Anthracite (Greek Ανθρακίτης, literally "a type of coal", from Anthrax [Άνθραξ], coal) is a hard, compact variety of mineral coal that has a high lustre. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly Lustre (or luster) is a description of the way light interacts with the surface of a Crystal, rock, or Mineral. It has the highest carbon count and contains the fewest impurities of all coals, despite its lower calorific content. Carbon (kɑɹbən is a Chemical element with the symbol C and its Atomic number is 6 The heat of combustion (ΔHc0 is the Energy released as Heat when a compound undergoes complete Combustion with Oxygen
Anthracite coal is the highest of the metamorphic rank, in which the carbon content is between 92% and 98%. Metamorphic rock is the result of the transformation of an existing rock type the protolith, in a process called Metamorphism, which means "change  The term is applied to those varieties of coal which do not give off tarry or other hydrocarbon vapours when heated below their point of ignition. Tar is a viscous black Liquid derived from the Destructive distillation of organic matter In Organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an Organic compound consisting entirely of Hydrogen and Carbon. Combustion or burning is a complex sequence of Exothermic chemical reactions between a Fuel and an Oxidant accompanied by the production of Anthracite ignites with difficulty and burns with a short, blue, and smokeless flame.
Other terms which refer to anthracite are blue coal, hard coal, stone coal (not to be confused with the German Steinkohle or Dutch steenkool which are broader terms meaning all varieties of coal of a stonelike hardness and appearance, like bituminous coal and often anthracite as well, as opposed to Lignite, which is softer), blind coal (in Scotland), Kilkenny coal (in Ireland), crow coal (or craw coal from its shiny black appearance), and black diamond ("Blue Coal" is the term for a once-popular, specific, trademarked brand of anthracite coal, mined by the Glen Alden Coal Company in Pennsylvania, and sprayed with a blue dye at the mine before shipping to its Northeastern U. The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. Dutch ( is a West Germanic language spoken by around 24 million people 22 million of which are from the Netherlands, Belgium and Suriname Hardness refers to various properties of Matter in the Solid phase that give it high resistance to various kinds of shape change when Force Bituminous coal is a relatively soft Coal containing a tarlike substance called Bitumen. Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, or Rosebud coal by Northern Pacific Railroad, is a soft brown fuel with characteristics that put it somewhere Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world S. A. markets to distinguish it from its competitors). The imperfect anthracite of north Devon and north Cornwall (around Bude) in England, which is used as a pigment, is known as culm. Devon is a large county in the South West of England. The county is also referred to as Devonshire, but that is an entirely unofficial name Cornwall ( Kernow ˈkɛɹnɔʊ is the most southwesterly county of England, on the Peninsula that lies to the west of the River Tamar Bude (Bud is a small seaside resort town in North Cornwall, England, United Kingdom, at the mouth of the River Neet For the drug referred to as "pigment" see Black tar heroin. Culm is also the term used in geological classification to distinguish the strata in which it is found and similar strata in the Rhenish hill countries are known as the Culm Measures. Geology (from Greek γη gê, "earth" and λόγος Logos, "speech" lit In America, culm is used as an equivalent for waste or slack in anthracite mining.
Anthracite is similar in appearance to the mineraloid jet and is sometimes used as a jet imitation. A mineraloid is a Mineral -like substance that does not demonstrate Crystallinity. Jet is a geological material and is considered to be a minor gemstone
Anthracite differs from ordinary bituminous coal by its greater hardness, its higher relative density of 1. Bituminous coal is a relatively soft Coal containing a tarlike substance called Bitumen. Relative density, sometimes called specific density, is the Ratio of the Density of a substance to the density of a given reference material 3-1. 4, and luster, which is often semi-metallic with a mildly brown reflection. It contains a high percentage of fixed carbon and a low percentage of volatile matter. Volatility in the context of Chemistry, Physics and Thermodynamics is a measure of the tendency of a substance to Vaporize. It is also free from included soft or fibrous notches and does not soil the fingers when rubbed. Anthracitization is the transformation of bituminous coal into anthracite coal.
The moisture content of fresh-mined anthracite generally is less than 15 percent. The heat content of anthracite ranges from 22 to 28 million Btu per short ton (26 to 33 MJ/kg) on a moist, mineral-matter-free basis. The short ton ( S/T) is a unit of mass equal to 2000 lb (around 907 This list compares various energies in Joules (J organized by Order of magnitude. The heat content of anthracite coal consumed in the United States averages 25 million Btu/ton (29 MJ/kg), on the as-received basis (i. e. , containing both inherent moisture and mineral matter). Note: Since the 1980s, anthracite refuse or mine waste has been used for steam electric power generation. A fossil fuel power plant burns Fossil fuels such as Coal, Natural gas or Petroleum (oil to produce Electricity.
Anthracite coal may be considered to be a transition stage between ordinary bituminous coal and graphite, produced by the more or less complete elimination of the volatile constituents of the former; and it is found most abundantly in areas that have been subjected to considerable earth-movements, such as the flanks of great mountain ranges. The Mineral graphite, as with Diamond and Fullerene, is one of the Allotropes of carbon. Anthracite coal is a product of metamorphism and is associated with metamorphic rocks, just as bituminous coal is associated with sedimentary rocks. Metamorphism can be defined as the solid state recrystallisation of pre-existing rocks due to changes in heat and/or pressure and/or introduction of fluids i Metamorphic rock is the result of the transformation of an existing rock type the protolith, in a process called Metamorphism, which means "change Sedimentary rock is one of the three main rock types (the others being igneous and Metamorphic rock) For example, the compressed layers of anthracite that are deep mined in the folded (metamorphic) Appalachian Mountains of the Coal Region of northeastern Pennsylvania are extensions of the layers of bituminous coal that are strip mined on the (sedimentary) Allegheny Plateau of Kentucky and West Virginia, and Western Pennsylvania. The Appalachian Mountains ( often called the Appalachians, are a vast system of mountains in eastern North America. The Coal Region is a term used to refer to an area of Northeastern Pennsylvania in the central Appalachian Mountains comprising Lackawanna The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania ( often colloquially referred to as PA (its abbreviation by natives and Northeasterners is a state located in the Northeastern The Allegheny Plateau is a large Dissected plateau area in western and central New York, northern and western Pennsylvania, northern West Virginia The Commonwealth of Kentucky ( is a state located in the East Central United States of America. West Virginia ( is a state in the Appalachian Upland South, and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States, bordered by In the same way the anthracite region of South Wales is confined to the contorted portion west of Swansea and Llanelli, the central and eastern portions producing steam coal, coking coal and domestic house coals. South Wales (De Cymru is an area of Wales bordered by England and the Bristol Channel to the east and south and Mid Wales and West Wales Swansea ( Abertawe "mouth of the Tawe " is a city and county in Wales. Llanelli ( English: Church of St Elli) pron, the largest Town in the County of Carmarthenshire, in south-west Coke is a solid Carbonaceous material derived from Destructive distillation of low-ash low-sulfur Bituminous coal.
Structurally it shows some alteration by the development of secondary divisional planes and fissures so that the original stratification lines are not always easily seen. The thermal conductivity is also higher, a lump of anthracite feeling perceptibly colder when held in the warm hand than a similar lump of bituminous coal at the same temperature. The chemical composition of some typical anthracites is given in the article coal.
In the United States, anthracite coal history began in 1790 in Pottsville, Pennsylvania, with the discovery of coal made by the hunter Necho Allen in what is now known as the Coal Region. Year 1790 ( MDCCXC) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Pottsville is the largest and only chartered city and County seat of Schuylkill County Pennsylvania, USA. The Coal Region is a term used to refer to an area of Northeastern Pennsylvania in the central Appalachian Mountains comprising Lackawanna Legend has it that Allen fell asleep at the base of Broad Mountain and woke to the sight of a large fire because his campfire had ignited an outcropping of anthracite coal. By 1795, an anthracite-fired iron furnace had been built on the Schuylkill River. Year 1795 ( MDCCXCV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a A blast furnace is a type of metallurgical Furnace used for Smelting to produce metals generally Iron. The Schuylkill River, most often ˈskuːkəl ("SKOO-kull" is a river in the U
Anthracite was first experimentally burned as a residential heating fuel in the USA on February 11, 1808, by Judge Jesse Fell in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, on an open grate in a fireplace. Events 660 BC - Traditional founding date of Japan by Emperor Jimmu. Year 1808 ( MDCCCVIII) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year Jesse Fell was an early political leader in Wilkes-Barre Pennsylvania. Wilkes-Barre (ˈwɪlksbɛrə or /-bɛri/ is the central city of the Wyoming Valley and County seat of Luzerne County in northeastern Pennsylvania Anthracite differs from wood in that it needs a draft from the bottom, and Judge Fell proved with his grate design that it was a viable heating fuel.
In the spring of 1808, John and Abijah Smith shipped the first commercially-mined load of anthracite down the Susquehanna River from Plymouth, Pennsylvania, marking the birth of commercial anthracite mining in the United States. The Susquehanna River (originally "Sasquesahanough" per the 1612 John Smith map is a River located in the northeastern United States. From that first mine, production rose to an all-time high of over 100 million tons in 1917. Year 1917 ( MCMXVII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year
From the late 1800s until the 1950s, anthracite was the most popular fuel for heating homes and other buildings in the northern United States, until it was supplanted first by oil burning systems and more recently by natural gas systems as well. Many large public buildings, like schools, were heated with anthracite-burning furnaces through the 1970s.
Current anthracite production averages around 5 million tons per year.
The principal use of anthracite today is for a domestic fuel in either hand-fired stoves or automatic stoker furnaces. It delivers high energy per its weight and burns cleanly with little soot, making it ideal for this purpose. Its high value makes it prohibitively expensive for power plant use. Other uses include the fine particles used as filter media, and as an ingredient in charcoal briquettes. Charcoal' is the blackish residue consisting of impure Carbon obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from Animal and Vegetation A briquette (or briquet) is a block of flammable Matter which is used as Fuel to start and maintain a Fire.
Anthracite is processed into different sizes by what is commonly referred to as a breaker (see coal). The large coal is raised from the mine and passed through breakers with toothed rolls to reduce the lumps to smaller pieces. The smaller pieces are separated into different sizes by a system of graduated sieves, placed in descending order. Sizing is necessary for different types of stoves and furnaces.
During the American Civil War, Confederate blockade runners used anthracite to avoid giving away their position to the blockaders. Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South
In the early 20th century United States, the Lackawanna Railroad started using only the more expensive anthracite coal, dubbed themselves "The Road of Anthracite," and advertised widely that travelers on their line could make railway journeys without getting their clothing stained with soot. The Delaware Lackawanna and Western Railroad Company ( DL&W or Lackawanna) was a Railroad connecting Pennsylvania 's Lackawanna Valley The advertisements featured a white-clad woman named Phoebe Snow and poems containing lines like "My gown stays white / From morn till night / Upon the road of Anthracite". Phoebe Snow was a Fictional character created to promote the Delaware Lackawanna and Western Railroad, and in later years the name of a pair of passenger trains Similarly, the Great Western Railway in the UK was able to use its access to anthracite, (it dominated the anthracite region) to earn a reputation for efficiency and cleanliness unmatched by other UK companies.
Formerly, anthracite was largely used, both in America and South Wales, as blast-furnace fuel for iron smelting, but for this purpose it has been largely superseded by coke in the former country and entirely in the latter. Coke is a solid Carbonaceous material derived from Destructive distillation of low-ash low-sulfur Bituminous coal. An important application has, however, been developed in the extended use of internal combustion motors driven by the so-called "mixed," "poor," "semi-water" or "Dowson gas" produced by the gasification of anthracite with air and a small proportion of steam. This is probably the most economical method of obtaining power known; with an engine as small as 15 horse-power the expenditure of fuel is at the rate of only 1 lb per horse-power hour, and with larger engines it is proportionately less. Large quantities of anthracite for power purposes were formerly exported from South Wales to France, Switzerland and parts of Germany. Commercial mining has now ceased.
Anthracite coal mining in Eastern Pennsylvania continues in the early 21st Century and contributes up to 1% of the Pennsylvania Gross State Product. Over 2,000 people were making their living mining anthracite coal as of 1995. Most of the mining currently involves reclaiming coal from slag heaps (waste piles from past coal mining) next to closed mines. Some underground anthracite coal mining is also taking place up to this day. As petroleum and natural gas grow more expensive, anthracite coal is growing more important as an energy source for an energy-hungry country. Source
Historically from time to time, underground veins of coal have caught fire, probably from careless or unfortunate mining activities. The pocket of ignited coal is fed oxygen by vent paths that have not yet been discovered. These smolder year in, year out. Exhaust vents in populated areas are soon sensed and are sealed. Vents in uninhabited areas remain undiscovered. Occasionally, vents are discovered via fumes sensed by passers-by, often in forested areas. Attempts to extinguish those remaining have been futile. The existence of the site of the underground combustion is usually identified in the winter where fallen snow is seen to be melted by the warmth conducted from below. Proposals for harnessing this heat as geothermal energy have not been successful. Several such combustion areas exist today, known mainly to the local Wyoming Valley residents.
A vein of anthracite that caught fire in Centralia, Pennsylvania in 1962 has been burning ever since, turning the once thriving mining hamlet into a ghost town. Centralia is a borough in Columbia County Pennsylvania, United States. A ghost town is a Town or City that has been abandoned usually because the economic activity that supported it has failed or due to natural or human-caused 
The largest fields of anthracite coal in the United States are found in Northeastern Pennsylvania called the Coal Region, where there are 7 billion short tons (6. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania ( often colloquially referred to as PA (its abbreviation by natives and Northeasterners is a state located in the Northeastern The Coal Region is a term used to refer to an area of Northeastern Pennsylvania in the central Appalachian Mountains comprising Lackawanna 3 billion metric tons) of minable reserves. Deposits at Crested Butte, Colorado were mined historically. Crested Butte is a Home Rule Municipality in Gunnison County, Colorado, United States.
Anthracites of newer, tertiary or cretaceous age, are found in the Crow's Nest part of the Rocky Mountains in Canada, and at various points in the Andes in Peru. For the Municipality of Crowsnest Pass please see Crowsnest Pass Alberta Crowsnest Pass (sometimes referred to as Crow's Nest Pass Mountain peaks of the Rocky Mountains The Rocky Mountains, often called the Rockies, are a Mountain range in western North America. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page The Andes form the world's longest exposed Mountain range. They lie as a continuous chain of highland along the western coast of South America. Peru (Perú Piruw Piruw officially the Republic of Peru ( reˈpuβlika del peˈɾu is a country in western South America.
The common American classification is as follows:
Lump, steamboat, egg and stove coals, the latter in two or three sizes, all three being above 1-1/2 in. size on round-hole screens.
|Classification||Minimum Size (inches)||Maximum Size (inches)|
The primary sizes used in the United States for domestic heating are Chestnut, Pea, Buckwheat and Rice, Chestnut and Rice being the most popular. Chestnut and Pea are used in hand fired furnaces while the smaller Rice and Buckwheat are used in automatic stoker furnaces. Rice is currently the most sought after size due to the ease of use and popularity of that type of furnace.
In South Wales a less elaborate classification is adopted; but great care is exercised in hand-picking and cleaning the coal from included particles of pyrites in the higher qualities known as best malting coals, which are used for kiln-drying malt and hops.
Anthracite dust can be made into briquettes and is sold in the United Kingdom under trade names such as Phurnacite, Ancit and Taybrite. A briquette (or briquet) is a block of flammable Matter which is used as Fuel to start and maintain a Fire. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located