Classification and external resources
|Microphotograph of a Gram stain the bacterium Bacillus anthracis which causes anthrax. Gram staining (or Gram's method) is an empirical method of differentiating bacterial species into two large groups ( Gram-positive and|
|OMIM|| 606410 608041|
Anthrax is an acute disease in humans and animals caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis which is highly lethal in some forms. The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify Diseases The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision ( ICD -10) is a coding of diseases and signs symptoms abnormal findings A00-A79 - Bacterial infections and other intestinal infectious diseases and STDs (A00-A09 Intestinal Infectious diseases ( The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify Diseases The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. The Mendelian Inheritance in Man project is a Database that catalogues all the known Diseases with a genetic component, and—when possible—links them The Diseases Database is a free Website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions Symptoms, and Medications. MedlinePlus, with the MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia, is a website network containing Health information from the world's largest medical Library eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996 by Scott Plantz and Richard Lavely two medical doctors Medical Subject Headings ( MeSH) is a huge Controlled vocabulary (or metadata system for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books In Medicine, an acute disease is a disease with either or both of a rapid onset a short course (as opposed to a chronic course A disease is an abnormal condition of an organism that impairs bodily functions and can be deadly Bacillus anthracis is a Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped Bacterium of the genus Bacillus. There are effective vaccines against anthrax, and some forms of the disease respond well to antibiotic treatment.
The anthrax bacillum is one of only a few that can form long-lived spores: in a hostile environment, caused perhaps by the death of an infected host or extremes of temperature, the bacteria become inactive dormant spores which can remain viable for many decades and perhaps centuries. This page is about the bacterial genus For the class see Bacilli. An endospore is a dormant, tough and non-reproductive structure produced by a small number of Bacteria from the Firmicute phylum Spores are found on all continents except Antarctica. When spores are inhaled, ingested, or come into contact with a skin lesion on a host they reactivate and multiply very rapidly.
Anthrax most commonly infects wild and domesticated herbivorous mammals which ingest or inhale the spores while eating grass or browse. Ingestion is assumed to be the most common route by which herbivores contract anthrax, but this is as yet unproven. Anthrax can also infect humans when they are exposed to blood and other tissues from infected animals (via inhalation or direct inoculation through broken skin), eat tissue from infected animals, or are exposed to a high density of anthrax spores from an animal's fur, hide, or wool. Human beings, humans or man (Origin 1590–1600 L homō man OL hemō the earthly one (see Humus An endospore is a dormant, tough and non-reproductive structure produced by a small number of Bacteria from the Firmicute phylum Fur is a body hair of any non-human Mammal, also known as the Pelage. Hides are Skins obtained from animals for human use Examples of animal hide sources are Deer and Cattle typically used for producing Leather, Wool is the fiber derived from the specialized skin cells called follicles of animals in the Caprinae family principally sheep, but the hair of certain species
Anthrax spores can be grown in vitro and used as a biological weapon. Anthrax does not spread directly from one infected animal or person to another, but spores can be transported by clothing, shoes etc. ; and the body of a mammal that died of anthrax can be a very dangerous source of anthrax spores.
The name anthrax comes from anthrakitis, the Greek word for anthracite (coal), in reference to the black skin lesions victims develop in a cutaneous skin infection. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly Anthracite ( Greek Ανθρακίτης literally "a type of coal" from Anthrax, coal is a hard compact variety of mineral Coal that has a high A lesion is any abnormal tissue found on or in an organism usually damaged by disease or trauma An infection is the detrimental Colonization of a host Organism by a foreign Species.
Anthrax is one of the oldest recorded diseases of grazing animals such as sheep and cattle and is believed to be the Sixth Plague mentioned in the Book of Exodus in the Bible. The Plagues of Egypt ( the Biblical Plagues or the Ten Plagues ( are the ten calamities imposed upon Egypt by God in the Bible The Plagues of Egypt ( the Biblical Plagues or the Ten Plagues ( are the ten calamities imposed upon Egypt by God in the Bible Exodus ( Greek: έξοδος eksodos = "departure" is the second book of the Jewish Torah and of the Christian Old Testament. Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin Anthrax is also mentioned by Greek and Roman authors such as Homer (in The Iliad), Virgil (Georgics), and Hippocrates. Homer ( Ancient Greek:, Homēros) is a legendary ancient Greek epic Poet, traditionally said to be the author of the epic poems the The Iliad ( Greek: Ἰλιάς (Ancient Ιλιάδα (Modern is together with the Odyssey, one of two ancient Publius Vergilius Maro ( October 15, 70 BCE &ndash September 21, 19 BCE later called Virgilius, and known in English as Virgil or The Georgics, published in 29 BCE, is the second major work by the Latin poet Virgil. Hippocrates of Cos II or Hippokrates of Kos ( ca. 460 BC – ca Anthrax can also infect humans, usually as the result of coming into contact with infected animal hides, fur, wool ("Woolsorter's disease"), leather or contaminated soil. Anthrax ("siberian ulcer" ) is now fairly rare in humans, although it still regularly occurs in ruminants, such as cattle, sheep, goats, camels, wild buffalo, and antelopes, in hind-gut fermenters such as zebras and rhinos, and in other wildlife such as elephants in certain endemic areas of the world. Physiologically a ruminant is a Mammal of the order Artiodactyla that digests plant-based food by initially softening it within the animal's first stomach known Cattle, colloquially referred to as cows, are domesticated Ungulates a member of the Subfamily Bovinae of the family The domestic goat ( Capra aegagrus hircus) is a subspecies of goat Domesticated from the Wild goat of Southwest Asia and Eastern Europe Camels are Even-toed ungulates within the Genus Camelus. The Dromedary, one-humped or Arabian camel has a single hump and the A bovid is any of almost 140 species of Cloven-hoofed Mammals belonging to the family Bovidae. Antelope are Ruminant hoofed Mammals of the family Bovidae in the order of Even-toed ungulates.
Bacillus anthracis bacteria spores are soil-borne and because of their long lifetime, they are still present globally and at animal burial sites of anthrax-killed animals for many decades; spores have been known to have reinfected animals over 70 years after burial sites of anthrax-infected animals were disturbed. 
Until the twentieth century anthrax infections killed many thousands of animals and thousands of people each year in Europe, Asia and North America.  French scientist Louis Pasteur developed the first effective vaccine for anthrax in 1881. Louis Pasteur (27 December 1822 – 28 September 1895 a French Chemist and Microbiologist, is best known for remarkable breakthroughs in the causes and  Thanks to over a century of animal vaccination programs, sterilization of raw animal waste materials and anthrax eradication programs in North America, Australia, New Zealand, Russia, Europe and parts of New Mexico and Asia, anthrax infection is now relatively rare in domestic animals with normally only a few dozen cases reported every year. Anthrax is even rarer in dogs and cats: there had only ever been one documented case in dogs in the USA by 2001, although the disease affects livestock. The dog ( Canis lupus familiaris) is a domesticated Subspecies of the gray wolf, a Mammal of the Canidae family of the order WikipediaManual of Style (spelling, articles should conform to one overall spelling style of English typically the one most linked to the article topic (if it is geographic  Anthrax typically does not cause disease in carnivores and scavengers, even when these animals consume anthrax-infected carcasses. Anthrax outbreaks do occur in some wild animal populations with some regularity.  The disease is more common in developing countries without widespread veterinary or human public health programs.
There are 89 known strains of anthrax, the most widely recognized being the virulent Ames strain used in the 2001 anthrax attacks in the United States. In biology strain is a low-level Taxonomic rank used in three related ways The Ames strain is one of 89 strains of the Anthrax Bacterium ( Bacillus anthracis) In biology strain is a low-level Taxonomic rank used in three related ways The 2001 Anthrax attacks in the United States, also known as Amerithrax from its Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI case name occurred over The Ames strain is extremely dangerous, though not quite as virulent as the Vollum strain which was successfully developed as a biological weapon during the Second World War, but never used. Biological warfare (BW — known as a germ warfare, biological weapons and bioweaponry — is the use of any Pathogen ( Bacterium World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The Vollum (also incorrectly referred to as Vellum) strain was isolated in 1935 from a cow in Oxfordshire, UK. Cattle, colloquially referred to as cows, are domesticated Ungulates a member of the Subfamily Bovinae of the family History See also History of Oxfordshire The county of Oxfordshire was formed in the early years of the 10th century and is broadly situated in the The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located This is the same strain that was used during the Gruinard bioweapons trials. Gruinard Island ('Eilean Ghruinneard' is a small oval-shaped Scottish island approximately 2 kilometres long by 1 km wide located in Gruinard Bay, about A variation of Vollum known as "Vollum 1B" was used during the 1960s in the US and UK bioweapon programs. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Vollum 1B was isolated from William A. Boyles, a 46-year-old USAMRIID scientist who died in 1951 after being accidentally infected with the Vollum strain. The US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID pronounced you-SAM-rid is the U The Sterne strain, named after a South African researcher, is an attenuated strain used as a vaccine.
Bacillus anthracis is a rod-shaped Gram-positive bacterium, about 1 by 9 micrometers in size. Bacillus anthracis is a Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped Bacterium of the genus Bacillus. Gram-positive bacteria are those that are stained dark blue or violet by Gram staining. It was shown to cause disease by Robert Koch in 1877. Heinrich Hermann Robert Koch ( December 11 1843 – May 27 1910) was a German Physician.  The bacterium normally rests in endospore form in the soil, and can survive for up to decades in this state. An endospore is a dormant, tough and non-reproductive structure produced by a small number of Bacteria from the Firmicute phylum Herbivores are often infected whilst grazing or browsing, especially when eating rough, irritant or spiky vegetation: the vegetation has been hypothesized to cause wounds within the gastrointestinal tract permitting entry of the bacterial endo-spores into the tissues, though this has not been proven. Once ingested or placed in an open cut, the bacterium begins multiplying inside the animal or human and typically kills the host within a few days or weeks. The endo-spores germinate at the site of entry into the tissues and then spread via the circulation to the lymphatics, where the bacteria multiply. It is the production of two powerful exo-toxins (edema toxin and lethal toxin) by the bacteria that causes death. Veterinarians can often tell a possible anthrax-induced death by its sudden occurrence, and by the dark, non-clotting blood that oozes from the body orifices. Most anthrax bacteria inside the body after death are out-competed and destroyed by anaerobic bacteria within minutes to hours post-mortem. However, anthrax vegetative bacteria that escape the body via oozing blood or through the opening of the carcass may form hardy spores. One spore forms per one vegetative bacterium. The triggers for spore formation are not yet known, though oxygen tension and lack of nutrients may play roles. Once formed, these spores are very hard to eradicate.
The infection of herbivores (and occasionally humans) via the inhalational route normally proceeds as follows: once the spores are inhaled, they are transported through the air passages into the tiny air sacs (alveoli) in the lungs. The spores are then picked up by scavenger cells (macrophages) in the lungs and are transported through small vessels (lymphatics) to the glands (lymph nodes) in the central chest cavity (mediastinum). Macrophages ( Greek: "big eaters" from makros "large" + phagein "eat" ( Mø) are cells within the tissues that The lymphatic system in Vertebrates is a network of conduits that carry a clear fluid called Lymph. A Lymph node ( lɪmf noʊd is an organ consisting of many types of cells and is a part of the Lymphatic system. The mediastinum is a non-delineated group of structures in the Thorax (chest surrounded by Loose connective tissue. Damage caused by the anthrax spores and bacilli to the central chest cavity can cause chest pain and difficulty breathing. Once in the lymph glands, the spores germinate into active bacilli which multiply and eventually burst the macrophages, releasing many more bacilli into the bloodstream to be transferred to the entire body. Once in the blood stream these bacilli release three substances: lethal factor, oedema factor and protective antigen. Protective antigen combines with these other two factors to form lethal toxin and oedema toxin, respectively. These toxins are the primary agents of tissue destruction, bleeding, and death of the host. If antibiotics are administered too late, even if the antibiotics eradicate the bacteria, some hosts will still die. This is because the toxins produced by the bacilli remain in their system at lethal dose levels.
In order to enter the cells, the edema and lethal factors use another protein produced by B. anthracis, protective antigen. Oedema factor inactivates neutrophils (a type of phagocytic cell) so that they cannot phagocytose bacteria. Neutrophil granulocytes, generally referred to as neutrophils, are the most abundant type of White blood cells in humans and form an essential part of the Historically, it was believed that lethal factor caused macrophages to make TNF-alpha and interleukin 1, beta (IL1B), both normal components of the immune system used to induce an inflammatory reaction, ultimately leading to septic shock and death. Tumor necrosis factor ( TNF, cachexin or cachectin and formally known as Tumor necrosis factor-alpha) is a Cytokine involved in systemic Interleukin 1 beta, also known as IL1B, is a human Gene. Interleukin-1 beta is a Cytokine. Septic shock is a very serious medical condition caused by decreased tissue perfusion and oxygen delivery as a result of Infection and Sepsis, though the However, recent evidence indicates that anthrax also targets endothelial cells (cells that lines serous cavities, lymph vessels, and blood vessels), causing vascular leakage of fluid and cells, and ultimately hypovolemic shock (low blood volume), and septic shock. In Physiology and Medicine, hypovolemia (also hypovolaemia is a state of decreased Blood volume more specifically decrease in volume of Blood plasma
The virulence of a strain of anthrax is dependent on multiple factors, primarily the poly-D-glutamic acid capsule that protects the bacterium from phagocytosis by host neutrophils and its toxins, edema toxin and lethal toxin. Anthrax toxin refers to three proteins secreted by virulent strains of the Bacterium Bacillus anthracis.
Occupational exposure to infected animals or their products (such as skin wool and meat) is the usual pathway of exposure for humans. Workers who are exposed to dead animals and animal products are at the highest risk, especially in countries where anthrax is more common. Anthrax in livestock grazing on open range where they mix with wild animals still occasionally occurs in the United States and elsewhere. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Many workers who deal with wool and animal hides are routinely exposed to low levels of anthrax spores but most exposures are not sufficient to develop anthrax infections. Presumably, the body’s natural defenses can destroy low levels of exposure. These people usually contract cutaneous anthrax if they catch anything. Historically, the most dangerous form of inhalation anthrax was called Woolsorters' disease because it was an occupational hazard for people who sorted wool. Anthrax is an acute Disease in humans and animals caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis which is highly lethal in some forms Today this form of infection is extremely rare as there are almost no infected animals any more. The last fatal case of natural inhalation anthrax in the United States occurred in California in 1976, when a home weaver died after working with infected wool imported from Pakistan. The autopsy was done at UCLA hospital. To minimize the chance of spreading the disease, the deceased was transported to UCLA in a sealed plastic body bag within a sealed metal container. 
In July 2006 an artist who worked with untreated animal skins became the first person in more than 30 years to die in the United Kingdom from anthrax. 
Anthrax can enter the human body through the intestines (ingestion), lungs (inhalation), or skin (cutaneous) and causes distinct clinical symptoms based on its site of entry. The mediastinum is a non-delineated group of structures in the Thorax (chest surrounded by Loose connective tissue. An infected human will generally be quarantined. However, anthrax does not usually spread from an infected human to a noninfected human. But if the disease is fatal the person’s body and its mass of anthrax bacilli becomes a potential source of infection to others and special precautions should be used to prevent further contamination. Inhalation anthrax, if left untreated until obvious symptoms occur, will usually result in death, as treatment will have started too late.
Anthrax can be contracted in laboratory accidents or by handling infected animals or their wool or hides. It has also been used in biological warfare agents and by terrorists to intentionally infect humans. Biological warfare (BW — known as a germ warfare, biological weapons and bioweaponry — is the use of any Pathogen ( Bacterium Terrorism is the systematic use of terror especially as a means of coercion
Respiratory infection in humans initially presents with cold or flu-like symptoms for several days, followed by severe (and often fatal) respiratory collapse. This disease can rarely be treated, even if caught in early stages of infection; mortality is nearly 100%.  A lethal infection is reported to result from inhalation of about 10,000–20,000 spores, though this dose varies amongst host species.  Like all diseases there is probably a wide variation to susceptibility with evidence that some people may die from much lower exposures; there is little documented evidence to verify the exact or average number of spores needed for infection. Inhalation anthrax is also known as woolsorters' disease or as ragpickers' disease since these people often caught it. Anthrax is an acute Disease in humans and animals caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis which is highly lethal in some forms Anthrax is an acute Disease in humans and animals caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis which is highly lethal in some forms Other practices associated with exposure include the slicing up of animal horns for the manufacture of buttons, the handling of hair bristles used for the manufacturing of brushes, and the handling of animal skins. Whether these animal skins came from animals that died of the disease or from animals that had simply laid on ground that had spores on it is unknown. This mode of infection is used as a bioweapon.
Gastrointestinal infection in humans is most often caused by eating anthrax-infected meat and is characterized by serious gastrointestinal difficulty, vomiting of blood, severe diarrhea, acute inflammation of the intestinal tract, and loss of appetite. Vomiting (also called throwing up, emesis) is the forceful expulsion of the contents of one's Stomach through the Mouth and sometimes the Some lesions have been found in the intestines and in the mouth and throat. After the bacteria invades the bowel system, it spreads through the bloodstream throughout the body, making even more toxins on the way. Gastrointestinal infections can be treated but usually result in fatality rates of 25% to 60%, depending upon how soon treatment commences. 
Cutaneous (on the skin) anthrax infection in humans shows up as a boil-like skin lesion that eventually forms an ulcer with a black centre (eschar). The black eschar often shows up as a large, painless necrotic ulcer (beginning as an irritating and itchy skin lesion or blister that is dark and usually concentrated as a black dot, somewhat resembling bread mold) at the site of infection. Cutaneous infections generally form within the site of spore penetration within 2 to 5 days after exposure. Unlike bruises or most other lesions, cutaneous anthrax infections normally do not cause pain. 
Anthrax cannot be spread directly from person to person, but a patient’s clothing and body may be contaminated with anthrax spores. Effective decontamination of people can be accomplished by a thorough wash down with anti-microbe effective soap and water. Waste water should be treated with bleach or other anti-microbial agent. Effective decontamination of articles can be accomplished by boiling contaminated articles in water for 30 minutes or longer. Chlorine bleach is ineffective in destroying spores and vegetative cells on surfaces, though formaldehyde is effective. Burning clothing is very effective in destroying spores. After decontamination, there is no need to immunize, treat or isolate contacts of persons ill with anthrax unless they were also exposed to the same source of infection. Early antibiotic treatment of anthrax is essential—delay seriously lessens chances for survival. Treatment for anthrax infection and other bacterial infections includes large doses of intravenous and oral antibiotics, such as fluoroquinolones, like ciprofloxacin (cipro), doxycycline, erythromycin, vancomycin or penicillin. In modern usage an antibiotic is a Chemotherapeutic agent with activity against Microorganisms such as Bacteria, fungi or Protozoa The quinolones are a family of synthetic Broad-spectrum antibiotics. Doxycycline ( INN) (ˌdɒksɪˈsaɪkliːn is a member of the Tetracycline antibiotics group and is commonly used to treat a variety of Infections Doxycycline Erythromycin is a Macrolide Antibiotic that has an antimicrobial spectrum similar to or slightly wider than that of Penicillin, and is often used for people Vancomycin ( INN) (ˌvæŋkoʊˈmaɪsɪn is a Glycopeptide Antibiotic used in the Prophylaxis and treatment of infections caused by Penicillin (sometimes abbreviated PCN or pen) is a group of Beta-lactam antibiotics used in the treatment of Bacterial Infections In possible cases of inhalation anthrax, early antibiotic prophylaxis treatment is crucial to prevent possible death. Prophylaxis ( Greek "προφυλάσσω" to guard or prevent beforehand) is any medical or Public health procedure whose purpose If death occurs from anthrax the body should be isolated to prevent possible spread of anthrax germs. Burial does not kill anthrax spores.
If a person is suspected as having died from anthrax, every precaution should be taken to avoid skin contact with the potentially contaminated body and fluids exuded through natural body openings. The body should be put in strict quarantine. A blood sample taken in a sealed container and analyzed in an approved lab should be used to ascertain if anthrax is the cause of death. Microscopic visualization of the encapsulated bacilli, usually in very large numbers, in a blood smear stained with polychrome methylene blue (McFadyean stain) is fully diagnostic, though culture of the organism is still the gold standard for diagnosis. Full isolation of the body is important to prevent possible contamination of others. Protective, impermeable clothing and equipment such as rubber gloves, rubber apron, and rubber boots with no perforations should be used when handling the body. A rubber glove is a Glove made out of Rubber. Its primary purpose is protection of the hands while performing tasks involving chemicals No skin, especially if it has any wounds or scratches, should be exposed. Disposable personal protective equipment is preferable, but if not available, decontamination can be achieved by autoclaving. Disposable personal protective equipment and filters should be autoclaved, and/or burned and buried. Bacillus anthracis bacillii range from 0. 5-5. 0 μm in size. Anyone working with anthrax in a suspected or confirmed victim should wear respiratory equipment capable of filtering this size of particle or smaller. The US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and Mine Safety and Health Administration (MS. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (or NIOSH) is the United States federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations The Mine Safety and Health Administration ( MSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor which administers the provisions of the Federal Mine HA) approved high efficiency-respirator, such as a half-face disposable respirator with a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter, is recommended. All possibly contaminated bedding or clothing should be isolated in double plastic bags and treated as possible bio-hazard waste. The victim should be sealed in an airtight body bag. Dead victims that are opened and not burned provide an ideal source of anthrax spores. Cremating victims is the preferred way of handling body disposal. No embalming or autopsy should be attempted without a fully equipped biohazard lab and trained and knowledgable personnel.
Delays of only a few days may make the disease untreatable and treatment should be started even without symptoms if possible contamination or exposure is suspected. Animals with anthrax often just die without any apparent symptoms. Initial symptoms may resemble a common cold – sore throat, mild fever, muscle aches and malaise. After a few days, the symptoms may progress to severe breathing problems and shock and ultimately death. Death can occur from about two days to a month after exposure with deaths apparently peaking at about 8 days after exposure.  Antibiotic-resistant strains of anthrax are known.
Aerial spores can be trapped by a simple HEPA or P100 filter. A high efficiency Particulate air or HEPA (ˈhɛpə filter is a type of high-efficiency Air filter. Inhalation of anthrax spores can be prevented with a full-face mask using appropriate filtration. Unbroken skin can be decontaminated by washing with simple soap and water. These procedures do not actually kill the spores, which are very hardy and can only be destroyed by extensive treatment. Filters, clothes, etc. exposed to possible anthrax-contaminated environments should be treated with chemicals or destroyed by fire to minimize the possibility of spreading the contamination.
In recent years there have been many attempts to develop new drugs against anthrax, but existing drugs are effective if treatment is started soon enough.
Early detection of sources of anthrax infection can allow preventative measures to be taken. In response to the anthrax attacks of October, 2001 the United States Postal Service (USPS) installed BioDetection Systems (BDS)in their large scale mail cancellation facilities. BDS response plans were formulated by the USPS in conjunction with local responders including fire, police, hospitals and public health. Employees of these facilities have been educated about anthrax, response actions and prophylactic medication. Prophylaxis ( Greek "προφυλάσσω" to guard or prevent beforehand) is any medical or Public health procedure whose purpose Because of the time delay inherent in getting final verification that anthrax has been used, prophylactic antibiotic treatment of possibly exposed personnel must be started as soon as possible. In modern usage an antibiotic is a Chemotherapeutic agent with activity against Microorganisms such as Bacteria, fungi or Protozoa
The most effective form of prevention is vaccination against infection but this must be done well in advance of exposure to the bacillus, and does not protect indefinitely. Anthrax vaccine is a Vaccine against the Infectious disease, Anthrax.
Components of tea, such as polyphenols, have the ability to inhibit the activity both of bacillus anthracis and its toxin considerably; spores, however, are not affected. Tea refers to the cured agricultural product of the leaves leaf buds and internodes of Camellia sinensis, which have been prepared and cured for the market Polyphenols are a group of chemical substances found in plants characterized by the presence of more than one Phenol unit or building block per molecule The addition of milk to the tea completely inhibits its antibacterial activity against anthrax. Activity against the anthrax bacillum in the laboratory does not prove that drinking tea affects the course of an infection. A laboratory (informally lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific Research, Experiments and
An FDA-licensed vaccine, produced from one non-virulent strain of the anthrax bacterium, is manufactured by BioPort Corporation, subsidiary of Emergent BioSolutions. The trade name is BioThrax, although it is commonly called Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed (AVA). It is administered in a six-dose primary series at 0,2,4 weeks and 6,12,18 months; annual booster injections are required thereafter to maintain immunity. The injections are typically very painful, and may leave the area of injection with swelling; this area may be painful for several days.
Unlike the West, the Soviets developed and used a live spore anthrax vaccine, known as the STI vaccine, produced in Tbilisi, Georgia. Tbilisi (ˌtbiˈliːsi in Georgian: თბილისი is the capital and the largest city of the Republic of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Mt'k'vari Its serious side effects restrict use to healthy adults. 
Anthrax spores can survive for long periods of time in the environment after release. Methods for cleaning anthrax-contaminated sites commonly use oxidizing agents such as peroxides, ethylene oxide, Sandia Foam , chlorine dioxide (used in Hart Senate office building), and liquid bleach products containing sodium hypochlorite. An oxidizing agent or oxidising agent (also called an oxidant, oxidizer or oxidiser) can be defined as either a Chemical compound A peroxide is a compound containing an Oxygen -oxygen single bond. These agents slowly destroy bacterial spores. A bleach solution for treating hard surfaces has been approved by the EPA . It can be prepared by mixing one part bleach (5. 25%-6. 00%) to one part white vinegar to eight parts water. Bleach and vinegar must not be combined together directly, as doing so could produce chlorine gas. Chlorine (ˈklɔriːn from the Greek word 'χλωρóς' ( khlôros, meaning 'pale green' is the Chemical element with Atomic number 17 and Rather some water must first be added to the bleach (e. g. , two cups water to one cup of bleach), then vinegar (e. g. , one cup), and then the rest of the water (e. g. , six cups). The pH of the solution should be tested with a paper test strip; and treated surfaces must remain in contact with the bleach solution for 60 minutes (repeated applications will be necessary to keep the surfaces wet).
Chlorine dioxide has emerged as the preferred biocide against anthrax-contaminated sites, having been employed in the treatment of numerous government buildings over the past decade. Chlorine dioxide is a Chemical compound with the formula ClO2 Its chief drawback is the need for in situ processes to have the reactant on demand. In situ (ɪn siːˈtuː is a Latin phrase meaning in the place.
To speed the process, trace amounts of a non-toxic catalyst composed of iron and tetro-amido macrocyclic ligands are combined with sodium carbonate and bicarbonate and converted into a spray. Catalysis is the process in which the rate of a Chemical reaction is increased by means of a Chemical substance known as a catalyst Iron (ˈаɪɚn is a Chemical element with the symbol Fe (ferrum and Atomic number 26 In Chemistry, a ligand is either an Atom, Ion, or Molecule (see also Functional group) that bonds to a central metal generally Sodium carbonate (also known as washing soda or soda ash), is a Sodium Salt of Carbonic acid. In Inorganic chemistry, bicarbonate ( IUPAC -recommended nomenclature hydrogencarbonate) is an intermediate form in the Deprotonation The spray formula is applied to an infested area and is followed by another spray containing tertiary-butyl hydroperoxide.
Using the catalyst method, a complete destruction of all anthrax spores takes 30 minutes. A standard catalyst-free spray destroys fewer than half the spores in the same amount of time. They can be heated, exposed to the harshest chemicals, and they do not easily die.
Cleanups at a Senate office building, several contaminated postal facilities and other U. S. government and private office buildings showed that decontamination is possible, but it is time-consuming and costly. Clearing the Senate office building of anthrax spores cost $27 million, according to the Government Accountability Office. Cleaning the Brentwood postal facility outside Washington cost $130 million and took 26 months. Since then newer and less costly methods have been developed. , PDF (332 KiB)
Clean up of anthrax-contaminated areas on ranches and in the wild is much more problematic. A kibibyte (a contraction of ki lo bi nary byte) is a unit of Information or Computer storage, established by the International Carcasses may be burned, though it often takes up to three days to burn a large carcass and this is not feasible in areas with little wood. Carcasses may be buried, though the burying of large animals deeply enough to prevent resurfacing of spores requires much manpower and expensive tools. Carcasses have been soaked in formaldehyde to kill spores, though this has obvious environmental contamination issues. Block burning of vegetation in large areas enclosing an anthrax outbreak has been tried; this, while environmentally destructive, causes healthy animals to move away from an area with carcasses in search of fresh graze and browse. Some wildlife workers have experimented with covering fresh anthrax carcasses with shadecloth and heavy objects. This prevents some scavengers from opening the carcasses, thus allowing the putrefactive bacteria within the carcass to kill the vegetative B. anthracis cells and preventing sporulation. This method also has drawbacks, as scavengers such as hyenas are capable of infiltrating almost any exclosure.
Robert Koch, a German physician and scientist, first identified the bacteria which caused the anthrax disease in 1875. Heinrich Hermann Robert Koch ( December 11 1843 – May 27 1910) was a German Physician.  His pioneering work in the late nineteenth century was one of the first demonstrations that diseases could be caused by microbes. In a groundbreaking series of experiments he uncovered the life cycle and means of transmission of anthrax. His experiments not only helped create an understanding of anthrax, but also helped elucidate the role of microbes in causing illness at a time when debates were still held over spontaneous generation versus cell theory. In the Natural sciences, Abiogenesis, or origin of life, is the study of how Life on Earth emerged from Inanimate Organic Cell Theory refers to the idea that cells are the basic unit of structure in every living thing Koch went on to study the mechanisms of other diseases and was awarded the 1905 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of the bacteria causing tuberculosis. Koch is today recognized as one of history's most important biologists and a founder of modern bacteriology.
In May 1881 Louis Pasteur performed a public experiment to demonstrate his concept of vaccination. Louis Pasteur (27 December 1822 – 28 September 1895 a French Chemist and Microbiologist, is best known for remarkable breakthroughs in the causes and He prepared two groups of 25 sheep, one goat and several cows. The animals of one group were injected with an anti-anthrax vaccine prepared by Pasteur twice, at an interval of 15 days; the control group was left unvaccinated. A vaccine is a biological preparation which is used to establish or improve immunity to a particular disease Thirty days after the first injection both groups were injected with a culture of live anthrax bacteria. The Bacteria ( singular: bacterium) are a large group of unicellular Microorganisms Typically a few Micrometres in length bacteria have All the animals in the non-vaccinated group died, while all of the animals in the vaccinated group survived. 
After mastering his method of vaccination Pasteur applied the concept to rabies. Rabies (from rabies “madness rage fury” Also known as “ hydrophobia ” is a viral Zoonotic neuroinvasive disease that He went on to develop vaccines against small pox, cholera, and swine erysipelas. Smallpox is an Infectious disease unique to humans caused by either of two virus variants named Variola major and Variola minor. Cholera, sometimes known as Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera, is an infectious Gastroenteritis caused by the Bacterium Erysipelas ( Greek ερυσίπελας - red skin) is an acute Streptococcus Bacterial infection of the Dermis, resulting in inflammation
The human vaccine for anthrax became available in 1954. This was a cell-free vaccine instead of the live-cell Pasteur-style vaccine used for veterinary purposes. An improved cell-free vaccine became available in 1970. 
Anthrax spores can and have been used as a biological warfare weapon. Biological warfare (BW — known as a germ warfare, biological weapons and bioweaponry — is the use of any Pathogen ( Bacterium There is a long history of practical bioweapons research in this area. Biological warfare (BW — known as a germ warfare, biological weapons and bioweaponry — is the use of any Pathogen ( Bacterium For example, in 1942 British bioweapons trials severely contaminated Gruinard Island in Scotland with anthrax spores of the Vollum-14578 strain, making it lethally dangerous to all mammals including humans, until it was decontaminated by 1990. Year 1942 ( MCMXLII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Gruinard Island ('Eilean Ghruinneard' is a small oval-shaped Scottish island approximately 2 kilometres long by 1 km wide located in Gruinard Bay, about Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain.  The Gruinard trials involved testing the effectiveness of a submunition of an "N-bomb"—a biological weapon. Cluster munitions or cluster bombs are air-dropped or ground-launched munitions that eject a number of smaller submunitions a cluster of bomblets Additionally, five million "cattle cakes" impregnated with anthrax were prepared and stored at Porton Down in 'Operation Vegetarian'—an anti-livestock weapon intended for attacks on Germany by the Royal Air Force  The infected cattle cakes were to be dropped on Germany in 1944. Porton Down is a UK government and military Science park. It is situated slightly northeast of Porton near Salisbury in Wiltshire, Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. However neither the cakes nor the bomb were used; the cattle cakes were incinerated in late 1945.
More recently the Rhodesian government used anthrax against cattle and humans in the period 1978–1979 during its war with black nationalists. Rhodesia was the name adopted when the formerly British colony of Southern Rhodesia declared itself independent ( Unilateral Declaration of Independence 
American military and British Army personnel are routinely vaccinated against anthrax prior to active service in places where biological attacks are considered a threat. The United States Armed Forces are the overall unified military forces of the United States The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. The anthrax vaccine, produced by BioPort Corporation, contains non-living bacteria, and is approximately 93% effective in preventing infection. Anthrax vaccine is a Vaccine against the Infectious disease, Anthrax. Emergent BioSolutions (NYSEEBS is a multinational biopharmaceutical company headquartered in Rockville Maryland.
Weaponized stocks of anthrax in the US were destroyed in 1971–72 after President Nixon ordered the dismantling of US biowarfare programs in 1969 and the destruction of all existing stockpiles of bioweapons. Research is known to continue in the United States on ways to counteract bioweapons attacks.
Despite signing the 1972 agreement to end bioweapon production the government of the Soviet Union had an active bioweapons program that included the production of hundreds of tons of weapons-grade anthrax after this period. On April 2, 1979 some of the over one million people living in Sverdlovsk (now called Ekaterinburg, Russia), about 850 miles east of Moscow, were exposed to an accidental release of anthrax from a biological weapons complex located near there. Yekaterinburg (Екатеринбу́рг also romanized Ekaterinburg, formerly Sverdlovsk) is a major city in the central part of Russia The Sverdlovsk anthrax leak is an incident when Spores of Anthrax were accidentally released from a military facility in the city of Sverdlovsk (formerly and now At least 94 people were infected, of whom at least 68 died. One victim died four days after the release, ten over an eight-day period at the peak of the deaths, and the last six weeks later. Extensive cleanup, vaccinations and medical interventions managed to save about 30 of the victims.  Extensive cover-ups and destruction of records by the KGB continued from 1979 until Russian President Boris Yeltsin admitted this anthrax accident in 1992. Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin () (1 February 1931 23 April 2007 was the first President of the Russian Federation, serving from 1991 to 1999 Jeanne Guillemin reported in 1999 that a combined Russian and United States team investigated the accident in 1992 , 
Nearly all of the night shift workers of a ceramics plant directly across the street from the biological facility (compound 19) became infected, and most died. Since most were men, there were suspicions by Western governments that the Soviet Union had developed a sex-specific weapon (Alibek, 1999). The government blamed the outbreak on the consumption of anthrax-tainted meat and ordered the confiscation of all uninspected meat that entered the city. They also ordered that all stray dogs be shot and that people not have contact with sick animals. The term pariah dog is used to refer to feral dogs of a particular type, a subspecies of dog, and a purebred dog category or group There was also a voluntary evacuation and anthrax vaccination program established for people from 18–55 (Meselson et al. , 1994).
To support the cover-up story Soviet medical and legal journals published articles about an outbreak in livestock that caused GI anthrax in people who consumed infected meat, and cutaneous anthrax in people who came into contact with the animals. A cover-up is an attempt whether successful or not to conceal evidence of wrong-doing error Incompetence, or other embarrassing information All medical and public health records were confiscated by the KGB (Meselson et al. , 1994). In addition to the medical problems that the outbreak caused, it also prompted Western countries to be (justifiably) more suspicious of a covert Soviet Bioweapons program and to increase their surveillance of suspected sites. In 1986 the US government was allowed to investigate the incident, and concluded that the exposure was from aerosol anthrax from a military weapons facility (Sternbach, 2002). In 1992, President Yeltsin admitted that he was "absolutely certain" that "rumors" about the Soviet Union violating the 1972 Bioweapons Treaty were true. The Soviet Union, like the US and UK, had agreed to submit information to the UN about their bioweapons programs but omitted known facilities and never acknowledged their weapons program (Alibek, 1999).
Theoretically anthrax spores can be cultivated with minimal special equipment and a first-year collegiate microbiological education, but in practice the procedure is difficult and dangerous. Microbiology (from Greek grc μῑκρος mīkros, "small" grc βίος bios, " Life " and grc -λογία To make large amounts of an aerosol form of anthrax suitable for biological warfare extensive practical knowledge, training and highly advanced equipment are required. Particulates, alternatively referred to as particulate matter (PM or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in a gas
Concentrated anthrax spores were used for bioterrorism in the 2001 anthrax attacks in the United States, delivered by mailing postal letters containing the spores. For the use of biological agents in warfare see Biological warfare. The 2001 Anthrax attacks in the United States, also known as Amerithrax from its Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI case name occurred over Only a few grams of material were used in these attacks and it is unknown if this material was produced by a single individual or by a state sponsored bioweapons program. These events also spawned many anthrax hoaxes. The following Hoaxes have been perpetrated using Anthrax as an implied threat
In response to the postal anthrax attacks and hoaxes the US Postal Service sterilized some mail using a process of gamma irradiation and treatment with a proprietary enzyme formula supplied by Sipco Industries Ltd. Irradiation is the process by which an item is exposed to Radiation. Enzymes are Biomolecules that catalyze ( ie increase the rates of Chemical reactions Almost all enzymes are Proteins Sipco Industries Ltd, also known as Sipco Bioengineering Inc, is a Canadian Biotechnology company 
A scientific experiment performed by a high school student, later published in The Journal of Medical Toxicology, suggested that a domestic electric iron at its hottest setting (at least 400 °F (204 °C)) used for at least 5 minutes should destroy all anthrax spores in a common postal envelope. Ironing or smoothing is the work of using a heated tool or tools (an iron) to remove Wrinkles from fabric