The Annus Mirabilis Papers (from Latin, Annus mirabilis, for 'extraordinary year') are the papers of Albert Einstein published in the "Annalen der Physik" scientific journal in 1905. Year 1905 ( MCMV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Annus mirabilis is a Latin phrase meaning "wonderful year" or "year of wonders" (or "year of miracles" Albert Einstein ( German: ˈalbɐt ˈaɪ̯nʃtaɪ̯n; English: ˈælbɝt ˈaɪnstaɪn (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955 was a German -born theoretical Annalen der Physik is one of the best-known and oldest (since 1790 Physics journals worldwide For a broader class of publications which include scientific journals see Academic journal. Year 1905 ( MCMV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting These four articles contributed substantially to the foundation of modern physics and changed views on space, time, and matter. Space is the extent within which Matter is physically extended and objects and Events have positions relative to one another For other uses see Time (disambiguation Time is a component of a measuring system used to sequence events to compare the durations of Matter is commonly defined as being anything that has mass and that takes up space. The Annus Mirabilis is often called the "Miracle Year" in English, in German, the "Wunderjahr". English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. 
At the time the papers were written, Einstein did not have easy access to a complete set of scientific reference materials, although he did regularly read and contribute reviews to Annalen der Physik. Additionally, scientific colleagues available to discuss his theories were few. The word theory has many distinct meanings in different fields of Knowledge, depending on their methodologies and the context of discussion. He worked as an examiner at the Patent Office in Bern, Switzerland, and he later said of a co-worker there, Michelangelo Besso, that he "could not have found a better sounding board for his ideas in all of Europe". A patent office is a Governmental or Intergovernmental organization which controls the issue of Patents List of patent offices For a The city of Berne or Bern (, Berne, Berna, Romansh: Berna, Bernese German: Bärn) is the Bundesstadt ( Federal Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation In addition to co-workers and the other members of the self-styled "Olympian Academy" (Solovine and Habicht), his wife, Mileva Marić, may have had some influence on Einstein's work but how much is unclear. Mileva Marić ( December 19, 1875 &ndash August 4, 1948  Through these papers, Einstein tackles some of the era's most important physics questions and problems. In 1900, a lecture titled Nineteenth-Century Clouds over the Dynamical Theory of Heat and Light, by Lord Kelvin, suggested that physics was unsatisfactory in the explanations of two phenomena: the Michelson-Morley experiment and black body radiation. Year 1900 ( MCM) was an exceptional Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar William Thomson 1st Baron Kelvin (or Lord Kelvin) OM, GCVO, PC, PRS, FRSE, (26 June 1824 &ndash 17 December 1907 The Michelson–Morley experiment, one of the most important and famous experiments in the History of physics, was performed in 1887 by Albert Michelson and In Physics, a black body is an object that absorbs all light that falls on it As introduced, special relativity provided an account for the results of the Michelson-Morley experiments. Einstein's theories for the photoelectric effect demonstrate some quantum mechanics, which also explain black body radiation. Quantum mechanics is the study of mechanical systems whose dimensions are close to the Atomic scale such as Molecules Atoms Electrons
Despite the greater fame achieved by his other works, such as that on special relativity, it was his work on the photoelectric effect which won him his Nobel Prize in 1921: "For services to theoretical physics and especially for the discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect. Special relativity (SR (also known as the special theory of relativity or STR) is the Physical theory of Measurement in Inertial Introduction When a Metallic surface is exposed to Electromagnetic radiation above a certain threshold Frequency, the light is absorbed and Electrons The Nobel Prize (Nobelpriset (Nobelprisen is a Swedish prize established in the 1895 will of Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel; it was first awarded in Peace, Literature Year 1921 ( MCMXXI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1921 calendar of the Gregorian calendar " The Nobel committee had waited patiently for experimental confirmation of special relativity; however none was forthcoming until the time dilation experiments of Ives and Stilwell (1938), (1941) and Rossi and Hall (1941). This article discusses a concept in physics For the concept in sociology see Time displacement. 
The paper, "On a Heuristic Viewpoint Concerning the Production and Transformation of Light", proposed the idea of energy quanta. heuristic (hyu̇-ˈris-tik is a method to help solve a problem commonly an informal method Light, or visible light, is Electromagnetic radiation of a Wavelength that is visible to the Human eye (about 400–700 This idea, motivated by Max Planck's earlier derivation of the law of black-body radiation, assumes that luminous energy can be absorbed or emitted only in discrete amounts, called quanta. The Electromagnetic radiation emitted by a Black body. You may also be looking for Incandescence, the radiation from a body In Photometry, luminous energy is the perceived Energy of Light. Einstein states,
In explaining the photoelectric effect, the hypothesis that energy consists of discrete packets, as Einstein illustrates, can be directly applied to black bodies, as well. Introduction When a Metallic surface is exposed to Electromagnetic radiation above a certain threshold Frequency, the light is absorbed and Electrons In Physics and other Sciences energy (from the Greek grc ἐνέργεια - Energeia, "activity operation" from grc ἐνεργός In Physics, a black body is an object that absorbs all light that falls on it
The idea of light quanta contradicts the wave theory of light that follows naturally from James Clerk Maxwell's equations for electromagnetic behavior and, more generally, the assumption of infinite divisibility of energy in physical systems. James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 &ndash 5 November 1879 was a Scottish mathematician and theoretical physicist. In Classical electromagnetism, Maxwell's equations are a set of four Partial differential equations that describe the properties of the electric Electromagnetism is the Physics of the Electromagnetic field: a field which exerts a Force on particles that possess the property of The concept of infinite divisibility arises in different ways in Philosophy, Physics, Economics, Order theory (a branch of mathematics and
Even after experiments confirmed that Einstein's equations for the photoelectric effect were accurate, his explanation was not universally accepted. Introduction When a Metallic surface is exposed to Electromagnetic radiation above a certain threshold Frequency, the light is absorbed and Electrons Niels Bohr, in his 1922 Nobel address, stated, "The hypothesis of light-quanta is not able to throw light on the nature of radiation. Niels Henrik David Bohr (nels ˈb̥oɐ̯ˀ in Danish 7 October 1885 – 18 November 1962 was a Danish Physicist who made fundamental contributions to understanding "
By 1921, when Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize and his work on photoelectricity was mentioned by name in the award citation, some physicists accepted that the equation () was correct and light quanta were possible. Year 1921 ( MCMXXI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1921 calendar of the Gregorian calendar In 1923, Arthur Compton's X-ray scattering experiment helped more of the scientific community to accept this formula. Year 1923 ( MCMXXIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Arthur Holly Compton (September 10 1892 &ndash March 15 1962 was an American physicist and Nobel laureate in physics for his discovery of the Compton effect The Compton shift formula Klein-Nishina formulaCompton used a combination of three fundamental formulas representing the various aspects of classical and modern physics combining The theory of light quanta was a strong indicator of wave-particle duality, a fundamental principle of quantum mechanics. In Physics and Chemistry, wave–particle duality is the concept that all Matter and Energy exhibits both Wave -like and Quantum mechanics is the study of mechanical systems whose dimensions are close to the Atomic scale such as Molecules Atoms Electrons  A complete picture of the theory of photoelectricity was realized after the maturity of quantum mechanics.
The article "On the Motion Required by the Molecular Kinetic Theory of Heat of Small Particles Suspended in a Stationary Liquid" delineated a stochastic model of Brownian motion. In Physics, motion means a constant change in the location of a body Kinetic theory (or kinetic theory of gases) attempts to explain Macroscopic properties of Gases such as pressure temperature or volume by considering In Physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is Energy transferred from one body or system to another due to a difference in Temperature Liquid is one of the principal States of matter. A liquid is a Fluid that has the particles loose and can freely form a distinct surface at the boundaries of Stochastic (from the Greek "Στόχος" for "aim" or "guess" means Random. This article is about the physical phenomenon for the stochastic process see Wiener process.
Brownian motion generates expressions for the root mean square displacement of particles. In Mathematics, the root mean square (abbreviated RMS or rms) also known as the quadratic mean, is a statistical measure of the In Physics, displacement is the vector that specifies the position of a point or a particle in reference to a previous position or to the origin of the chosen Using the kinetic theory of fluids, which at the time was controversial, the article established the phenomenon, which was lacking a satisfactory explanation even decades after the first observation provided empirical evidence for the reality of the atom. History See also Atomic theory, Atomism The concept that matter is composed of discrete units and cannot be divided into arbitrarily tiny It also lent credence to statistical mechanics, which had been controversial at that time, as well. Statistical mechanics is the application of Probability theory, which includes mathematical tools for dealing with large populations to the field of Mechanics Before this paper, atoms were recognized as a useful concept, but physicists and chemists debated whether atoms were real entities. Einstein's statistical discussion of atomic behavior gave experimentalists a way to count atoms by looking through an ordinary microscope. Wilhelm Ostwald, one of the leaders of the anti-atom school, later told Arnold Sommerfeld that he had been convinced of the existence of atoms by Einstein's complete explanation of Brownian motion. Friedrich Wilhelm Ostwald ( Latvian: Vilhelms Ostvalds; September 2, 1853 &ndash April 4, 1932) was a Baltic Arnold Johannes Wilhelm Sommerfeld (5 December 1868 &ndash 26 April 1951 was a German theoretical Physicist who pioneered developments in atomic
Einstein's third paper that year, "On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies" reconciles Maxwell's equations for electricity and magnetism with the laws of mechanics, by introducing major changes to mechanics close to the speed of light. In Classical electromagnetism, Maxwell's equations are a set of four Partial differential equations that describe the properties of the electric This later became known as Einstein's special theory of relativity. Special relativity (SR (also known as the special theory of relativity or STR) is the Physical theory of Measurement in Inertial
The paper mentions the name of only five other scientists, Isaac Newton, James Clerk Maxwell, Heinrich Hertz, Christian Doppler, and Hendrik Lorentz. Hendrik Antoon Lorentz ( July 18, 1853 &ndash February 4, 1928) was a Dutch Physicist who shared the 1902 Nobel This paper introduces a theory of time, distance, mass, and energy that was consistent with electromagnetism, but omitted the force of gravity. Electromagnetism is the Physics of the Electromagnetic field: a field which exerts a Force on particles that possess the property of Gravitation is a natural Phenomenon by which objects with Mass attract one another
At the time, it was known that Maxwell's equations, when applied to moving bodies, led to asymmetries, and that it had not been possible to discover any motion of the Earth relative to the 'light medium'. Einstein puts forward two postulates to explain these observations. First, he applies the classic principle of relativity, which states that the laws of physics remain the same for any non-accelerating frame of reference (called an inertial reference frame), to the laws of electrodynamics and optics as well as mechanics. Galilean invariance or Galilean relativity is a Principle of relativity which states that the fundamental laws of physics are the same in all Inertial See also Inertial frame A frame of reference in Physics, may refer to a Coordinate system or set of axes within which to Classical electromagnetism (or classical electrodynamics) is a theory of Electromagnetism that was developed over the course of the 19th century most prominently In the second postulate, Einstein proposes that the speed of light has the same value in all inertial frames of reference, independent of the state of motion of the emitting body.
Special relativity is thus consistent with the result of the Michelson-Morley experiment, which had not detected a medium of conductance (or aether) for light waves unlike other known waves that require a medium (such as water or air). The Michelson–Morley experiment, one of the most important and famous experiments in the History of physics, was performed in 1887 by Albert Michelson and A transmission medium' (plural transmission media) is a material substance ( Solid, Liquid or Gas) which can propagate A wave is a disturbance that propagates through Space and Time, usually with transference of Energy. Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. Temperature and layers The temperature of the Earth's atmosphere varies with altitude the mathematical relationship between temperature and altitude varies among five Einstein states,
The speed of light is fixed, and thus not relative to the movement of the observer. This was impossible under Newtonian classical mechanics. Sir Isaac Newton, FRS (ˈnjuːtən 4 January 1643 31 March 1727) Biography Early years See also Isaac Newton's early life and achievements Classical mechanics is used for describing the motion of Macroscopic objects from Projectiles to parts of Machinery, as well as Astronomical objects Einstein argues,
It had previously been conjectured, by George Fitzgerald in 1894 and by Lorentz 1895, independent of each other, that the Michelson-Morley result could be accounted for if moving bodies were contracted in the direction of their motion. George Francis FitzGerald ( 3 August 1851 &ndash 21 February 1901) was an Irish professor of "natural and experimental philosophy" Year 1894 ( MDCCCXCIV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Some of the paper's core equations, the Lorentz transforms, had been published by Joseph Larmor (1897, 1900), Hendrik Lorentz (1899, 1903, 1904) and Henri Poincaré (1905), in a development of Lorentz's 1904 paper. In Physics, the Lorentz transformation converts between two different observers' measurements of space and time where one observer is in constant motion with respect to Sir Joseph Larmor ( 11 July 1857 Magheragall, County Antrim, Northern Ireland – 19 May 1942 Holywood Hendrik Antoon Lorentz ( July 18, 1853 &ndash February 4, 1928) was a Dutch Physicist who shared the 1902 Nobel Jules Henri Poincaré ( 29 April 1854 &ndash 17 July 1912) (ˈʒyl ɑ̃ˈʁi pwɛ̃kaˈʁe was a French Mathematician Einstein revealed the underlying causes for this geometrical oddity, which differed from the explanations given by FitzGerald, Larmor, and Lorentz, but were similar in many respects to the reasons given by Poincaré (1905).
His explanation arises from two axioms. First, Galileo's idea that the laws of nature should be the same for all observers that move with constant speed relative to each other. Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564 &ndash 8 January 1642 was a Tuscan ( Italian) Physicist, Mathematician, Astronomer, and Philosopher A physical law or scientific law is a Scientific generalization based on empirical Observations of physical behavior (i Einstein writes,
The second is the rule that the speed of light is the same for every observer.
The theory, now called the "special theory of relativity" distinguishes it from his later general theory of relativity, which considers all observers to be equivalent. Special relativity (SR (also known as the special theory of relativity or STR) is the Physical theory of Measurement in Inertial General relativity or the general theory of relativity is the geometric theory of Gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1916 Special relativity gained widespread acceptance remarkably quickly, confirming Einstein's comment that it had been "ripe for discovery" in 1905. Acknowledging the role of Max Planck in the early dissemination of his ideas, Einstein wrote in 1913 "The attention that this theory so quickly received from colleagues is surely to be ascribed in large part to the resoluteness and warmth with which he [Planck] intervened for this theory". In addition, the improved mathematical formulation of the theory by Hermann Minkowski in 1907 was influential in gaining acceptance for the theory. Hermann Minkowski ( June 22 1864 – January 12 1909) was a Russian born German Mathematician, of Jewish Also, and most importantly, the theory was supported by an ever-increasing body of confirmatory experimental evidence.
A fourth paper, "Does the Inertia of a Body Depend Upon Its Energy Content?", was published on September 27 in Annalen der Physik, in which Einstein developed an argument for one of the most famous equations in the field of physics: E = mc². Events 489 - Odoacer attacks Theodoric at the Battle of Verona and is defeated again Annalen der Physik is one of the best-known and oldest (since 1790 Physics journals worldwide In Physics, mass–energy equivalence is the concept that for particles slower than light any Mass has an associated Energy and vice versa. Einstein considered the equivalency equation to be of paramount importance because it showed that a massive particle possesses an energy, the "rest energy", distinct from its classical kinetic and potential energies. The kinetic energy of an object is the extra Energy which it possesses due to its motion Potential energy can be thought of as Energy stored within a physical system
The equation sets forth that energy of a body at rest (E) equals its mass (m) times the speed of light (c) squared, or E = mc². In Physics and other Sciences energy (from the Greek grc ἐνέργεια - Energeia, "activity operation" from grc ἐνεργός
The mass-energy relation can be used to predict how much energy will be released or consumed by nuclear reactions; one simply measures the mass of all constituents and products and multiplies the difference by c2. In Physics, mass–energy equivalence is the concept that for particles slower than light any Mass has an associated Energy and vice versa. In Nuclear physics, a nuclear reaction is the process in which two nuclei or nuclear particles collide to produce products different from the initial particles The result shows how much energy will be released or consumed, usually in the form of light or heat. Electromagnetic radiation takes the form of self-propagating Waves in a Vacuum or in Matter. In Physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is Energy transferred from one body or system to another due to a difference in Temperature When applied to certain nuclear reactions, the equation shows that an extraordinarily large amount of energy will be released, much larger than in the combustion of chemical explosives, where the mass difference is hardly measurable at all. An explosive material is a material that either is chemically or otherwise Energetically unstable or produces a sudden expansion of the material usually accompanied This explains why nuclear weapons produce such phenomenal amounts of energy, as they release binding energy during nuclear fission and nuclear fusion, and also convert a much larger portion of subatomic mass to energy. A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from Nuclear reactions either fission or a combination of fission and fusion. Binding energy is the Mechanical energy required to disassemble a whole into separate parts Nuclear fission is the splitting of the nucleus of an atom into parts (lighter nuclei) often producing Free neutrons and other smaller nuclei which may In Physics and Nuclear chemistry, nuclear fusion is the process by which multiple- like charged atomic nuclei join together to form a heavier nucleus
The International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) resolved to commemorate the 100th year of the publication of Einstein's extensive work in 1905 as the 'World Year of Physics 2005'. The International Union of Pure and Applied Physics ( IUPAP) is an international Non-governmental organization devoted to the advancement of Physics. Year 1905 ( MCMV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting The year 2005 has been named the World Year of Physics in recognition of the 100th anniversary of Albert Einstein's " Miracle Year," in which he This was subsequently endorsed by both the United Nations and the United States Congress. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security The United States Congress is the bicameral Legislature of the federal government of the United States of America, consisting of two houses
The following two papers appear in The Principle of Relativity, London: Methuen and Company, Ltd. (1923) in English translations by W. Perrett and G. B. Jeffery from the German Das Relativätsprinzip, Teubner, 4th ed. , (1922).