Anton Grigorevich Rubinstein (Russian: Антóн Григóрьевич Рубинштéйн), (November 28, 1829 – November 20, 1894) was a Russian pianist, composer and conductor. Russian ( transliteration:,) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages For the town in Argentina, see 28 de Noviembre. Events For the game see 1829 (board game. Year 1829 ( MDCCCXXIX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display Events 284 - Diocletian was chosen as Roman Emperor. 762 - Bögü Khan of the Uyghurs, Year 1894 ( MDCCCXCIV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending A pianist (/'piənɪst/ is a Musician who plays the Piano. A professional pianist can perform solo pieces play with an ensemble or Orchestra A composer (literally meaning 'one who puts together' is a person who creates Music, usually in the medium of notation, for Interpretation and Performance Conducting is the act of directing a Musical performance by way of visible gestures As a pianist he was regarded as a rival of Franz Liszt, and he ranks amongst the great keyboard virtuosos. He also founded the Saint Petersburg Conservatory, which, together with Moscow Conservatory founded by his brother Nikolai Rubinstein, helped establish a reputation for musical skill among the subjects of the czar of Russia. The NA Rimsky-Korsakov Saint Petersburg State Conservatory ( Russian: Санкт-Петербургская государственная консерватория имени The Moscow Conservatory (Московская Государственная Консерватория им Nikolai Grigoryevich Rubinstein ( 2 June 1835 &ndash 23 March 1881) was a Russian Pianist and Composer.
Rubinstein was the twentieth child born to Jewish parents in Ofatinţi (a village now in Transnistria, Republic of Moldova), a city on the Dniestr River, about 150 kilometers northwest of Odessa. PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ Ofatinţi ( Romanian; Вихватинці Vychvatynci; Выхватинцы Vychvatincy, Vykhvatintsy) is a commune consisting of two villages Transnistria, also known as Trans-Dniester, Transdniestria, and Pridnestrovie (full name Pridnestrovian Moldova, officially the Republic of Moldova ( Republica Moldova) is a Landlocked country in Eastern Europe, located between Romania The Dniester (Дністер translit Dnister; Nistru is a river in Eastern Europe. ODESSA which stands for the German phrase O rganisation d er e hemaligen SS - A ngehörigen which in turn translates Before he was 5 years old, his paternal grandfather ordered all members of the Rubinstein family to convert from Judaism to Russian Orthodoxy.
Rubinstein, brought up as a Christian at least in name, lived in a household where three languages were spoken—Yiddish, Russian and German. Much later, when his musical "Russianness" was called into question by musical nationalist Mily Balakirev and others in The Five, Rubinstein might have been thinking of this part of his childhood, among other things, when he wrote of himself in his notebooks,
“Russians call me German, Germans call me Russian, Jews call me a Christian, Christians a Jew. The term nationalism can refer to an Ideology, a sentiment, a form of Culture, or a Social movement that focuses on the Nation Mily Alexeyevich Balakirev ( Милий Алексеевич Балакирев, Milij Alekseevič Balakirev) ( 2 January 1837 The Five, also known as The Mighty Handful (Могучая кучка Moguchaya kuchka) refers to a circle of Composers who met in Saint Petersburg Pianists call me a composer, composers call me a pianist. The classicists think me a futurist, and the futurists call me a reactionary. My conclusion is that I am neither fish nor fowl – a pitiful individual”.
Conversion allowed the Rubinsteins to travel freely, something not permitted for Jews in Russia at the time. Rubinstein's father opened a pencil factory in Moscow. His mother, a competent musician, began giving him piano lessons at five. He apparently progressed rapidly. Within a year and a half Alexander Villoing, Moscow's leading piano teacher at the time, heard and accepted Rubinstein as a non-paying student. Rubinstein made his first public appearance, a charity benefit concert, in Moscow's Petrovsky Park at the age of nine. Later that year Rubinstein's mother sent him, accompanied by Villoing, to enroll at the Paris Conservatoire. The Conservatoire de Paris is an institution of higher education that has played an important role in the development of Music in France and Western Europe Director Luigi Cherubini, however, refused even an audition to Rubinstein, due to the many young prodigies who had flooded the Paris musical scene. Luigi Cherubini ( September 8 or September 14, 1760 &ndash March 15, 1842) was an Italian born composer who spent most of his
Rubinstein and Villoing remained in Paris a year. In December 1840, Rubinstein played in the Salle Erard for an audience that included Frederic Chopin and Franz Liszt.Chopin invited Rubinstein to his studio and played for him. Liszt acclaimed the young Rubinstein as his successor but advised Villoing to take him to Germany to study composition. Instead of following Liszt's advice, Villoing took Rubinstein on an extended concert tour of Europe and Western Russia. They finally returned to Moscow in June 1843, after an absence of three and a half years. Shortly before the pair returned, Liszt had played in Saint Petersburg and reiterated to Rubinstein's mother the advice he had given Villoing. Determined to follow Liszt's advice, she wanted a thorough grounding in musical theory for both Rubinstein and his younger brother Nikolai. Nikolai Grigoryevich Rubinstein ( 2 June 1835 &ndash 23 March 1881) was a Russian Pianist and Composer. To raise money for this, she sent Rubinstein and Villoing on a tour of Russia. When the tour ended, Rubinstein and Nikolai were dispatched by themselves to Saint Petersburg to play for Tsar Nicholas I and the Imperial family at the Winter Palace. Saint Petersburg ( tr: Sankt-Peterburg,) is a city and a federal subject of Russia located on the Neva River Tsar csar and tzar redirect here For other uses see Tsar (disambiguation. See also The movie Russian Ark, an innovative single shot walkthrough with period reenactments spanning three hundred years of court meetings Rubinstein was 14 years old; Nikolai was eight.
In spring 1844, Rubinstein, Nikolai, his mother and his sister Luba travelled to Berlin. Here he met with, and was supported by, Felix Mendelssohn and Giacomo Meyerbeer. Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, born and generally known as Felix Mendelssohn (February 3 1809 &ndash November 4 1847 was a German Composer Giacomo Meyerbeer ( September 5, 1791 &ndash May 2, 1864) was a noted German -born Opera Composer, and Mendelssohn, who had heard Rubinstein when he had toured with Villoing, said he needed no further piano study but sent Nikolai to Theodor Kullak for instruction. Theodor Kullak ( September 12, 1818 - March 1, 1882) was a German Pianist, Composer, and Teacher. Meyerbeer directed both boys to Siegfried Dehn for work in composition and theory. Also, a Greek Orthodox priest instructed the two boys in the catechism and Russian grammar, and both boys studied other subjects. These non-musical lessons were short-lived. Still, Rubinstein grew up to be a highly cultured, widely-read artist. He was fluent in Russian, German, French and English and could read Italian and Spanish literature.
Word came in the summer of 1846 that Rubinstein's father was gravely ill. Rubinstein was left in Berlin while his mother, sister and brother returned to Russia. At first he continued his studies with Dehn, then with Adolf Bernhard Marx, while composing in earnest. Friedrich Heinrich Adolf Bernhard Marx ( Halle, Germany, 15 March 1795 – Berlin, 17 May, 1866) was a German Now 17, he knew he could no longer pass as a child prodigy. He sought out Liszt in Vienna, hoping Liszt would accept him as a pupil.
Liszt's reaction to Rubinstein in Vienna was surprising and, for the ever-generous Liszt, extremely unusual. After Rubinstein had played his audition, Liszt said, very coldly, "A talented man must win the goal of his ambition by his own unassisted efforts. " This is the only known instance Liszt turned down a brilliant talent. At this point, Rubinstein was living in acute poverty. Liszt did nothing to help him. Other calls Rubinstein made to potential patrons came to no avail.
Rubinstein began giving piano lessons, continued composing, even wrote literary, philosophical and critical essays. After a year in Vienna he gave a concert in the Bösendörfersaal. It did not go well; months of composition had severely reduced his time practicing the piano. Together with a flautist he embarked on a concert tour of Hungary, then returned to Berlin and continued giving lessons.
The Revolution of 1848 forced Rubinstein back to Russia. The European Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations or the Year of Revolution, were a series of political upheavals throughout the European Spending the next five years mainly in Saint Petersburg, Rubinstein taught, gave concerts and performed frequently at the Imperial court. The Grand Duchess Elena Pavlovna, sister to Tsar Nicholas I, became his most devoted patroness. Tsar csar and tzar redirect here For other uses see Tsar (disambiguation. By 1852, he had become a leading figure in Saint Petersburg's musical life, performing as a soloist and collaborating with some of the outstanding instrumentalists and vocalists who came to the Russian capital. 
In 1854 Rubinstein began a four-year concert tour of Europe. Year 1854 ( MDCCCLIV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common year This was his first major concert tour in a decade. Now 24, he felt ready to offer himself to the public as a fully developed pianist as well as a composer of worth. He very shortly reestablished his reputation as a virtuoso. Ignaz Moscheles wrote in 1855 what would become a widespread opinion about Rubinstein: "In power and execution he is inferior to no one. (Isaac Ignaz Moscheles ( May 23, 1794 &ndash March 10, 1870) was a Bohemian Composer and Piano Virtuoso "
Rubinstein spent one tour break, in the winter of 1856-7, with Elena Pavlovna and much of the Imperial royal family at Nice. Nice (nis Niçard Occitan: Niça norm or Nissa, Italian: Nizza or Nizza Marittima, Greek These three months would become crucial ones. Rubinstein had already noted both his patroness's great intelligence and her great influence in terms of reform over her brother Nicholas I. (She would exercise a similar influence over her nephew, Alexander II, resulting in, among other things, the freeing of the serfs. Alexander (Aleksandr II Nikolaevich (Александр II Николаевич ( Moscow, 29 April 1818 – 13 March 1881 in St ) Now patroness and artist, with others present, began discussing plans to raise the level of musical education in their homeland. These discussions bore fruit at first in the founding of the Russian Musical Society (RMS) in 1859. The Russian Musical Society (RMS was an organisation founded in 1859 by the Grand Duchess Elena Pavlovna (a German-born aunt of Tsar Alexander II) and The opening of the Saint Petersburg Conservatory, the first music school in Russia and an outgrowth of the RMS, followed in 1862. The NA Rimsky-Korsakov Saint Petersburg State Conservatory ( Russian: Санкт-Петербургская государственная консерватория имени A university school of music or college of music, or academy of music or conservatoire ( French, but used in British English) &mdash Rubinstein not only founded it and was its first director but also recruited an imposing pool of talent for its faculty.
Some in Russian society were surprised that a Russian music school would actually attempt to be Russian. One "fashionable lady," when told by Rubinstein that classes would be taught in Russian and not a foreign language, exclaimed, "What, music in Russian! That is an original idea!" Rubinstein adds, "And surely it was surprising that the theory of Music was to be taught for the first time in the Russian language at our Conservatory. . . . Hitherto, if any one wished to study it, he was obliged to take lessons from a foreigner, or to go to Germany. "
There were also those who feared the school would not be Russian enough. Rubinstein drew a tremendous amount of criticism from the Russian nationalist music group known as The Five. The Five, also known as The Mighty Handful (Могучая кучка Moguchaya kuchka) refers to a circle of Composers who met in Saint Petersburg Mikhail Zetlin, in his book on The Five, writes, "The very idea of a conservatory implied, it is true, a spirit of academism which could easily turn it into a stronghold of routine, but then the same could be said of conservatories all over the world. Actually the Conservatory did raise the level of musical culture in Russia. The unconventional way chosen by Balakirev and his friends was not necessarily the right one for everybody else. "
By 1867, ongoing tensions with the Balakirev camp, along with related matters, led to intense dissension within the Conservatory's faculty. Rubinstein resigned and returned to touring.
At the behest of the Steinway & Sons piano company, Rubinstein toured the United States during the 1872-3 season. Steinway & Sons (often called Steinway) is a Piano maker since 1853 in New York City, USA. Steinway's contract with Rubinstein called on him to give 200 concerts at the then unheard-of rate of 200 dollars per concert (payable in gold—Rubinstein distrusted both United States banks and United States paper Money), plus all expenses paid. The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been Rubinstein stayed in America 239 days, giving 215 concerts—sometimes two and three a day in as many cities.
Rubinstein wrote of his American experience, "May Heaven preserve us from such slavery! Under these conditions there is no chance for art—one simply grows into an automaton, performing mechanical work; no dignity remains to the artist; he is lost. Tikhvin Cemetery (Тихвинское кладбище is located at the Alexander Nevsky Monastery, in Saint Petersburg, Russia. Saint Petersburg ( tr: Sankt-Peterburg,) is a city and a federal subject of Russia located on the Neva River . . . The receipts and the success were invariably gratifying, but it was all so tedious that I began to despise myself and my art. So profound was my dissatisfact that when several years later I was asked to repeat my American tour, I refused pointblank. . . . "
Despite his misery, Rubinstein made enough money from his American tour to give him financial security for the rest of his life. Upon his return to Russia, he "hastened to invest in real estate", purchasing a dacha in Peterhof, not far from Saint Petersburg, for himself and his family. Dacha ( is a Russian word for seasonal or year-round second homes located in the Exurbs of Soviet and Russian cities Peterhof (Петерго́ф Petergof, originally named nl Peterhof, the Dutch for "Peter's Court" is a municipal town within Petrodvortsovy 
Rubinstein continued to make tours as a pianist and give appearances as a conductor. In 1887, he returned to the Saint Petersburg Conservatory with the goal of improving overall standards. Year 1887 ( MDCCCLXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common He removed inferior students, fired and demoted many professors, made entrance and examination requirements more stringent and revised the curriculum. He led semi-weekly teachers' classes through the whole keyboard literature and gave some of the more gifted piano students personal coaching. During the 1889-90 academic year he gave weekly lecture-recitals for the students. He resigned again—and left Russia—in 1891 over Imperial demands that Conservatory admittance, and later annual prizes to students, be awarded along racial quotas instead of purely by merit. These quotas were effectively to disadvantage Jews. Rubinstein resettled in Dresden and started giving concerts again in Germany and Austria. Dresden (etymologically from Old Sorbian Drežďany, meaning people of the riverside forest, Drježdźany is the Capital city of the German Nearly all of these concerts were charity benefit events.
Rubinstein also coached a few pianists and taught his only private piano student, Josef Hofmann. Józef Kazimierz Hofmann (born January 20, 1876 in Krakau (Kraków Austria-Hungary; died February 16, 1957 in Los Hofmann would become one of the finest keyboard artists of the 20th century.
Despite his sentiments on ethnic politics in Russia, Rubinstein returned there occasionally to visit friends and family. He gave his final concert in Saint Petersburg on January 14, 1894. Events 1129 - Formal approval of the Order of the Templar at the Council of Troyes. Year 1894 ( MDCCCXCIV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common With his health failing rapidly, Rubinstein moved back to Peterhof in the summer of 1894. He died there on November 28 of that year, having suffered from heart disease for some time. Heart disease is an Umbrella term for a variety for different diseases affecting the Heart. 
The former Troitskaya street in Saint Petersburg where he lived is now named after him.
Rubinstein was as well known during his lifetime for his sarcasm as well as his sometimes penetrating insight. During one of Rubinstein's visits to Paris, French pianist Alfred Cortot played the first movement of Beethoven's Appassionata for him. Alfred Denis Cortot ( Nyon, Switzerland September 26, 1877 &ndash Lausanne June 15, 1962) was a Franco-Swiss Pianist Ludwig van Beethoven ( English ˈlʊdvɪg væn ˈbeɪtoʊvən, 16 December 1770 &ndash 26 March 1827 was a German Composer and Pianist. Ludwig van Beethoven 's Piano Sonata No 23 in F minor, opus 57, colloquially known as the Appassionata, is considered one of the three After a long silence, Rubinstein told Cortot, "My boy, don't you ever forget what I am going to tell you. Beethoven's music must not be studied. It must be reincarnated. " Cortot reportedly never forgot those words.
Rubinstein's own piano students were held just as accountable: he wanted them to think about the music they were playing, matching the tone to the piece and the phrase. His manner with them was a combination of raw, sometimes violent criticism and good humor. Hofmann wrote of one such lesson:
Once I played a Liszt rhapsody pretty badly. After a little of it, Rubinstein said, "The way you play this piece would be all right for Auntie or Mamma. " Then rising and coming toward me, he said, "Now let us see how we play such things. "
I began again, but I had not played more than a few measures when Rubinstein said loudly, "Have you begun?" "Yes, Master, I certainly have. " "Oh," said Rubinstein vaguely, "I didn't notice. " . . .
Rubinstein did not so much instruct me. Merely he let me learn from him . . . If a student, by his own study and mental force, reached the desired point which the musician's wizardry had made him see, he gained reliance in his own strength, knowing he would always find that point again even though he should lose his way once or twice, as everyone with an honest aspiration is liable to do.
Rubinstein's insistence on absolute fidelity to the printed note surprised Hofmann, since he had heard his teacher take liberties himself in his concerts. When he asked Rubinstein to reconcile this paradox, Rubinstein answered, as many teachers have through the ages, "When you are as old as I am, you may do as I do. " Then Rubinstein added, "If you can. "
Nor did Rubinstein adjust the tenor of his comments for those of high rank. After Rubinstein had reassumed the directorship of the Saint Petersburg Conservatory, Tsar Alexander III donated the dilapidated old Bolshoi Theater as the Conservatory's new home—without the funds needed to restore and restructure the facility. Tsar csar and tzar redirect here For other uses see Tsar (disambiguation. Alexander III Alexandrovich ( 10 March 1845 – 1 November 1894) (Александр III Александрович reigned as Emperor At a reception given in the monarch's honor, the Tsar asked Rubinstein if he was pleased with this gift. Rubinstein replied bluntly, to the crowd's horror, "Your Imperial Majesty, if I gave you a beautiful cannon, all mounted and embossed, with no ammunition, would you like it?"
Many of Rubinstein's contemporaries felt he bore a striking resemblance to Ludwig van Beethoven. Ludwig van Beethoven ( English ˈlʊdvɪg væn ˈbeɪtoʊvən, 16 December 1770 &ndash 26 March 1827 was a German Composer and Pianist. Ignaz Moscheles, who had known Beethoven intimately, wrote, "Rubinstein's features and short, irrepressible hair remind me of Beethoven. (Isaac Ignaz Moscheles ( May 23, 1794 &ndash March 10, 1870) was a Bohemian Composer and Piano Virtuoso " Liszt referred to Rubinstein as "Van II. " Rubinstein was even rumored to be the illegitimate son of Beethoven. Rubinstein neither confirmed nor denied this rumor. Neither did he remind anyone that he was born more than two years after Beethoven had died.
This resemblance to Beethoven was also felt to be in Rubinstein's keyboard playing. Under his hands, it was said, the piano erupted volcanically. Audience members wrote of going home limp after one of his recitals, knowing they had witnessed a force of nature.
Sometimes Rubinstein's playing was too much for listeners to handle. American pianist Amy Fay, who wrote extensively on the European classical music scene, admitted that while Rubinstein "has a gigantic spirit in him, and is extremely poetic and original . . . for an entire evening he is too much. Give me Rubinstein for a few pieces, but Tausig for a whole evening. Carl Tausig or Karl Tausig ( November 4, 1841 – July 17, 1871) was a Polish Pianist and Composer " She heard Rubinstein play "a terrific piece by Schubert," reportedly the Wanderer Fantasie. The Fantasie in C major, Op 15 ( D 760 popularly known as the "Wanderer" Fantasy, is a four-movement fantasy for solo The performance gave her such a violent headache that the rest of the recital was ruined for her.
Clara Schumann proved especially vehement. Clara Josephine Wieck Schumann (September 13 1819 &ndash May 20 1896 was a German musician one of the most distinguished Pianists of the Romantic era, as After she heard him play the Mendelssohn C minor Trio in 1857, she wrote that "he so rattled it off that I did not know how to control myself . Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, born and generally known as Felix Mendelssohn (February 3 1809 &ndash November 4 1847 was a German Composer Felix Mendelssohn 's Piano Trio No 2 in C minor Op 66 was composed and published in 1845. . . and often he so annihilated fiddle and cello that I . . . could hear nothing of them. " Nor had things improved in Clara's view a few years later, when Rubinstein gave a concert in Breslau. She noted her disapproval in her diary: "I was furious, for he no longer plays. Either there is a perfectly wild noise or else a whisper with the soft pedal down. And a would-be cultured audience puts up with a performance like that!"
It was the first time I had heard this greast artist play. The Piano Trio No 7 Op 97 in B-flat major by Ludwig van Beethoven is a Piano trio for Piano, Violin, and violoncello Leopold Auer (In Hungarian Auer Lipót) ( June 7, 1845 – July 15, 1930) was a Hungarian Violinist, teacher Carlo Alfredo Piatti ( January 8, 1822 &ndash July 18, 1901) was an Italian cellist Year 1868 ( MDCCCLXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap He was most amiable at the rehearsal. . . . To this day I can recall how Rubinstein sat down at the piano, his leonine head thrown back slightly, and began the five opening measures of the principal theme. . . . It seemed to me I had never before heard the piano really played. The grandeur of style with which Rubinstein presented those five measures, the beauty of tone his softness of touch secured, the art with which he manipulated the pedal, are indescribable. . . .
Violinist and composer Henri Vieuxtemps adds:
His power over the piano is something undrempt of; he transports you into another world; all that is mechanical in the instrument is forgotten. Henri François Joseph Vieuxtemps ( February 17, 1820 &ndash June 6, 1881) was a Belgian Composer and violinist I am still under the influence of the all-embracing harmony, the scintillating passages and thunder of Beethoven's Sonata Op. 57 [Appassionata], which Rubinstein executed for us with unimagined mastery.
Viennese music critic Eduard Hanslick expressed what Schonberg calls "the majority point of view" in an 1884 review. Eduard Hanslick ( September 11, 1825 – August 6, 1904) was a Bohemian Austrian writer on music After complaining of the over-three-hour length of Rubinstein's recital, Hanslick admits that the sensual element of the pianist's playing gives pleasure to listeners. Both Rubinstein's virtues and flaws, Hanslick commented, spring from an untapped natural strength and elemental freshness. "Yes, he plays like a god," Hanslick writes in closing, "and we do not take it amiss if, from time to time, he changes, like Jupiter, into a bull. "
Sergei Rachmaninov's fellow piano student Matvey Pressman adds, "He enthralled you by his power, and he captivated you by the elegance and grace of his playing, by his tempestuous, fiery temperament and by his warmth and charm. WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> Sergei Vasilievich Rachmaninoff (Сергей Васильевич Рахманинов His crescendo had no limits to the growth of the power of its sonority; his diminuendo reached an unbelievable pianissimo, sounding in the most distant corners of a huge hall. In playing, Rubinstein created, and he created inimitably and with genius. He often treated the same program absolutely differently when he played it the second time, but, more astoundingly still, everything came out wonderfully on both occasions. "
Rubinstein was also adept at improvisation—a practice at which Beethoven had excelled but by Rubinstein's time was on the wane. Composer Karl Goldmark wrote of one recital where Rubinstein improvised on a motive from the last movement of Beethoven's Eighth Symphony:
"He counterpointed it in the bass; then developed it first as a canon, next as a four-voiced fugue, and again transformed it into a tender song. Karl Goldmark, also known originally as Károly Goldmark and later sometimes as Carl Goldmark ( Keszthely, Hungary, May 18, 1830 &ndash Ludwig van Beethoven ( English ˈlʊdvɪg væn ˈbeɪtoʊvən, 16 December 1770 &ndash 26 March 1827 was a German Composer and Pianist. Symphony No 8 in F Major Op. 93 is a Symphony in four movements composed by Ludwig van Beethoven in 1812 He then returned to Beethoven's original form, later changing it to a gay Viennese waltz, with its own peculiar harmonies, and finally dashed into cascades of brilliant passages, a perfect storm of sound in which the original theme was still unmistakable. It was superb. "
Villiong had worked with Rubinstein on hand position and finger dexterity. From watching Liszt, Rubinstein had learned about freedom of arm movement. Theodor Leschetizky, who taught piano at the Saint Petersburg Conservatory when it opened, likened muscular relaxation at the piano to a singers deep breathing. Teodor Leszetycki (mostly referred to by the germanised name used by himself Theodor Leschetizky, 22 June 1830 &ndash 14 November 1915 was a Polish He would remark to his students about "what deep breaths Rubinstein used to take at the beginning of long phrases, and also what repose he had and what dramatic pauses. "
In his book The Great Pianists, former New York Times critic Harold C. Schonberg describes Rubinstein's playing as that "of extraordinary breadth, virility and vitality, immense sonority and technical grandeur in which all too often technical sloppiness asserted itself. Harold Charles Schonberg (November 29 1915 - July 26 2003 was an American Music critic and Journalist, most notably for The New York Times " When caught up in the moment of performance, Rubinstein did not seem to care how many wrong notes he played as long as his conception of the piece he was playing came through.  Rubinstein himself admitted, after a concert in Berlin in 1875, "If I could gather up all the notes that I let fall under the piano, I could give a second concert with them. "
Part of the problem might have been the sheer size of Rubinstein's hands. They were gargantuan, and many observers commented on them. Josef Hofmann commented that Rubinstein's fifth finger "was as thick as my thumb—think of it! Then his fingers were square at the ends, with cushions on them. It was a wonderful hand. ". Pianist Josef Lhevinne described them as "fat, pudgy . Josef Lhévinne ( 13 December 1874 &ndash 2 December 1944) was a Russian Pianist and piano teacher . . with fingers so broad at the finger-tips that he often had difficulty in not striking two notes at once. " Equally outsized was what Rubinstein did with those hands. German piano teacher Ludwig Deppe advised American pianist Amy Fay to watch carefully how Rubinstein struck his chords: "Nothing cramped about him! He spreads his hands as if he were going to take in the universe, and takes them up with the greatest freedom and abandon!"
Because of the slap-dash moments in Rubinstein's playing, some more academic, polished players, especially German-trained ones, seriously questioned Rubinstein's greatness. Those who valued interpretation as much or more than pure technique found much to praise. Pianist and conductor Hans von Bülow, who had his pedantic moments himself, nevertheless called Rubinstein "the Michelangelo of music. WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes --> Hans Guido Freiherr von Bülow (January 8 1830 &ndash February 12 1894 " The German critic Ludwig Rellstab called him "the Hercules of the piano; the Jupiter Tonans of the instrument. Heinrich Friedrich Ludwig Rellstab ( April 13, 1799 &ndash November 27, 1860) was a German Poet and Music critic "
Schonberg called Rubinstein's piano tone the most sensuous of any of the great pianists . Fellow pianist Rafael Joseffy compared it to "a golden French horn. " Rubinstein himself told an interviewer, "Strength with lightness, that is one secret of my touch. . . . I have sat hours trying to imitate the timbre of [Italian tenor Giovanni Battista Rubini's] voice in my playing. Giovanni Battista Rubini ( April 7, 1794 - March 3, 1854) was an Italian Tenor, as famous in his time as Enrico Caruso "
Pressman attested to the singing quality of Rubinstein's playing, and much more: "His tone was strikingly full and deep. With him the piano sounded like a whole orchestra, not only as far as the power of sound was concerned but in the variety of timbres. With him, the piano sang as Patti sang, as Rubini sang. "
Rubinstein told the young Rachmaninov how he achieved that tone. "Just press upon the keys until the blood oozes from your fingertips". When he wanted to, Rubinstein could play with extreme lightness, grace and delicacy. He rarely displayed that side of his nature, however. He had learned quickly that audiences came to hear him thunder, so he accommodated them. Rubinstein's forceful playing and powerful temperament made an especially strong impression during his American tour, where playing of this kind had never been heard before. During this tour, Rubinstein received more press attention than any other figure until the appearance of Ignacy Jan Paderewski a generation later. Ignacy Jan Paderewski GBE (November 18 1860 - June 29 1941 was a Polish Pianist, Composer, Diplomat, and politician and the 
Rubinstein's concert programs, like his playing style, were gargantuan. Hanslick mentioned in his 1884 review that the pianist played more than 20 pieces in one concert in Vienna, including three sonatas (the Schumann F sharp minor plus Beethoven's D minor and Op. Robert Schumann, sometimes given as Robert Alexander Schumann (June 8 1810 &ndash July 29 1856 was a German Composer, Aesthete and influential Music critic Ludwig van Beethoven ( English ˈlʊdvɪg væn ˈbeɪtoʊvən, 16 December 1770 &ndash 26 March 1827 was a German Composer and Pianist. 101 in A). Rubinstein was a man with an extremely robust constitution and apparently never tired; audiences apparently stimulated his adrenals to the point where he acted like a superman. He had a colossal repertoire and an equally colossal memory until he turned 50, when he began to have memory lapses and had to play from the printed note. Pianist Ignacy Jan Paderewski heard Rubinstein toward the end of his career, remembering great moments alternating with memory slips and chaos. Ignacy Jan Paderewski GBE (November 18 1860 - June 29 1941 was a Polish Pianist, Composer, Diplomat, and politician and the
Rubinstein was most famous for his series of historical recitals—seven consecutive concerts covering the history of piano music. Each of these programs was enormous. The second, devoted to Beethoven sonatas, consisted of the Moonlight, D minor, Waldstein, Appassionata, E minor, A major (Op. 101), E major (Op. 109) and C minor (Op. 111). Ludwig van Beethoven ( English ˈlʊdvɪg væn ˈbeɪtoʊvən, 16 December 1770 &ndash 26 March 1827 was a German Composer and Pianist. The Baroque keyboard sonata In the Baroque era the use of the term "sonata" generally referred to either the Sonata da chiesa ( Church sonata The Piano Sonata No 14 in C-sharp minor "Quasi una fantasia", Op The Piano Sonata No 21 in C major, Op53 nicknamed Waldstein, is considered to be one of Beethoven 's greatest piano sonatas, as Ludwig van Beethoven 's Piano Sonata No 23 in F minor, opus 57, colloquially known as the Appassionata, is considered one of the three Ludwig van Beethoven 's Piano Sonata No 28 in A major, op 101 was written in 1816 and was dedicated to Baroness and Pianist Dorotea Ertmann Ludwig van Beethoven 's Piano Sonata No 30 in E major Op109 is the first of his late piano sonatas (Opus 109-111 composed between 1820–1822 The Piano Sonata No 32 in C minor, Opus 111 is the last of Ludwig van Beethoven 's Piano sonatas Along with Beethoven's 33 Variations Again, this was all included in one recital. The fourth concert, devoted to Schumann, contained the Fantasy in C, Kreisleriana, Études symphoniques, Sonata in F sharp minor, a set of short pieces and Carnival. Robert Schumann, sometimes given as Robert Alexander Schumann (June 8 1810 &ndash July 29 1856 was a German Composer, Aesthete and influential Music critic Kreisleriana, an early work of Robert Schumann, is an eight- movement piece for solo Piano, entitled Phantasien für das Pianoforte Carnaval is a work by Robert Schumann for piano solo his op 9 written in 1834-1835 This did not include encores, which Rubinstein sprayed liberally at every concert.
Rubinstein concluded his American tour with this series, playing the seven recitals over a nine-day period in New York in May 1873. New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous MAY ( also known as: Mei メイ 메이 is a Korean singer well known in South Korea for singing the song "Miracle" Year 1873 ( MDCCCLXXIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common
Rubinstein played this series of historical recitals in Russia and throughout Eastern Europe. In Moscow he gave this series on consecutive Tuesday evenings in the Hall of the Nobility, repeating each concert the following morning in the German Club for the benefit of students, free of charge.
Sergei Rachmaninoff first attended Rubinstein's historical concerts as a twelve-year-old piano student. WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> Sergei Vasilievich Rachmaninoff (Сергей Васильевич Рахманинов Forty-four years later he told his biographer Oscar von Riesemann, "[His playing] gripped my whole imagination and had a marked influence on my ambition as a pianist"
Rachmaninoff explained to von Riesemann, "It was not so much his magnificent technique that held one spellbound as the profound, spiritually refined musicianship, which spoke from every note and every bar he played and singled him out as the most original and unequalled pianist in the world. "
Rachmaninoff's detailed description to von Riesemann is of interest:
Once he repeated the whole finale of [Chopin's] Sonata in B minor, perhaps he had not succeeded in the short crescendo at the end as he would have wished. One listened entranced, and could have heard the passage over and over again, so unique was the beauty of tone. . . . I have never heard the virtuoso piece Islamey by Balakirev, as Rubinstein played it, and his interpretation of Schumann's little fantasy The Bird as Prophet was inimitable in poetic refinement: to describe the dimuendo of the pianissimo at the end of the "fluttering away of the little bird" would be hopelessly inadequate. Inimitable, too, was the soul-stirring imagery in the Kreisleriana, the last (G minor) passage of which I have never heard anyone play in the same manner. One of Rubinstein's greatest secrets was his use of the pedal. He himself very happily expressed his ideas on the subject when he said, "The pedal is the soul of the piano. " No pianist should ever forget this. 
Rachmaninoff biographer Barrie Martyn suggests that it might not have been by chance that the two pieces Rachmaninoff singled out for praise from Rubinstein's concerts—Beethoven's Appassionata and Chopin's "Funeral March" Sonata—both became cornerstones of Rachmaninoff's own recital programs. Frédéric Chopin composed his Piano Sonata No 2 in B-flat minor Op Martyn also maintains that Rachmaninoff may have based his interpretation of the Chopin sonata on Rubinstein's traversal, pointing out similarities between written accounts of Rubinstein's version and Rachmaninov's audio recording of the work.
Rachmaninoff admitted that Rubinstein was not note-perfect at these concerts, remembering a memory lapse during Balakirev's Islamey, where Rubinstein improvised in the style of the piece until remembering the rest of it four minutes later. Mily Alexeyevich Balakirev ( Милий Алексеевич Балакирев, Milij Alekseevič Balakirev) ( 2 January 1837 Islamey an Oriental Fantasy is a fantasy for Piano by Russian Composer Mily Balakirev, written in September In Rubinstein's defense, however, Rachmaninoff said that "for every possible mistake [Rubinstein] may have made, he gave, in return, ideas and musical tone pictures that would have made up for a million mistakes. "
Rubinstein conducted the Russian Musical Society programs from the organization's inception in 1859 until his resignation from it and the Saint Petersburg Conservatory in 1867. The Russian Musical Society (RMS was an organisation founded in 1859 by the Grand Duchess Elena Pavlovna (a German-born aunt of Tsar Alexander II) and He also did his share of guest conducting both before and after his tenure with the RMS. Not much has apparently been written about his conducting style. In their biography Tchaikovsky: The Man Behind the Music, however, authors Lawrence and Elizabeth Hanson give a few details.
One thing Rubinstein on the podium and Rubinstein at the keyboard had in common were the man's athleticism. At rehearsals and concerts alike, he acted like a man possessed, screaming, swearing, throwing himself about. Rubinstein strove for perfection. This could easily, and often, make rehearsals seem like one long fight.
This temperament carried over to actual performances. Rubinstein would stop a symphony in the middle of a bar if he did not think the orchestra was at one with him in his conception. The orchestra would have to play the work over again from the beginning; audiences would have to hear the work over again from the beginning.
Audiences not only put up with this show, but they actually loved it. More remarkably, the orchestral players (most of them German) also accepted it. They rebelled, claimed outrage, swore they would never perform before this madman again. They would always play anyway. Moreover, they would be among the first to rise and applaud at the end of a concert.
Rubinstein was a prolific composer, writing no less than twenty operas (notably Demon, written after Lermontov's Romantic poem), five piano concerti, six symphonies and a large number of solo piano works along with a substantial output of works for chamber ensemble, two concertos for cello and one for violin, free-standing orchestral works and tone poems (including one entitled Don Quixote). Opera is an art form in which Singers and Musicians perform a Dramatic work (called an opera which combines a text (called a Libretto Mikhail Yuryevich Lermontov (Михаи́л Ю́рьевич Ле́рмонтов) ( –) a Russian Romantic Writer and Poet, sometimes A piano concerto is a work written for Piano and Orchestra.See also Harpsichord concerto; some of these works are occasionally played on piano A symphony is a Musical composition, often extended and usually for Orchestra. A cello concerto (sometimes called a violoncello concerto) is a Concerto for solo Cello with Orchestra or very occasionally smaller groups A violin concerto is a Concerto for solo Violin (occasionally two or more violins and instrumental ensemble customarily Orchestra. A symphonic poem or tone poem is a piece of Orchestral Music in one movement in which some extramusical program provides a narrative or illustrative element
Rubinstein and Mikhail Glinka, considered the first important Russian classical composer, had both studied in Berlin with pedagogue Sigfried Dehn. Mikhail Ivanovich Glinka (Михаи́л Ива́нович Гли́нка ( –) was the first Russian composer to gain wide recognition inside his own country Glinka, as Dehn's student 12 years before Rubinstein, used the opportunity to amass greater reserves of compositional skill that he could use to open up a whole new territory of Russian music. Rubinstein, conversely, chose to exercise his compositional talents within the German styles illustrated in Dehn's teaching. Robert Schumann and Felix Mendelssohn were the strongest influences on Rubinstein's music. Robert Schumann, sometimes given as Robert Alexander Schumann (June 8 1810 &ndash July 29 1856 was a German Composer, Aesthete and influential Music critic Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, born and generally known as Felix Mendelssohn (February 3 1809 &ndash November 4 1847 was a German Composer .
Consequently, Rubinstein's music demonstrates none of the nationalism of The Five. The Five, also known as The Mighty Handful (Могучая кучка Moguchaya kuchka) refers to a circle of Composers who met in Saint Petersburg He spoke out against Russian nationalism, leading to arguments with Mily Balakirev and others who felt that his establishment of a Conservatory in Saint Petersburg would damage Russian musical traditions. Mily Alexeyevich Balakirev ( Милий Алексеевич Балакирев, Milij Alekseevič Balakirev) ( 2 January 1837 Nonetheless, it is Rubinstein's pupil Tchaikovsky who has become perhaps most popularly identified with Russian music.
Following Rubinstein's death, his works began to be ignored, although his piano concerti remained in the repertoire in Europe until the First World War, and his principal works have retained a toehold in the Russian concert repertoire. Perhaps somewhat lacking in individuality, Rubinstein's music was unable to compete either with the established classics or with the new Russian style of Stravinsky and Prokofiev.
Over recent years, his work has been performed a little more often both in Russia and abroad, and has often met with positive criticism. Amongst his better known works are the opera The Demon, his Piano Concerto No. 4, and his Symphony No. 2, known as The Ocean.
Anton Rubinstein was the elder brother of the pianist and composer Nikolai Rubinstein, but had no relation to the 20th-century Polish pianist Arthur Rubinstein. Nikolai Grigoryevich Rubinstein ( 2 June 1835 &ndash 23 March 1881) was a Russian Pianist and Composer. The Polish people, or Poles, (Polacy) are a Western Slavic Ethnic group of Central Europe, living predominantly in Poland. Arthur Rubinstein KBE ( January 28 1887 &ndash December 20 1982) was a Polish - American pianist who is widely