts filled in and bound together (all the members) up and down so that the six planes (above and below, front and back, left and right) were mutually linked like the cage of the thorax. The thorax is a division of an Animal 's body that lies between the head and the Abdomen. Although people might walk on the struts, the six planes grasped and supported each other, so naturally there could be no more motion. Everybody acknowledged the expertise thus shown. 
In this next quote, Shen Kuo describes the dimensions and types of architecture outlined in Yu Hao's book:
Methods of building construction are described in the Timberwork Manual, which, some say, was written by Yu Hao. (According to that book), buildings have three basic units of proportion, what is above the cross-beams follows the Upperwork Unit, what is above the ground floor follows the Middlework Unit, and everything below that (platforms, foundations, paving, etc. ) follows the Lowerwork Unit. The length of the cross-beams will naturally govern the lengths of the uppermost cross-beams as well as the rafters, etc. Thus for a (main) cross-beam of (8 ft) length, an uppermost cross-beam of (3. 5 ft) length will be needed. (The proportions are maintained) in larger and smaller halls. This (2/28) is the Upperwork Unit. Similarly, the dimensions of the foundations must match the dimensions of the columns to be used, as also those of the (side-) rafters, etc. For the Tennis player see Patrick Rafter. A rafter is one of a series of sloped structural members that extend from the ridge or hip For example, a column (11 ft) high will need a platform (4. 5 ft) high. So also for all the other components, corbelled brackets, projecting rafters, other rafters, all have their fixed proportions. In Architecture a corbel (or console) is a piece of stone jutting out of a wall to carry any superincumbent weight All these follow the Middlework Unit (2/24). Now below of ramps (and steps) there are three kinds, steep, easy-going, and intermediate. In places these gradients are based upon a unit derived from the imperial litters. Steep ramps are ramps for ascending which the leading and trailing bearers have to extend their arms fully down and up respectively (ratio 3/35). Easy-going ramps are those for which the leaders use elbow length and the trailers shoulder height (ratio 1/38); intermediate ones are negotiated by the leaders with downstretched arms and trailers at shoulder height (ratio 2/18). These are the Lowerwork Units. The book (of Yu Hao) had three chapters. But builders in recent years have become much more precise and skillful than formerly. Thus for some time past the old Timberwork Manual has fallen out of use. But (unfortunately) there is hardly anybody capable of writing a new one. To do that would be a masterpiece in itself!
Games in the Jinming Pool, a painting by Zhang Zerui depicting Kaifeng, the Northern Song capital. Kaifeng ( formerly known as Bianliang ( Bianjing ( Daliang ( or simply Liang ( is a Prefecture-level city in eastern
A Kaifeng palace rooftop visited by cranes, by Emperor Huizong of Song (r. Emperor Huizong ( November 2, 1082 – June 4, 1135) was the eighth and one of the most famous emperors of the Song Dynasty of 1100–1126)
Expecting Guests, by Ma Lin, c. 1250.
Transverse corbel brackets, Yingzao Fashi (1103)
Bracket and cantilever arms, Yingzao Fashi (1103)
Northern Song era water-powered grain mill
Same painting by Zhang Zeduan, wider scene of urban buildings and a large gatehouse to the right. A bracket is an architectural member made of wood stone or metal that overhangs a wall to support or carry weight A cantilever is a beam supported on only one end The beam carries the load to the support where it is resisted by moment and Shear stress. Simple and strong the mortise and tenon joint has been used for millennia by Woodworkers around the world to join pieces of Wood, usually when the pieces Simple and strong the mortise and tenon joint has been used for millennia by Woodworkers around the world to join pieces of Wood, usually when the pieces This article is about a type of structure For other locational uses see Milldam. Su Song ( style name: Zirong 子容 (1020&ndash1101 AD was a renowned Chinese statesman, astronomer, cartographer, A clock tower is a Tower built with one or more (often four Clock faces. A tea house or tearoom is a venue centered on drinking Tea. Their function varies widely depending on the culture and some cultures have a variety of distinct Along the River During the Qingming Festival ( is the title of several Panoramic paintings the original version generally attributed to the Song Dynasty Zhang Zeduan ( (1085-1145 AD alias Zheng Dao was a famous Chinese painter during the twelfth century during the transitional period from the Northern Song to the Southern Along the River During the Qingming Festival ( is the title of several Panoramic paintings the original version generally attributed to the Song Dynasty