The term Angevin Empire describes a collection of states ruled by the Angevin Plantagenet dynasty. Angevin (ˈændʒəvɪn ( French, from Old French, from Medieval Latin Andegavinus from Andegavia Anjou, France) is the name applied The House of Plantagenet (planˈtadʒɪnɪt also called the House of Anjou, or the First Angevin dynasty, was originally a noble The Plantagenets ruled over an area stretching from the Pyrenees to Ireland during the 12th and early 13th centuries. The Pyrenees (Pirineos French: Pyrénées; Catalan: Pirineus; Occitan: Pirenèus; Aragonese: Perinés Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world Their 'empire' was roughly half of medieval France as well as all of England and Ireland. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world The term 'Angevin Empire' is a modern construction as the empire had no such collective term at the time. However, despite the extent of the Plantagenets' rule, they were defeated by the King of France, Philip II Augustus, of the House of Capet which left their empire split in two, losing the provinces Normandy and Anjou. Philip II Augustus (Philippe Auguste ( 21 August[[ 165]] &ndash 14 July 1223) was the King of France from 1180 until his death For a full history of the Capetian family see Capetian dynasty. Normandy (Normandie Norman: Normaundie) is a geographical region corresponding to the former Duchy of Normandy. Anjou is a former County (c 880) Duchy ( 1360) and province centred on the city of Angers in the lower This defeat, which left the ruling Plantagenets with their English territories and Gascony in France, set the scene for the Saintonge and the Hundred Years' War. The Saintonge War was a feudal dynastic encounter that occurred in 1242 between forces of Louis IX of France and those of Henry III of England. The Hundred Years' War (Guerre de Cent Ans was a prolonged conflict lasting from 1337 to 1453 between two royal houses for the French throne vacant with the extinction of the senior
The Angevin Empire is a neologism defining the lands of the Plantagenets: Henry II and his sons Richard I and John. A neologism (from Greek neo = "new" + logos = "word" is a word that although devised relatively recently in a specific time period has been The House of Plantagenet (planˈtadʒɪnɪt also called the House of Anjou, or the First Angevin dynasty, was originally a noble Richard I (8 September 1157 &ndash 6 April 1199 was King of England from 6 July 1189 until his death John (24 December 1167 &ndash 19 October 1216 reigned as a King of England from 6 April 1199 until his death Another son Geoffrey II, Duke of Brittany ruled Brittany and established a separate line there. As far as historians know, there was no contemporary term for the region under Angevin control, however descriptions such as 'our kingdom and everything subject to our rule whatever it may be' were used.  The term 'Angevin Empire' was coined by Kate Norgate in her 1887 publication, "England under the Angevin Kings".  In France, the term "Espace Plantagenêt" is sometimes used to describe the fiefdoms the Plantagenêts had acquired. 
The adoption of the "Angevin empire" label marked a re-evaluation of the times, considering that both English and French influences were spread throughout the dominion in the half century the union lasted. The term Angevin itself is the adjective applied to the residents of Anjou and its historic capital, Angers; the Plantagenets were from Anjou, hence the term. Angevin (ˈændʒəvɪn ( French, from Old French, from Medieval Latin Andegavinus from Andegavia Anjou, France) is the name applied Angers is a city in the Maine-et-Loire department in northwestern France about 300 km south-west of Paris. 
The use of the term Empire has raised controversy amongst some historians. As it is an assemblage of the inherited and acquired lands of Henry there is some question as to whether or not a common identity existed within the dominions.  Some historians argue that the term Empire should refer strictly to the Holy Roman Empire, the only Western European political structure actually named "Empire". The Holy Roman Empire ( HRE; German Heiliges Römisches Reich (HRR, Latin Sacrum Romanum Imperium (SRI was a union of territories in  Other historians argue that Henry II's empire was neither powerful, nor centralised, nor large enough to be seriously called an Empire.  There was no such thing as an imperial title, as the term "Angevin Empire" may imply. The Holy Roman Emperor (Römischer Kaiser or Römisch-Deutscher Kaiser Romanorum Imperator was the elected monarch ruling over the many varying numbers of states  Although, if the Plantagenets themselves did not claim any imperial title some chroniclers, often working for Henry II himself, used the term "empire" to describe this assemblage of lands.  In essence the highest title was "king of England", to which were added the titles of dukes and counts held in France that were completely and totally independent from the royal title, and not subject to any English royal law.  Because of this some historians prefer the term commonwealth to Empire, to emphasise the fact that the Angevin Empire was more an assemblage of seven fully independent, sovereign states loosely bound to each other. 
At its largest extent, that "so called empire" consisted of the Kingdom of England, the Lordship of Ireland, the duchies of Normandy, Gascony and Aquitaine (also called Guyenne) as well as of the Counties of Anjou, Poitou, Maine, Touraine, Saintonge, Marche, Perigord, Limousin, Nantes and Quercy. The Kingdom of England was a State (927-1707 located in Western Europe dating from the ninth or tenth century to the early eighteenth century when it was legally The Lordship of Ireland ( 1171 - 1541) was the nominally all-island Irish state created in the wake of the Norman invasion of Ireland in 1169-71 Normandy (Normandie Norman: Normaundie) is a geographical region corresponding to the former Duchy of Normandy. Gascony (Gascogne gaskɔɲ Gascon Occitan: Gasconha, pronounced) is an area of southwest France that constituted a province of France Aquitaine (Aquitània Akitania archaic Guyenne / Guienne (Occitan Guiana) is one of the 26 Regions of France, in the south-western part of Anjou is a former County (c 880) Duchy ( 1360) and province centred on the city of Angers in the lower Poitou was a province of west-central France whose capital city was Poitiers. Maine is one of the traditional provinces of France. It corresponds to the old county of Maine centered around the city of Le Mans. Touraine may also refer to Alain Touraine, French sociologist Saintonge is a small region on the Atlantic coast of France within the département Charente-Maritime, west and south of Charente The County of Marche (la Marcha was a Medieval French County, approximately corresponding to the modern département of Creuse The Périgord ( ( Occitan: Peiregòrd / Perigòrd) is a former province of France, which corresponds roughly to the current Dordogne Limousin ( Occitan: Lemosin) is a former Province of France around the city of Limoges in central France. Nantes (Naoned Gallo: Naunnt) is a city in western France, located on the Loire River, from the Atlantic coast Quercy (pronounced /kɛʀsi/ in French;) ( Occitan: Carcin, pronounced, locally) is a former Province of France located in the southwest While the duchies and counties were held with various levels of vassalage to the King of France, the Plantagenets held control over the Duchy of Brittany, the Welsh princedoms, the county of Toulouse and the Kingdom of Scotland to varying levels of power although they were not formal parts of the "Empire". A vassal (also called feodary or fedary) in the terminology that both preceded and accompanied the feudalism of Medieval Europe, List of Queens and Empresses of France Wikipedia_talkFeatured_lists#Proposed_change_to_all_featured_lists for an explanation of this and other inclusion tags below The House of Plantagenet (planˈtadʒɪnɪt also called the House of Anjou, or the First Angevin dynasty, was originally a noble Brittany (Breizh bʁejs Bretagne; Gallo: Bertaèyn) is a former independent Celtic kingdom and Duchy, now incorporated into Toulouse ( pronounced in standard French, and in the local accent ( Occitan: Tolosa, pronounced) is a city in southwest The Kingdom of Scotland ( Gaelic: Rìoghachd na h-Alba, Scots: Kinrick o Scotland) was a State in northwest Europe Further claims had been laid over Berry and Auvergne yet these were not fulfilled. Berry is a region located in the center of France It was a province of France until the provinces were replaced by départements ' on March 4, Auvergne ( Occitan: Auvèrnhe/Auvèrnha) was the name of an historically independent county in the center of France, as well as later a Province of
Sometimes the frontiers were well known and easy to draw like the one between the royal Demesne of the King of France and the Duchy of Normandy while in other places they were not so clear, especially as regards the eastern frontier of Aquitaine where there often was a difference between the frontiers Henry II and, later, Richard I claimed and the ones where their real power ended. In the Feudal system demesne (also spelled desmesne pronounced /dəmeɪn/ or /dəmiːn/; via Old French demeine from Latin dominium) was all the land List of Queens and Empresses of France Wikipedia_talkFeatured_lists#Proposed_change_to_all_featured_lists for an explanation of this and other inclusion tags below The Duchy of Normandy stems from various Danish, Hiberno-Norse, Orkney Viking and Anglo-Danish ( from the Danelaw) invasions of Richard I (8 September 1157 &ndash 6 April 1199 was King of England from 6 July 1189 until his death  One of the most important characteristic of the Angevin Empire being it was "polycratic", term taken from one of the most important political pamphlet written by a subject of the Angevin Empire: the Policraticus by John of Salisbury. John of Salisbury (c 1120 &ndash 1180 English author diplomat and Bishop of Chartres, was born at Salisbury.
In Aquitaine and Anjou although ducal and comital authorities did exist it was not homogeneous. For example, the family of the Lusignans, very powerful in these lands, proved themselves opponents of importance to the Plantagenets. The Lusignan family originated in the Poitou near Lusignan in western France in the early 10th century.
The economics of the Angevin Empire was quite complicated due to the varying political structure of the fiefdoms. Areas like England which had a centralised power structure generated larger revenues than the more loosely administrated regions such as Limousin; where local princes could mint their own coins.
It is commonly believed that money raised in England was used for continental issues.  Also, due to the high level of administration of England and, to a lesser extent, Normandy, it was only area where revenue was fairly consistent.
The English revenues themselves varied from a year to year:
In Ireland, the revenue was fairly low, a mere £2,000 for 1212 however, records are missing for the most part. For Normandy, there were a lot of fluctuations relative to the politics of the Duchy. In 1180, the Norman revenues were only £6,750 while they reached £25,000 a year in 1198, higher than in England.  What was more impressive was the fact the Norman population was considerably smaller than England's, an estimated 1. 5 million as opposed to England's 3. 5 million. 
For Aquitaine, Anjou and Gascony there is no record about revenues. It is not that these regions were poor; there were large vineyards, important cities and iron mines. This is what Ralph of Diceto, an English chronicler, wrote about Aquitaine:
|“||Aquitaine overflows with riches of many kinds, excelling other parts of the western world to such an extent that historians consider it to be one of the most fortunate and flourishing of the provinces of Gaul. Ralph de Diceto (d c 1202 Dean of St Paul's, and chronicler is first mentioned in 1152 when he received the archdeaconry of Middlesex. Its fields are fertile, its vineyards productive and its forests teem with wild life. From the Pyrenees northwards the whole countryside is irrigated by the River Garonne and other streams, indeed it is from these life-giving waters that the province takes its name.||”|
The Capetian kings did not record such incomes, although the royal principality was more centralized under Louis VII and Philip II than it used to be under Hugh Capet or Robert the Pious. Hugh Capet (c 940 &ndash 24 October, 996) was the first King of France of the eponymous Capetian dynasty from his election to succeed the Robert II ( 27 March 972 &ndash 20 July 1031) called the Pious or the Wise, was King of France from 996  The wealth of the Plantagenet kings was definitely regarded as bigger, Gerald of Wales commented on this wealth with these words:
|“||One may therefore ask how King Henry II and his sons, in spite of their many wars, possessed so much treasure. Gerald of Wales (c 1146 &ndash c 1223 also known as Gerallt Gymro in Welsh or Giraldus Cambrensis in Latin, The reason is that as their fixed returns yielded less they took care to make up the total by extraordinary levies, relying more and more on these than on the ordinary sources of revenue.||”|
Petit Dutailli had commented that: "Richard maintained a superiority in resources which would have given him the opportunity, had he lived, to crush his rival. " There is another interpretation, not widely followed and proven wrong, that the king of France could have raised a stronger income, that the royal principality of the king of France generated alone more incomes than all of the Angevin Empire combined. 
The Counts of Anjou had been vying for power in north-western France for a long time. List of Counts of Anjou First creation 870&ndash1203 House of Ingelger Ingelger (870&ndash898 father The Counts were recurrent enemies of the Dukes of Normandy and of the Dukes of Brittany and sometimes even of the King himself. Duke of Normandy is a Title held or claimed by various Norman, French, English and British rulers from the 10th century until the List of Queens and Empresses of France Wikipedia_talkFeatured_lists#Proposed_change_to_all_featured_lists for an explanation of this and other inclusion tags below Fulk IV claimed rule over Touraine, Maine and Nantes however Touraine was certainly proved to be the only effectively ruled of these as the construction of the castles of Chinon, Loches and Loudun exemplify. Touraine may also refer to Alain Touraine, French sociologist Maine is one of the traditional provinces of France. It corresponds to the old county of Maine centered around the city of Le Mans. Nantes (Naoned Gallo: Naunnt) is a city in western France, located on the Loire River, from the Atlantic coast Chinon is a commune in the Indre-et-Loire department in central France. The Château de Loches is located in the département of Indre-et-Loire in the Loire Valley in France and is a very ancient Loudun is a small town and commune of approximately 9000 inhabitants in the Vienne département and in the Poitou-Charentes Fulk IV married his son Fulk V to Eremburga, the heiress of Maine thus unifying it with Anjou. While the dynasty of the Angevins was successful, their rivals, the Normans, had conquered England while the Poitevins had become Dukes of Aquitaine as well as Dukes of Gascony and the Count of Blois became Count of Champagne. The County of Blois was originally centred on Blois, south of Paris, France. Counts of Champagne ruled the region of Champagne from 950 to 1316
King Henry I of England had defeated his brother, Robert Curthose, made an enemy of Robert's son - William Clito - who became Count of Flanders in 1127 and used his paternal inheritance to claim the Duchy of Normandy and the Kingdom of England. William Clito ( 25 October 1102 &ndash 28 July 1128) was the son of Robert Curthose, Duke of Normandy, by his marriage counts of Flanders were the Rulers over the county of Flanders from the 9th century until the abolition of the Countship by the French revolutionaries Henry I tried to establish an alliance with Anjou against Flanders by marrying his only legitimate son, William Adelin, to Fulk V's daughter but the former died in the White Ship disaster in 1120. Flanders (Vlaanderen Flandre Flandern is a geographical region located in parts of present day Belgium, France, and the Netherlands. William (1103– 25 November 1120) surnamed Adelin (alternately rendered as Adelinus, Adelingus, Audelin or Ætheling The White Ship (or its real name la Blanche-Nef) a twelfth-century vessel sank in the English Channel near the Normandy coast off Barfleur Then, Henry I married his daughter Matilda to Geoffrey V, however the Anglo-Normans had to accept Matilda's inheritance to the throne of England. There had been only one occurrence of a woman ascending the throne before, Urrace, and it wasn't an encouraging precedent although in January 1127, the Anglo-Normans barons and prelates recognized Matilda as heiress to the throne in an oath. Urraca of Castile (1082 &ndash March 8 1126) was Queen of Castile and León from 1109 to her death Baron is a specific Title of nobility. The word baron comes from Old French baron, itself from Old High German and Latin (liber A prelate is a high-ranking member of the Clergy who either is an Ordinary or ranks in precedence with ordinaries An oath (from Anglo-Saxon āð, also called plight) is either a Promise or a Statement of Fact calling On June 17, 1128, the wedding was celebrated in Le Mans. Events 1462 - Vlad III the Impaler attempts to assassinate Mehmed II ( The Night Attack) forcing him to retreat Le Mans (ləmɑ̃ in French) is a city in France, located on the Sarthe River.
In order to secure the succession, castles and supporters were need in both England and Normandy. The Anarchy or The Nineteen Year Winter refers to a period of English history during the reign ( 1135 &ndash 1154) of the Norman King Had Matilda and Geoffrey succeeded, there would have been two authorities in England; King Henry I and his daughter, Matilda. Henry I didn't allow this happen by refusing to hand over any castle to Matilda as well as confiscated the lands of nobles he suspected of supporting her. By 1135, there were major disputes between Henry I and Matilda which drove the barons that were loyal to Henry I against Matilda. In November 1135, when Henry "Beauclerc" was dying, Matilda was with her husband in Maine and Anjou while Stephen of Blois was in Boulogne. Stephen often referred to in history as Stephen of Blois (c 1096 &ndash 25 October, 1154) was the last Norman King of England Boulogne-sur-Mer ( Bonen in Dutch is a City in Northern France. Stephen rushed to England upon the news of the Henry I's death and was crowned King of England in December 1135. 
Geoffrey sent Matilda alone to Normandy, first, in a diplomatic mission in order to get recognized Duchess of Normandy to replace Stephen. However, Geoffrey V wasn't far behind, at the head of his army, and quickly captured several fortresses in southern Normandy which he never lost again. It was then that an Angevin noble, Robert III of Sablé, rose up against Geoffrey V opening a front on his rear causing him to withdraw to Anjou and end the revolt. When Geoffrey V returned to Normandy in September 1136, the region was plagued with local struggles and infighting among the barons. Stephen was not able to travel to Normandy and as result, the situation remained chaotic. Geoffrey had found new allies with the Count of Vendôme and most importantly, the Duke of Aquitaine. Count of Vendôme, and later Duke of Vendôme, were French titles of nobility At the head of a new army and prepared to conquer Normandy, he was wounded and was forced to return to Anjou once more. Adding to that, an outbreak of diarrhea plagued his army. Orderic Vitalis stated "the invaders had to run for home leaving a trail of filth behind them". Stephen finally arrived in Normandy in 1137 and restored order, but he had lost much of credibility to the eyes of Robert of Gloucester who supported Geoffrey. Robert 1st Earl of Gloucester (c 1090 &ndash October 31, 1147) was an Illegitimate son of King Henry I of England, and one Geoffrey took control of the strongholds of Caen and Argentan without resistance but he now had to defend Robert's possession in England against the anger of the King. Caen (kɑ̃ is a commune in northwestern France. It is the Prefecture of the Calvados department and the capital of the Argentan is a commune, and the capital of two cantons and of an arrondissement of the Orne department in northwestern France In 1139, Robert and Matilda crossed the channel and arrived in England while Geoffrey kept the pressure on Normandy. Stephen was captured in February 1141 at the Battle of Lincoln which prompted the collapse of Normandy. Battle of Lincoln or First Battle of Lincoln occurred on 2 February 1141. Geoffrey was now controlling almost all of Normandy. Previously King Louis VII of France had married Eleanor of Aquitaine becoming Duke of Aquitaine thus adding to his Royal Domain, the lands of Aquitaine in 1137 so he had no interest in the shift in Norman politics since he already ruled vast and powerful territories. For other Eleanors of England see Eleanor of England (disambiguation Eleanor Duchess of Aquitaine (1122&ndash1 April 1204 Finally, while Geoffrey V asserted control of Normandy, Matilda was suffering defeats against Stephen's allies.  At Winchester, Robert of Gloucester was captured while covering Matilda's retreat where she then would exchange Stephen for Robert. Winchester or Winton ( archaic) is a historic city in southern England, with a population of around 40000 within a radius of its centre
In 1142, Geoffrey V was pleaded to cross the channel and assist Matilda but he refused. He became more interested in Normandy. Following the capture of Avranches, Mortain and Cherbourg, Geoffrey V launched a decisive attack on Rouen capturing it in 1144. Avranches is a commune in the Manche department in the Basse-Normandie region in northwestern France. Mortain is a small town and commune in the Manche département, France. Rouen (ʁwɑ̃ in French) is the historical capital city of Normandy, in northwestern France on the River Seine, and currently the capital He then anointed himself as Duke of Normandy and in exchange of the cession of Gisors to Louis VII was formally recognized by the King. Gisors is a commune in the metropolitan area of Paris, France. Geoffrey V, satisfied with his new role in Normandy, made no effort to assist Matilda in England even as she was on the verge of defeat. Helie (Elias), Geoffrey's younger brother, felt that he deserved his fair share and asked for Maine. No sooner had that issue been settled, another Angevin noble rebelled: Gerald Berlay, newly appointed seneschal of Poitou by Louis VII, led a revolt in southern Anjou against Geoffrey V. Giraud II of Montreuil-Berlay (died c 1155 was a twelfth century feudal lord of Montreuil-Bellay, near Saumur in France
Stephen had by no means given up his claims on Normandy, even though Louis VII had clearly recognised Geoffrey Plantagenet as duke. An alliance between the two Kings was possible because of the issue over Gerald Berlay. Louis VII agreed to recognise Henry Plantagenet as the new duke in 1151 in exchange of concessions in Norman Vexin. The Vexin is a former region in France, divided since the 10th century between the Norman Vexin ( Vexin normand) and the French Vexin ( Vexin français The death of Geoffrey, aged only 38, made Henry Plantagenet count of Anjou in 1151. According to the story told by William of Newburgh (in the 1190s) Geoffrey declared that Henry would have to hand down Anjou to one of his young brothers, also called Geoffrey, if he was to win the crown of England. William of Newburgh (1136? &ndash 1198? also known as William Parvus was a 12th century English historian and Augustinian canon from Bridlington, Geoffrey VI ( June 3, 1134, Rouen - July 27, 1158, Nantes) Count of Anjou, of Maine and Nantes To compel Henry to make an oath, Geoffrey V had ordered to be left without a sepulture until Henry swore that he would renounce Anjou if he was to acquire England. A sepulchre, or sepulcher, is a type of Tomb or Burial chamber
In March 1152, Louis VII and Eleanor of Aquitaine divorced under the pretext of consanguinity at the council of Beaugency because the couple was not going on well at all.  Eleanor was left Duchess of Aquitaine but under rule of the King in the terms of the divorce and eight weeks later she married Henry Plantagenet who was no less related to her than was Louis VII. With Henry becoming Duke of Aquitaine and Gascony it was obvious he would never give Anjou up to his brother, since it would mean splitting his land into two parts. A coalition of all of Henry's enemies was set up by Louis VII: King Stephen of England and his son Eustace IV of Boulogne (married to Louis' sister), Henry the Liberal (promised to Eleanor's daughter), Robert of Dreux (Louis VII's brother) and finally Geoffrey who had no hope of acquiring Anjou any more. Henry I of Champagne (died March 17, 1181) known as "the Liberal" was Count of Champagne from 1152 to 1181 Robert I of Dreux, (Robert I Capet nicknamed the Great (c 1123 &ndash October 11, 1188) was the fifth son of Louis VI of France and
In July 1152, Capetian troops attacked Aquitaine while Louis VII himself, along with Eustace IV, Henry of Champagne and Robert of Dreux attacked Normandy. Geoffrey raised a revolt in Anjou while Stephen attacked Angevin loyalists in England. Several Anglo-Norman nobles switched allegiance, feeling the forthcoming disaster. Henry Plantagenet was about to sail for England to pursue his claim when his lands were attacked. He first reached Anjou and compelled Geoffrey to surrender and then took the decision to sail for England in January 1153 in order to meet Stephen. Luckily enough Louis VII fell ill and had to retire from the conflict while Henry Plantagenet's defences held against his enemies. After seven months of both battles and political gambles he failed to get rid of King Stephen. Eustace IV died in dubious circumstances, "struck by the wrath of god", this was the last straw and King Stephen gave up the struggle by ratifying the Treaty of Winchester. The Treaty of Wallingford of 1153, aka Treaty of Winchester or as the Treaty of Westminster, was an agreement that effectively ended The Anarchy He made Henry Plantagenet his heir on condition that the land possessions of his family were guaranteed in England and France, these were the terms Matilda had refused after her victory at Lincoln. Lincoln (ˈlɪŋkən is a Cathedral city and County town of Lincolnshire, England. Henry Plantagenet became Henry II of England in December 1154. Subsequently the question of his oath about Anjou and his brother Geoffrey was raised again. Henry II received a dispensation from Pope Adrian IV under the pretext the oath had been forced upon him, Henry II proposed compensations to Geoffrey at Rouen in 1156, but the latter refused and returned to Anjou to rise once again against Henry II. Pope Adrian IV (or Hadrian IV – c 1100&ndash 1 September, 1159) born Nicholas Breakspear or Breakspeare, was Pope If Geoffrey had a solid moral claim, his position was nonetheless very weak. Louis VII wouldn't interfere since Henry II paid homage to the King of France for Normandy, Anjou and Aquitaine as vassal. Henry II crushed Geoffrey's revolt and he had to be satisfied with an annual pension.
Henry II clearly claimed further lands and worked on the creation of a ring of vassal states, especially around England and Normandy, as buffers. The most obvious ones were Scotland, Wales, Brittany and Flanders, which could be also used as starting points for further expansions.
David of Scotland had taken advantage of The Anarchy to seize Cumberland, Westmorland and Northumberland. David I or Dabíd mac Maíl Choluim ( Modern: Daibhidh I mac Chaluim; b The Anarchy or The Nineteen Year Winter refers to a period of English history during the reign ( 1135 &ndash 1154) of the Norman King Cumberland is one of the 39 Historic counties of England. It formed an administrative county from 1889 to 1974 (excluding Carlisle from 1915 and now forms part of Westmorland (formerly also spelt Westmoreland, an even older spelling is Westmerland) is an area of north-west England and one of the 39 Historic counties Northumberland is a county in the North East of England. The non-metropolitan county of Northumberland borders Cumbria to the west In Wales important leaders like Rhys of Deheubarth and Owain of Gwynedd had emerged. Genealogy and early life Rhys was the second son of Gruffydd ap Rhys, ruler of part of Deheubarth and Gwenllian ferch Gruffydd, daughter of Gruffydd ap Owain Gwynedd (in English " Owen " (c 1100&ndash November 28, 1170) alternatively known by the Patronymic " Owain ap Gruffydd In Brittany, there is no evidence that the Duke of Brittany, namely Eudes, had recognised the Norman overlordship. Eudes viscount of Porhoet (died 1170 was the second husband of Bertha Duchess of Brittany and her consort Two vital frontier castles, Moulins-la-Marche and Bonmoulins, had never been taken back by Geoffrey Plantagenet and were in the hands of Robert of Dreux. Moulins-la-Marche is a village and commune in the Orne département of northwestern France. Count Thierry of Flanders had joined the alliance formed by Louis VII in 1153. Thierry of Alsace (Dietrich (c 1099 &ndash January 17, 1168) in Flanders known as Diederik van den Elzas, was Count of Flanders from 1128 Further south, the Count of Blois acquired Amboise. Amboise is a commune in the Indre-et-Loire department in central France. From Henry II's perspective, there were some issues to solve. 
King Henry II showed being a very audacious and daring king, he was also very active and mobile.  Though he was often more present in France than in England as Ralph of Diss, Dean of St Paul's, ironised on:
|“||There is nothing left to send to bring the king back to England but the Tower of London||”|
Henry II bought Vernon and Neufmarché back in 1154. Vernon is a commune in the department of Eure in the Haute-Normandie region in northern France. From now on this new strategy regulated the Plantagenets-Capetians relationship. Louis VII couldn't deny his own unsuccessful attempt at breaking Henry II down. Because of the Angevin control of England in 1154 it was pointless to object to the superiority of cumulated Angevine forces over the Capetian ones. Yet, Henry II wouldn't stop claiming the land until the Norman Vexin was entirely recovered. Thomas Beckett was sent as embassador to Paris in 1158 for leading negotiations and he displayed all the wealth the Angevins could boast of to the Capetians. St Thomas Becket (c 1118 &ndash December 29, 1170) was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1162 to 1170 Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city Louis VII's daughter, Margaret who was still a baby was promised to Henry the "future young king" (King Henry II's son). Marguerite of France (November 1157 – August/September 1197 was the eldest daughter of Louis VII of France by his second wife Constance of Castile. Henry the Young King ( 28 February 1155 – 11 June 1183) was the second of five sons of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine Although a baby Margaret was old enough to be given a dowry at her wedding. A dowry (also known as trousseau or tocher) is the money goods or estate that a woman brings to her soon to be husband in marriage This dowry happened to be the Norman Vexin. Henry II was given back the castles of Moulins-la-Marche and Bonmoulins. Theobald the Good handled Amboise back to him. Theobald V of Blois (died 20 January 1191) also known as Theobald the Good (French Thibaut le Bon) was Count of Blois from 1151
Although Thierry of Alsace had taken part in the assaults against Henry II along with Louis VII the wool trade between England and Flanders favoured a cordial relationship between the two men up to the point that the Count appointed Henry II guardian of his lands so that he undertake on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem without concerns. In 1159, William of Blois died without an inheritance, he was Stephen's last son, leaving the titles of Count of Boulogne and Count of Mortain vacant. The county of Boulogne (Dutch Bonen) was a historical region in the Low Countries. The County of Mortain was a medieval county in France centered on the town of Mortain. Henry II absorbed the County of Mortain but wanted to grant Boulogne to Thierry's son, Matthew, who married Marie of Boulogne. The title of Count of Boulogne was accompanied with important manors in London and Colchester. The county of Boulogne (Dutch Bonen) was a historical region in the Low Countries. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Colchester ( /ˈkəʊltʃɛstə/ is a town and the largest settlement within the borough of Colchester, in Essex, England.
England received much of its wool from Flanders via the port of Boulogne. An alliance with these two counties was then logically sealed by this wedding and the concessions of manors. Henry II had to get Marie out of her convent first, which had been a common practice in England since the Normans. In 1163, the few official remaining documents showed Henry II and Thierry renewed the treaty signed by William the Conqueror. Flanders would provide Henry II with knights in exchange of an annual tribute in money.
In Brittany, the duke Conan III declared his son Hoël a bastard and disinherited him. Conan III of Cornwall (born c 1093-1096 died 1148 ( Breton Konan III a Vreizh and Konan Kerne) was Duke of Brittany, from 1112 to his death Hoèl of Cornwall (died 1156 was Count of Nantes, from 1148 to his death It was his sister Bertha who became Duchess of Brittany making her husband of the time, Eudes, nominally Duke. Eudes viscount of Porhoet (died 1170 was the second husband of Bertha Duchess of Brittany and her consort Hoël was co-ruler with his brother in law then, and had to be satisfied as Count of Nantes. Bertha was the widow of Alan de Bretagne with whom she already had a son, Conan. Alan of Penthièvre (bc1100 &ndash September 15, 1146, ( Breton Alan Penteur) also know as Alan the Black, was a Breton noble Conan IV of Penthièvre (1138 &ndash February 20 1171) ( Breton: Konan V Penteur and Konan Breizh) called "the Young" was Duke Conan who had become Earl of Richmond in 1148 was Henry II's perfect candidate to become the new Duke of Brittany as any Duke with possessions of importance in England could be easier to control. The title of Earl of Richmond was created many times in the Peerage of England.
In 1156, the Duchy of Brittany was hit by civil unrest which led to Conan IV's accession while in Nantes the population called for Henry II's help against Hoël. Nantes (Naoned Gallo: Naunnt) is a city in western France, located on the Loire River, from the Atlantic coast Geoffrey (Henry II's brother again) was made new Count of Nantes by Henry II, but he did not hold the position for long, as he died in 1158 at only 24 years of age. In 1158, Conan IV briefly ruled as Count of Nantes however, Henry II took the title that same year by mustering an army in Avranches to threaten Conan. Conan IV of Penthièvre (1138 &ndash February 20 1171) ( Breton: Konan V Penteur and Konan Breizh) called "the Young" was Duke Avranches is a commune in the Manche department in the Basse-Normandie region in northwestern France. In 1160 Henry II married his cousin Margaret of Scotland to Conan in an arranged wedding. Margaret of Scotland may refer to Arguably one Queen Regnant of Scotland Margaret Maid of Norway (1283–1290 Norwegian–Scottish princess He then appointed the archbishop of Dol. Dol-de-Bretagne (Dol Gallo: Dóu) is a commune in the Ille-et-Vilaine department in Bretagne in northwestern Without a tradition of a strong rule in Brittany, discontent amog nobles grew. This led to a revolt that Henry II answered in 1166. He betrothed his own 7 year-old son -Geoffrey- to Conan's daughter and later forced Conan to abdicate for his future son in law, making of Henry II the ruler of Brittany yet not the Duke. Geoffrey II Duke of Brittany and Earl of Richmond ( 23 September 1158 – 19 August 1186) was Duke of Brittany between 1181 and 1186 Breton nobles strongly opposed that and more attacks on Brittany followed first in 1167 then in 1168 and finally in 1173. The Bretons are a distinct Ethnic group located in the region of Brittany in France. Each of these invasions were followed by confiscations and Henry II installed his men in the place, William Fitzhamo and Rolland of Dinan. Although it was not formally part of the Plantagenet fiefdom Brittany was under firm control.
Henry II met Malcolm IV in 1157 about Cumberland, Westmorland and Northumberland previously seized by his grandfather, David I of Scotland. William I ( Mediaeval Gaelic: Uilliam mac Eanric; Modern Gaelic Uilleam mac Eanraig) known as the Lion or Garbh, "the Rough" Malcolm IV ( Mediaeval Gaelic: Máel Coluim mac Eanric; Modern Gaelic Maol Chaluim mac Eanraig) nicknamed Virgo, "the Maiden" ( Cumberland is one of the 39 Historic counties of England. It formed an administrative county from 1889 to 1974 (excluding Carlisle from 1915 and now forms part of Westmorland (formerly also spelt Westmoreland, an even older spelling is Westmerland) is an area of north-west England and one of the 39 Historic counties Northumberland is a county in the North East of England. The non-metropolitan county of Northumberland borders Cumbria to the west David I or Dabíd mac Maíl Choluim ( Modern: Daibhidh I mac Chaluim; b In 1149, before Henry II became powerful, he made an oath to David that the lands north of Newcastle should belong to the King of Scotland forever. Newcastle upon Tyne ( (often shortened to Newcastle) is a city and Metropolitan borough of Tyne and Wear, England The monarch of Scotland was the Head of state of the Kingdom of Scotland. Malcolm reminded him of this oath but Henry II did not comply. There is no evidence that Henry II got a dispensation from the pope this time, as William of Newburgh put it. History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and
|“||. . . prudently considering it was the king of England who had the better of the argument by reason of his much greater power.||”|
William the Lion, the next King of Scotland, was unhappy with Henry II since he was given Northumberland by David I in 1152 and therefore lost it to Henry II when Malcolm IV handed it back in 1157. William I ( Mediaeval Gaelic: Uilliam mac Eanric; Modern Gaelic Uilleam mac Eanraig) known as the Lion or Garbh, "the Rough"
As a part of the coalition set by Louis VII, William the Lion first invaded Northumberland in 1173 and then again in 1174, as a result he was captured near Alnwick and had to sign the tough Treaty of Falaise. Alnwick ( IPA /ˈænɪk/ is a small Market town in north Northumberland, England. The Treaty of Falaise was an agreement made in December 1174 by the captive William I, King of Scots, and the English King Henry II Garrisons were to be set in the castles of Edinburgh, Roxburgh, Jedburgh and Berwick. Edinburgh ( ˈɛdɪnb(ərə Dùn Èideann) is the Capital of Scotland and is its second largest city after Glasgow. The destroyed Royal burgh of Roxburgh (or Rosbroch) was an important trading Burgh in High Medieval to early modern Scotland Jedburgh (Referred to locally Jeddart or Jethart is a town and former Royal burgh in the Scottish Borders and historically in Roxburghshire. Berwick-upon-Tweed ( ˈbɛrɪk- ( Scots: Berwick or historically South Berwick) situated in the county of Northumberland, is the northernmost  Southern Scotland was from then under firm control just as Brittany was. Richard I of England would end the Treaty of Falaise in exchange for money to fund his crusade, setting a context for cordial relationships between the two lion kings. The Third Crusade (1189&ndash1192 also known as the Kings' Crusade, was an attempt by European leaders to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin
Rhys of Deheubarth, also called Lord Rhys, and Owain of Gwynedd were closed to negotiations. See also Kingdom of Gwynedd Gwynedd in the High Middle Ages is a period in the History of Wales spanning the 11th The Principality of Wales (Tywysogaeth Cymru covered the lands ruled by the Prince of Wales directly and was formally founded in 1216 at the Council of Aberdyfi, Genealogy and early life Rhys was the second son of Gruffydd ap Rhys, ruler of part of Deheubarth and Gwenllian ferch Gruffydd, daughter of Gruffydd ap Owain Gwynedd (in English " Owen " (c 1100&ndash November 28, 1170) alternatively known by the Patronymic " Owain ap Gruffydd Henry II had to attack Wales three times, in 1157, 1158 and 1163 to have them answering his summons to the court. But the terms were too harsh and the Welsh largely revolted against him, he then undertook a fourth invasion in 1164 but this time with a massive army, the Chronicle of the Prince described it that way:
|“||". Brut y Tywysogion ( English: Chronicle of the Princes) is one of the most important Primary sources for Welsh history. . . a mighty host of the picked warriors of England and Normandy and Flanders and Anjou and Gascony and Scotland. . . " and his purpose was ". . . to carry into bondage and to destroy all the Britons. "||”|
Bad weather, rains and floods slowed the Angevin army and prevented the capture of Wales; furious Henry II had Welsh hostages mutilated. Wales would remain safe for a while, but the invasion of Ireland in 1171 pressured Henry II to end the issue through negotiations with Lord Rhys. 
Further plans of expansion were considered as Henry II's last brother didn't have a fiefdom. The Holy See was most likely to support a campaign in Ireland which would bring its church into the Christian Latin world of Rome. The Holy See is the episcopal jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome, commonly known as the Pope, and is the preeminent Episcopal see of the Roman Catholic Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 Henry II was given Rome's blessing in 1155 under the form of a Papal bull but had to postpone the invasion of Ireland because of all the issues in his domains and around them. A Papal bull is a particular type of Letters patent or charter issued by a Pope. Here are the terms of the Bull Laudabiliter:
|“||Laudably and profitably does your magnificence contemplate extending your glorious name on earth.||”|
William of Poitou died in 1164 without being installed in Ireland, but Henry II didn't gave up on the conquest of Ireland. William ( 22 July 1136 at Argentan Normandy - 30 July 1164 at Rouen Normandy was the youngest of the three sons of Geoffrey V Count In 1167 -Dermot of Leinster- an Irish King, was recognised as "prince of Leinster" by Henry II and was allowed to recruit soldiers in England and Wales to use in Ireland against the other Kings. Early Life and Family Mac Murchadha was born in 1110 a son of Donnchadh, King of Leinster and Dublin he was a descendant of Brian Boru. Leinster (ˈlɛnstər Irish: Laighin, lainʲ one of the Provinces of Ireland, lies in the east of Ireland and comprises the counties of The knights first met great success in carving themselves lands in Ireland, so much it worried Henry II enough to land himself in Ireland in October 1171 near Waterford and confronted to such demonstration of power most native kings of Ireland recognised him as their lord. Waterford ( or Windy fjord;) is a city in Ireland. It is the primary city of the South East region and the fifth largest in the country Even Rory O' Connor, the king of Connacht who claimed to be High King of Ireland paid homage to Henry II. Ruaidrí mac Tairrdelbach Ua Conchobair (often Anglicised Rory O'Connor) (died 1198 was a 12th century King of Connacht and the last High King of Ireland Medieval Irish historical tradition held that Ireland had been ruled by an Ard Rí or High King since ancient times and compilations like the Lebor Gabála Érenn Henry II installed some of his men in strongholds like Dublin and Leinster (as Dermot was dead). Dublin (ˈdʌblɨn/ /ˈdʊblɨn or /ˈdʊbəlɪn/, bˠalʲə aːha klʲiəh or cliə(ɸ is both the largest city and capital of Ireland. Leinster (ˈlɛnstər Irish: Laighin, lainʲ one of the Provinces of Ireland, lies in the east of Ireland and comprises the counties of He also gave unconquered kingdoms such as Cork, Limerick and Ulster to his men and left the Normans carving their lands in Ireland. County Cork (Contae Chorcaí is the most southerly and the largest of the modern counties of Ireland. Limerick (pronounced /ˈlɪmrɪk/ Luimneach in Irish) is a city and the county seat of County Limerick in the Province of Munster Ulster ( Ulaidh ˈkwɪɟɪ ˈʌlˠu / ˈʌlˠi is one of the four provinces of Ireland, in addition to Connacht, Munster and Leinster In 1177 he made John, his son, the first Lord of Ireland, though John was too young and landed in Ireland only in 1185. John (24 December 1167 &ndash 19 October 1216 reigned as a King of England from 6 April 1199 until his death The Lordship of Ireland ( 1171 - 1541) was the nominally all-island Irish state created in the wake of the Norman invasion of Ireland in 1169-71 The 1185 expedition of the future King John of England to Ireland has attracted much historical debate due to the lack of government records available and the subsequent He failed to install his authority on the land and had to return to Henry II. Only 25 years later John would return to Ireland while others built castles and installed their interests.
Much less tenable was the claim over Toulouse. Carcassonne (Carcassona is a fortified French town in the Aude département, of which it is the Prefecture, Toulouse ( pronounced in standard French, and in the local accent ( Occitan: Tolosa, pronounced) is a city in southwest Eleanor's ancestors claimed the huge County of Toulouse as it used to be the central power of the ancient Duchy of Aquitaine back in the times of Eudes the Great. The first comites ( counts) of Toulouse were the administrators of the city and its environs under the Merovingians No succession of such royal For the later duke of Aquitaine and also Gascony with the same name see Odo of Gascony.  Henry II and maybe even Eleanor were probably totally unrelated to this ancient line of dukes (Eleanor was a Ramnulfid while Henry II was an Angevin). The Ramnulfids, or the House of Poitiers, were a French dynasty ruling the County of Poitou and Duchy of Aquitaine in the ninth through twelfth centuries Toulouse was a very large city, heavily fortified and much richer than many cities of the time. It was of strategical importance as it is between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. The County of Toulouse was the largest state of the Kingdom of France with its large access to the Mediterranean Sea itself, and included significant cities like Narbonne, Cahors, Albi, Nimes and Carcassonne. Narbonne ( Narbona in Catalan and in Occitan, the Roman Narbo) is a commune in southwestern France in the Cahors (kaɔʁ Occitan: Caors pronounced kaˈurs ˈkɔws ˈkɔw is the principal town and commune in south west France capital of the For the city in Calabria Italy see Albi Italy. Albi is a commune in southern France. Nîmes ( Provençal Occitan: Nimes in both classical and Mistralian norms is a city in southern France. Carcassonne (Carcassona is a fortified French town in the Aude département, of which it is the Prefecture,
Toulouse wasn't easy prey though. The city was incredibly large and fortified for a medieval city.  Not to mention the least, Raymond V was married to Louis VII's sister therefore attacking Toulouse would have endangered the policy of peace with the King of France. Raymond V (1134&ndash1194 was count of Toulouse from 1148 until his death in 1194 The County of Toulouse had also many heavily fortified areas like Carcassonne and its five sons: Queribus, Aguila, Termes, Peyrepertuse and Puylaurens and many more castles and fortified cities. Languedoc ( in French Lengadòc in Occitan) is a former Province of France, now continued in the modern-day ''régions'' of Languedoc-Roussillon The Château de Quéribus (in Occitan Castèl de Queribús) is a ruined Castle in the commune of Cucugnan in the Aude Termes is a commune in the Aude département in southwestern France. Peyrepertuse is a ruined fortress and one of the so-called Cathar Castles located high in the French Pyrénées in the commune of Duilhac-sous-Peyrepertuse Puylaurens is a town and commune located in the Tarn département in southwestern France. 
In June 1159 Henry II gathered in Poitiers what probably was the biggest army he had ever sent, formed by troops from all of his fiefdom (from Gascony to England), that army also included reinforcements sent by Thierry and Malcolm IV. Poitiers is a town on the Clain River in west central France. Henry II attacked from the north while other of his allies, namely the Trencavels and Ramon Berenguer opened a different front. The Trencavel were an important noble family in Languedoc during the 10th through 13th centuries Ramon Berenguer IV Count of Barcelona also called Ramon the Holy (c Henry II couldn't capture Toulouse proper and the recurrent conflicts with Toulouse would be called the Forty Years War with Toulouse by William of Newburgh. William of Newburgh (1136? &ndash 1198? also known as William Parvus was a 12th century English historian and Augustinian canon from Bridlington, Henry II captured Cahors though as well as various castles in the Garonne valley (in the Quercy region), he came back in 1161 and then too busy with conflicts elsewhere in his fiefdom he left his allies fighting against Toulouse. Cahors (kaɔʁ Occitan: Caors pronounced kaˈurs ˈkɔws ˈkɔw is the principal town and commune in south west France capital of the The Garonne (Garonne in Occitan, Catalan and Spanish: Garona; Garumna is a River in southwest France and northern Quercy (pronounced /kɛʀsi/ in French;) ( Occitan: Carcin, pronounced, locally) is a former Province of France located in the southwest Alfonso II the King of Aragon himself having interests there joined the war. Alfonso II (Aragon or Alfons I (Provence and Barcelona ( Huesca, 1157 &ndash Perpignan, 1196 called the Chaste or the Troubadour This is a list of the rulers of Aragon, now a region of north-eastern Spain. In 1171 Henry II set an alliance with Humbert of Maurienne adding one more enemy of Raymond V to his alliance. Humbert III (1135–1189 surnamed the Blessed, was Count of Savoy from 1148 to 1189 In 1173, in Limoges, Raymond finally gave up after over a decade of constant fights. Limoges ( Lemòtges / Limòtges in the Limousin dialect of Occitan language) is a city and commune in France, the préfecture Raymond V (1134&ndash1194 was count of Toulouse from 1148 until his death in 1194 He paid homage to Henry II, to his son also called Henry and to his other son Richard the Lionheart newly appointed new Duke of Aquitaine. Henry the Young King ( 28 February 1155 – 11 June 1183) was the second of five sons of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine 
Louis VII was known by his contemporaries for his piety and love of peace. This is what Stephen of Paris wrote about King Louis VII:
|“||He was so pious, so just, so catholic and benign, that if you were to see his simplicity of behaviour and dress, you would think, unless you already knew him, that he was not a king but a man of religion. He was a lover of justice, a defender of the weak.||”|
Even Walter Map, a contemporary English satirical chronicler, had been kind toward Louis VII and praised him marking a contrast with the harsh critiques he did toward other kings. Walter Map (born 1140 died c 1208&ndash1210 was a medieval writer using Latin .
King Louis VII was a man of peace who hated violence and war but the attacks on Toulouse made clear that peace with Henry II wasn't peace at all but just the opportunity to make war elsewhere. Louis VII himself was in an awkward position, his subject was more powerful than he was and not just a little and worst of all he had no male heir. Constance, his second wife, died in childbirth in 1160 and Louis VII announced he would remarry at once, in the urgent need of a male heir, with Adèle of Champagne. Adèle of Champagne (c 1140 &ndash June 4, 1206) also known as Adelaide and Alix, was the third wife of Louis VII of France The young Henry was finally married to Margaret aged only 2, under the pressure of Henry II, and as declared in 1158 the Norman Vexin went to him as the dowry. Had Louis VII died without male heir, Henry the Young would have been in a comfortable position to become the next King of France himself (of course, they would have had to ignore the Salic Law). Salic law ( Lat Lex Salica) was an important body of traditional Law codified for governing the Salian Franks in the Early Middle Ages
In 1164 King Louis found a rather turbulent ally in Archbishop Thomas Beckett.  King Louis and Thomas Beckett had met previously in 1158, but now the circumstances were very different. Louis had got already a few clerical refugees in his land, and was then called Rex Christianisimus (most Christian king) by John of Salisbury. John of Salisbury (c 1120 &ndash 1180 English author diplomat and Bishop of Chartres, was born at Salisbury. 
Indeed there were growing conflicts between the king of England and the archbishop and Henry II provoqued Thomas Beckett's murder by pronouncing words comparable to these:
|“||What miserable traitors have I nourished in my household who led their lord be treated with such shameful contempt by a low-born clerck!||”|
Thomas Beckett was murdered in 1170, and the Christian world blamed Henry for this. Louis, who had protected Thomas Beckett, gained general approval against Henry. Although his secular power was still much weaker than Henry's, Louis now had the moral advantage.
In 1165, the idea of a possible succession of Henry the Young to the throne of France was all gone away as Philip was given birth by Adèle. Philip II Augustus (Philippe Auguste ( 21 August[[ 165]] &ndash 14 July 1223) was the King of France from 1180 until his death With the birth of the next King of France it was clear peace was over, Henry II claimed Auvergne in and marched on it in 1167 while he also claimed Bourges and attacked it in 1170. Auvergne ( Occitan: Auvèrnhe/Auvèrnha) was the name of an historically independent county in the center of France, as well as later a Province of Bourges is a commune in central France on the Yèvre river It is the capital of the department of Cher and also was the capital Louis VII answered by raiding the Norman Vexin forcing Henry II to relocate his troops to the north and Louis VII then marched south and freed Bourges. At that point, not just Louis VII was wondering if Henry II's expansionism would ever end.
Henry II never treated his land as a coherent sovereign but much more as private possessions he planned to distribute his children. Henry the young was crowned King of England in 1170 but never actually ruled, in 1172 Richard the Lionheart became Duke of Aquitaine, in 1181 Geoffrey became Duke of Brittany, John became Lord of Ireland in 1185 while Leonora (born in 1161) was promised to Alfonso VII with Gascony as dowry during the campaign against Toulouse in 1170. For other Eleanors of England see Eleanor of England (disambiguation Princess Eleanor of England and Aquitaine (later Leonora This partition of the lands between his children made it much harder for him to control them, as several of them would then turn against him.
Following his coronation Henry the Young King asked part of his inheritance, at least England or Normandy or Anjou and Henry II the Old King refused to hand down anything. Henry the Young King ( 28 February 1155 – 11 June 1183) was the second of five sons of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine Henry the Young then joined Louis VII at his court, Eleanor of Aquitaine herself joined the conflict and both Richard the Lionheart and Geoffrey of Brittany joined their brother at the court of the King. From then, states that Henry II had pressured joined the conflict against him. Another King to join Louis VII was William the Lion, King of Scotland. Philip, the Count of Flanders also joined the conflict, as well as the Count of Boulogne and Theobald the Count of Blois. Philip of Alsace (1143 – August 1, 1191) was Count of Flanders from 1168 to 1191 counts of Flanders were the Rulers over the county of Flanders from the 9th century until the abolition of the Countship by the French revolutionaries The county of Boulogne (Dutch Bonen) was a historical region in the Low Countries. Theobald V of Blois (died 20 January 1191) also known as Theobald the Good (French Thibaut le Bon) was Count of Blois from 1151 The County of Blois was originally centred on Blois, south of Paris, France. Henry II emerged victorious of that conflict, because of his wealth he could recruit very large amount of mercenaries, he had captured and imprisoned Eleanor early on as well as captured William the Lion and forced him into the Treaty of Falaise. The Treaty of Falaise was an agreement made in December 1174 by the captive William I, King of Scots, and the English King Henry II Henry II bought the County of Marche, then he asserted the French Vexin and Bourges should be given at once, but this time there was no invasion to back the claim. The County of Marche (la Marcha was a Medieval French County, approximately corresponding to the modern département of Creuse
Louis VII died and was buried in the Saint Denis Basilica in 1180. The Basilica of Saint Denis ( French: Basilique de Saint-Denis, or simply Basilique Saint-Denis) is the burial site of almost all the French His son, aged only 15, ascended of France and in 1183. Philip II of France's policy was to use Henry II's sons against him. Philip II Augustus (Philippe Auguste ( 21 August[[ 165]] &ndash 14 July 1223) was the King of France from 1180 until his death Richard the Lionheart was administrating Aquitaine since 1175 but his policy of centralisation of the Aquitanian government had grown unpopular in the eastern part of the Duchy, notably Perigord and Limousin. The Périgord ( ( Occitan: Peiregòrd / Perigòrd) is a former province of France, which corresponds roughly to the current Dordogne Limousin ( Occitan: Lemosin) is a former Province of France around the city of Limoges in central France. Richard the Lionheart was accused of many crimes there, among which murders and rapes.  If Richard was not so popular in Aquitaine Philip II was not really liked either by contemporaries with comments describing him as: astute, manipulative, calculating, penurious and ungallant ruler.
In 1183, Henry the Young joined a revolt led by Limoges and Geoffrey of Lusignan against Richard in order to take Richard's place. Limoges ( Lemòtges / Limòtges in the Limousin dialect of Occitan language) is a city and commune in France, the préfecture They were joined by Philip II, Raymond V and by Duke Hugh III of Burgundy. Hugh III of Burgundy (1142 &ndash August 25 1192, in Acre) was Duke of Burgundy between 1162 and 1192 Henry the Young died suddenly of a fatal illness in 1183, saving Richard's position. Henry the Young King was buried in Notre Dame de Rouen. Rouen Cathedral (Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Rouen is a Gothic Cathedral in Rouen, in northwestern France.
Richard was then Henry II's oldest son and inherited of Henry the Young's status. Henry II ordered him to hand down Aquitaine to John Lackland but Richard refused to comply. Henry II had too much to cope with at the time to take care of this, Welsh princes were now contesting his authority, William the Lion was asking for his castles to be given back and as Henry the Young was dead Philip II asked for the Norman Vexin to be given back. Henry II finally asked Richard I to surrender Aquitaine to Eleanor while Richard retained the control. Still in 1183, Raymond V had taken Cahors back and Henry II asked Richard to mount an expedition against Toulouse. Geoffrey of Brittany was quarrelling violently with his brother Richard and it was obvious Geoffrey could be used by the Capetians but his sudden death in 1186 in a tournament killed the plot. In 1187, Philip II and Richard were more that strong allies as Roger of Hodeven reported:
|“||The King of England was struck with great astonishment, and wondered what [this alliance] could mean, and, taking precautions for the future, frequently sent messengers into France for the purpose of recalling his son Richard; who, pretending that he was peaceably inclined and ready to come to his father, made his way to Chinon, and, in spite of the person who had the custody thereof, carried off the greater part of his father's treasures, and fortified his castles in Poitou with the same, refusing to go to his father.||”|
In 1188 Raymond V attacked again joined by the Lusignans, it was rumoured that Henry II himself financed the revolts. By this time Philip II attacked Henry II in Normandy and captured strongholds in Berry. Berry is a region located in the center of France It was a province of France until the provinces were replaced by départements ' on March 4, In 1188, Philip II and Henry II met to discuss peace again, Henry II refused to make Richard his heir, the story affirms Richard said "Now at last, I must believe what I had always thought impossible. "
This was the final collapse of all Henry's strategy, first Richard paid homage to the King of France for all the lands his father held. As Richard and Philip II attacked Henry II no one in Aquitaine stood for him and the Bretons seized the opportunity to attack him too. Even Henry's birthplace, Le Mans, was captured and Tours also soon fell. He was simply encircled in his castle of Chinon. Henry was finally compelled to surrender, he handed down a large tribute in money to Philip II and swore all his subjects in France and England would recognise Richard as their lord. Henry II died two days later, learning John had joined Richard and Philip, and the old king was buried in Fontevraud Abbey. Fontevraud Abbey (or Fontevrault Abbey) is located in the village of Fontevraud-l'Abbaye, near Chinon, in Anjou, France.
Eleanor, who was Henry's hostage, was then freed while Lord Rhys raised and began to reconquer the southern parts of Wales that Henry had annexed. Richard I was crowned King in Westminster Abbey in November 1189, while he was already installed Duke of Normandy, Count of Anjou and Duke of Aquitaine. The Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a large mainly Gothic church Philip II asked for the Norman Vexin to be given back but the issue was settled when Richard I announced he would marry Alys, Philip II's sister. Alys Countess of the Vexin ( 4 October 1160 &ndash c 1220 was the daughter of King Louis VII of France and his second wife Constance of Castile Richard I also recognised Auvergne was meant to belong to the crown of France and not to the Duke of Aquitaine ending Henry's claim on the place. In Britain King William of Scotland opened negotiations with King Richard of England (the two lion kings) to revocate the Treaty of Falaise and an agreement was reached. 
The next priority was the crusade, it had been delayed way enough and Richard I considered it was time to do his religious duty. The Third Crusade (1189&ndash1192 also known as the Kings' Crusade, was an attempt by European leaders to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin The Crusades were a series of military campaigns of a religious character waged by much of Christian Europe against external and internal opponents Beyond purely religious matter, his ancestor Fulk V had been King of Jerusalem and Guy de Lusignan was a Poitevin noble while his wife -Sybilla- was no less than Richard's cousin. Guy of Lusignan, Guy of Jerusalem or Guy of Cyprus (c 1150 or 1159/1160 &ndash Nicosia, July 18, 1194) was a French Sibylla of Jerusalem (c 1160 &ndash 1190 was the Countess of Jaffa and Ascalon from 1176 and Queen of Jerusalem from 1186 to 1190 The crusade as well as French issues would be the reason of Richard's absence in England, the Lion Heart would spend less than six months of his reign in England. 
Before leaving, Richard I had to make sure nothing went wrong while he was in the Holy Land. Philip II Augustus (Philippe Auguste ( 21 August[[ 165]] &ndash 14 July 1223) was the King of France from 1180 until his death Richard I (8 September 1157 &ndash 6 April 1199 was King of England from 6 July 1189 until his death The Holy Land ( Arabic: الأرض المقدسة al-Arḍ ul-Muqaddasah;Ancient Aramaic: ארעא קדישא Ar'a Qaddisha; Hebrew: ארץ_הקודש There was little doubt Raymond V would catch the opportunity to expand his lands in Aquitaine, to counter that threat he built an alliance with Sancho VI the Wise the King of Navarre. Sancho VI Garcés (c 1133 &ndash June 27, 1194) called the Wise ( el Sabio) was the King of Navarre from 1150 until his death in This is a list of the kings of Pamplona ( Iruña in Basque), later Navarre. On the way to the Holy Land, Richard I married Berengaria the princess of Navarre therefore repudiating Alys in 1191. Berengaria (Berenguela Bérengère c 1165-1170 – 23 December 1230 was the eldest daughter of Sancho VI of Navarre and Sancha of Castile The Kingdom of Navarre (Reino de Navarra Nafarroako Erresuma Royaume de Navarre originally the Kingdom of Pamplona, was a European kingdom which occupied lands on either To calm down Philip II he accepted that if he had two sons the youngest should take Normandy or Aquitaine or Anjou and rule it for the King of France. 
The administration left behind worked rather well as an attack from the Count of Toulouse was repelled with the help of Sancho VI. The Siege of Acre was merely over that struck by dysentery Philip II of France had to take the way back to his Kingdom, still upset at the way his sister Alys had been treated. Richard I had also upset Leopold V the Virtuous by removing his banner from Acre. Leopold V (1157 &ndash December 31, 1194) the Virtuous, was a Babenberg Duke of Austria from 1177 to 1194 and Styria Much has been said about the reasons Philip II went back to France, it is often considered his dysentery was the principal reason. Other causes could have been the way his sister had been treated by Richard I or that he couldn't stand his subject showed more power and wealth than him or even that following the Count of Flanders's death - Philip- he came back to ask for his share of the land of Artois. Artois (Artesië (adjective Artesian) is a former province of northern France.
Richard I left Palestine in October 1192 and would have retrieved his lands intact had he reached home in time. Palestine is a name which has been widely used since Roman times to refer to the region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River. But Leopold V arrested him near Vienna, accusing him of the murder of his cousin Conrad, and then handed him down to Emperor Henry VI. Leopold V (1157 &ndash December 31, 1194) the Virtuous, was a Babenberg Duke of Austria from 1177 to 1194 and Styria Vienna ( in Wien; see also other names) is the Capital of Austria, and is also one of the nine States of Austria. Henry VI (November 1165 – 28 September 1197) was King of Germany from 1190 to 1197 Holy Roman Emperor from 1191 to 1197 and King John Lackland was summoned to Philip II's court and accepted to marry Alys with no less than Artois has a dowry in return of what the entire Norman Vexin would be given to the King of France. After all, no one was sure if Richard I would be ever released. Yet, all of the forces John could gather were a bunch of mercenaries as even William the Lion didn't join his revolt and worse, sent money for Richard's ransom. Another revolt in Aquitaine was suppressed by Elias de la Celle, but in Normandy Philip II himself was leading the operations. By April 1193 he had reached Rouen and although the Ducal Capital couldn't be taken, he and his allies were then controlling all the ports from the Rhine to Dieppe. Rouen (ʁwɑ̃ in French) is the historical capital city of Normandy, in northwestern France on the River Seine, and currently the capital The Rhine (Rhein Rijn Rhin Reno Rain Rhenus is one of the longest and most important Rivers in Europe at 1320 kilometres (820 mi with an average discharge Dieppe is a town and commune in the Seine-Maritime department and Haute-Normandie region of France. Confronted to the situation Richard's regents conceded the Treaty of Mantes in July 1193, confirming Philip II's control on all the land he had taken including the entire Norman Vexin, the castles of Drincourt and Arques in Normandy and the castles of Loches and Châtillon in Tourraine as well as adding a substantial payment once Richard is back. The Treaty of Mantes was affirmed between Charles II of Navarre and John II of France on 22 February 1354. Arques is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in northern France. Loches is a town and commune in France, capital of an arrondissement in the département of Indre-et-Loire, 29 miles southeast Châtillon Vienne is a Village and commune in the Vienne département of western France.
In a new treaty in 1194, concessions to the King of France went much further when Tours with all the castles of Tourraine and all of Eastern Normandy except for Rouen were surrendered. The County of Angoulême was declared independent of Aquitaine, Vendôme was given to Louis of Blois and Rotrou III of Perche acquired Moulins and Bonmoulins. Angoulême is a commune in western France, capital of the Charente department. Vendôme is a commune of north-central France. Administration Vendôme is the capital of the Arrondissement of Vendôme in the Louis I of Blois (1172 &ndash April 14, 1205) was Count of Blois from 1191 to 1205 county of Perche was a medieval county lying between Normandy and Maine. Emperor Henry VI finally released Richard I in 1194 in exchange of the ransom.
Richard I was in a difficult position, Philip II had taken over large parts of his lands and had inherited of Amiens and Artois. Amiens (amjɛ̃ is a city and commune in northern France, 120 km north of Paris. England was Richard's most secured possessions, Hubert Walter who had been to the crusade with the King of England was appointed his justiciar. Hubert Walter ( c 1160&ndash13 July 1205 was an influential royal adviser in the late twelfth and early thirteenth centuries in the positions of King Richard took over John's lordship over Ireland and rejected William the Lion's claim over the northern territories.
Richard I had merely crossed the English Channel to claim back his territories that John Lackland betrayed Philip II by murdering the garrison of Evreux and handing the town down to Richard I. Évreux is a commune in Haute-Normandie in northern France in the Eure department, of which it is the capital "He had first betrayed his father, then his brother and now our King" said William the Breton. Richard I (8 September 1157 &ndash 6 April 1199 was King of England from 6 July 1189 until his death Philip II Augustus (Philippe Auguste ( 21 August[[ 165]] &ndash 14 July 1223) was the King of France from 1180 until his death William the Breton (c 1180 &ndash c 1225 French chronicler and poet was as his name indicates born in Brittany. Sancho the Strong, the future King of Navarre, joined the conflict and attacked Aquitaine, capturing Angoulème and Tours. Sancho VII Sanches (or Sánchez, 1157 &ndash 7 April 1234) called the Strong ( el Fuerte in Spanish, Santxo Richard himself was known to be a great military commander.  The first part of this war was difficult for Richard who suffered several setbacks, indeed Philip II was also a great commander and politician. But by October the new Count of Toulouse, Raymond VI, left the Capetian side and joined Richard's. Raymond VI of Toulouse ( October 27, 1156 &ndash August 2, 1222) was count of Toulouse and marquis of Provence from 1194 He was followed by Balwin IV of Flanders, the future Latin Emperor, as this one was contesting Artois to Philip II. Baldwin I (July 1172 &ndash 1205 Bulgaria) the first emperor of the Latin Empire of Constantinople, as Baldwin IX Count of Flanders The Latin Empire or Latin Empire of Constantinople (original Latin name Imperium Romaniae, " Empire of Romania " is the In 1197, Henry VI died and was replaced by Otton IV, Richard I's own nephew. Otto IV of Brunswick (1175 or 1176 – May 19, 1218) was one of two rival kings of the Holy Roman Empire from 1198 on sole king from 1208 on and emperor Renaud de Dammartin, the Count of Boulogne and a skilled commander, also deserted Philip II. Balwin IV was invading Artois and captured Saint Omer while Richard I was campaigning in Berry and inflicted a severe defeat to Philip II at Gisors, close to Paris. Gisors is a commune in the metropolitan area of Paris, France. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city A truce was accepted and Richard I had almost recovered all Normandy and now held more territories in Aquitaine than he had before. Richard I had to deal with a revolt once again, but this time from Limousin. Limousin ( Occitan: Lemosin) is a former Province of France around the city of Limoges in central France. He was struck by a bolt in April 1199 at Châlus-Chabrol and died of a subsequent infection. Châlus (Chasluç is a small town and commune in the Haute-Vienne département of France, in the Limousin He body was buried at Fontevraud like his father. Fontevraud Abbey (or Fontevrault Abbey) is located in the village of Fontevraud-l'Abbaye, near Chinon, in Anjou, France.
John wasn't king yet that he had to fight to keep his lands. Following the news of Richard's death, Philip II captured Evreux in a rush. Évreux is a commune in Haute-Normandie in northern France in the Eure department, of which it is the capital John tried to take the Angevin treasure and the castle of Chinon to install his power. But in the local custom the son of an older brother was preferred to a claimant. Henceforth they recognised Arthur as their ruler, son of Geoffrey of Brittany, depriving John of the Angevins' ancestral land. Arthur I (29 March 1187 &ndash 1203 was Duke of Brittany between 1194 and 1203 Geoffrey II Duke of Brittany and Earl of Richmond ( 23 September 1158 – 19 August 1186) was Duke of Brittany between 1181 and 1186 Only in Normandy and England he could install his rule. In Rouen, Normandy, he was made Duke in April 1199 and he was crowned King of England in May at Westminster Abbey. The Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a large mainly Gothic church He left his mother, Eleanor, controlling Aquitaine.
His allies, Aimeri of Thouars and three Lusignan nobles led an attack on Tours in an attempt to capture Arthur and install John as count. Aimeri of Thouars was promised the title of seneschal had he captured Arthur. By this time John went to Normandy to negocy a truce with Philip II. He took profit of this truce to gather Richard's former allies, especially the Count of Boulogne, the Count of Flanders and the Holy Roman Emperor. In the end no less that 15 French counts swore allegiance to John which was now definitely in a way much stronger position than Philip II. A strong supporter of the King -William des Roches- even switched side in front of so much power and handed down Arthur, whom he was supposed to protect, to John. William des Roches or Guillaume des Roches (1165-1222 Seneschal of Anjou, was a knight in the service of the Angevin Kings of England, and Arthur managed to espace and join Philip II's court very soon though. It was also the moment the Count of Flanders and a lot of knights decided to join the crusade in 1199 and deserted John's court. The Fourth Crusade (1202&ndash1204 was originally designed to conquer Muslim Jerusalem by means of an invasion through Egypt. John's dominant position was short-lived and then he had to accept the Treaty of Le Goulet in 1200. The Treaty of Le Goulet was signed by the kings John of England and Philip II of France in May 1200 and meant to settle once and for all the claims the Philip II was confirmed over the lands he had taken in Normandy joined by further concessions in Auvergne and Berry. John was recognised at the head of Anjou in return of what he swore he wouldn't interfere if Baldwin IV or Otto IV attacked Philip II.
Hugh IX of Lusignan took Eleanor in hostage, John then recognised him as Count of Marche thus expanding Lusignan power in the region. Hugh IX the Brown of Lusignan or Hugh IV of La Marche or Hugues IX & IV le Brun de Lusignan (1163 or 1168 &ndash 5 November, 1219) was the grandson The County of Marche (la Marcha was a Medieval French County, approximately corresponding to the modern département of Creuse In August 1200 John had his first marriage annulled and married Isabella who was already betrothed to Hugh X and then John confiscated La Marche. Isabella of Angoulême ( Fr Isabelle d'Angoulême; (1188 &ndash May 31, 1246) was Countess of Angoulême and Queen consort Hugh X of Lusignan, Hugh V of La Marche or Hugh I of Angoulême or Hugues X & V & I de Lusignan (c The Lusignans themselves called for Philip II's intervention who summoned John to his court. John refused to meet his King causing Philip II to use his power of suzerainty to confiscate all the lands John held in France and to accept Arthur's homage for Poitou, Anjou, Maine and Tours in 1202. Suzerainty (ˈsjuːzərənti RP or /ˈsjuːzəreɪnti/ RP) (/ˈsuːzərənti/ GA) is a situation in which a Region or people is a Raymond VI, the Count of Toulouse joined Philip II as well as Renaud de Dammartin while most of John's allies were either in the Holy Land or had left him. Raymond VI of Toulouse ( October 27, 1156 &ndash August 2, 1222) was count of Toulouse and marquis of Provence from 1194 Only Sancho VII the Strong was remaining and he was more in need of help than in the situation to supply any.
Arthur launched an attack in Poitou with his Lusignan allies, while Philip II attacked Normandy and captured many castles on the frontier. John was in Le Mans when the attacks were launched and decided to move southward. He captured no less than Arthur with Hugh X and 200 knights; this success was quickly followed by the capture of the Viscount of Limoges and his imprisonment in Chinon. 1202 was a year of triumph for John who had defeated many of his enemies like never Richard I nor Henry II did.
John had a major sin, "he could not resist the temptation to kick a man when he was down" and he took pleasure in humiliating the knights he had captured. Arthur was murdered in jail, most certainly at John's request. A lot of his knights who had relatives on the other side were angered at this behaviour and deserted him.
John's allies handed down Alençon in Normandy to Philip II, while many of them were now fighting him. Alençon is a town and commune in Normandy, France, préfecture (capital of the Orne department. Vaudreuil was handed down to King of France without a fight and while John was trying to take Alençon back he had to withdraw when Philip II arrived. Château-Gaillard itself had fallen in 1204 after a 6 months siege, this was a very symbolic loss for the Angevins. Château-Gaillard is a ruined medieval Castle, located above the town of Les Andelys, in the Eure département of Philip II kept campaigning in Normandy and captured Argentan, Falaise, Caen, Bayeux and Lisieux in merely 3 weeks while by the meantime a force of Breton knights captured the Mont Saint-Michel and Avranches. Argentan is a commune, and the capital of two cantons and of an arrondissement of the Orne department in northwestern France Caen (kɑ̃ is a commune in northwestern France. It is the Prefecture of the Calvados department and the capital of the Bayeux (bajø is a commune in the Calvados département, in Normandy in northwestern France. Lisieux is a commune in the Calvados département in the Basse-Normandie region of France. Mont Saint-Michel ( English: St Michael's Mount) is a rocky Tidal island in Normandy, France. Avranches is a commune in the Manche department in the Basse-Normandie region in northwestern France. Tours fell in 1204, Loches and even Chinon followed in 1205, only Rouen and Arques were still resisting and Rouen opened its gates to the King. The Ducal castle was destroyed and a bigger one was commissioned.
Eleanor died in 1204 and then most of the Poitevin nobles joined Philip II as they were loyal to Eleanor but not to John. Eleanor's death saw then Alfonso VIII at last asking for Gascony, which was part of the dowry Henry II had given his daughter, and he entered Gascony. Gascony was one of the only French part of the once powerful "Angevin Empire" that remained loyal to the Angevins as it resisted Alfonso and remained in John's hands.
Finally the two Kings agreed on a truce in 1206. The once mighty "Angevin Empire" was left with Gascony, Ireland and England.
John had to make his rule on the isles undisputed following the loss of Normandy and Anjou. He campaigned in South Wales in 1208, the Scottish border in 1209, Ireland in 1210 and North Wales in 1211 and these campaigns often met their successes. John used all resources he could muster to finance an upcoming campaign in France. Taxation of the Jews generated additional incomes while all land property of the church were seized, this had led to John's excommunication.
In 1212, John was ready to land and invade France, but a revolt in Wales forced him to delay his plans and then a baronnal revolt in England made it worse. Philip II was then also preparation an invasion of England but his fleet was destroyed while anchored at Damme by the Earl of Salisbury, William de Longespee. Damme is a Municipality located in the Belgian province of West Flanders, six kilometres northeast of Brugge ( Bruges) Earl of Salisbury is a title in the that has been created several times in British history William de Longespée jure uxoris 3rd Earl of Salisbury (c 1176 &ndash March 7, 1226) was an English noble primarily remembered for his command Hearing of the news, John ordered all the forces he had set to defend England to sail for Poitou. He landed in La Rochelle in 1214 and was then allied with Renaud de Dammartin, Count Ferdinand of Flanders and of course with Otto IV. Infante Fernando of Portugal Count of Flanders ( pron fɨɾ'nɐ̃du English Ferdinand; Old French Ferrand) was a Portuguese His allies would attack in the north-east of France while he would attack from the south west. John went to Gascony and tried to install his garrison in Agens but it was expelled. Unlike Normandy, Philip II had never invaded Poitou, it just switched allegiance. In order to invade Paris it was much shorter to go through Normandy from England than the southwest thus King Philip II concentrated his efforts there. The sword swung two ways as for Philip II it was easier to launch and invasion of England from Normandy. As a consequence Poitou was left without strong royal presence. John betrothed his daughter -Joan- to Hugh IX of Lusignan's son Hugh X, in return of what the Lusignans would be granted Saintonge and the Island of Oleron as well as possibilities of further concessions in Touraine and Anjou. Hugh IX the Brown of Lusignan or Hugh IV of La Marche or Hugues IX & IV le Brun de Lusignan (1163 or 1168 &ndash 5 November, 1219) was the grandson Hugh X of Lusignan, Hugh V of La Marche or Hugh I of Angoulême or Hugues X & V & I de Lusignan (c Île d'Oléron (English Island of Oleron) is an Island off the Atlantic coast of France (due west of Rochefort) on the southern These were huge gains for the Lusignans, yet John called that bringing them to submit. 
Peter was the Duke of Brittany of the time, he was loyal to the King of France but his claim to the rule of Brittany was fairly loose. Pierre Mauclerc (c 1190&ndash1251 also known as Peter of Dreux or Pierre de Dreux, was Duke of Brittany (in right of his wife If anything Eleanor of Brittany had a stronger claim as she was the sister of the defunct Arthur. Eleanor the "Fair Maid of Brittany" (c 1184 &ndash 10 August 1241) was the daughter of Geoffrey Plantagenet and Constance Duchess of Brittany John had her captured and used her as blackmail against Peter with one hand while temptating him by offering Richmond with the other hand, Peter refused to change allegiance in the end and not even after capture of his brother Robert III of Dreux near Nantes made him change his stance. Richmond is a Market town on the River Swale in North Yorkshire, England and is the administrative centre of the district of Richmondshire Robert III of Dreux (1185 &ndash 1234 Count of Dreux and Braine was the son of Robert II, Count of Dreux and Yolanda de Coucy
John entered Angers and captured a newly built castle at Roche-au-Moine but Prince Louis rushed from Chinon with an army and took it back by pushing John back to retreat. Angers is a city in the Maine-et-Loire department in northwestern France about 300 km south-west of Paris. Louis VIII the Lion ( 5 September 1187 – 8 November 1226) reigned as King of France from 1223 to 1226 Even though this was a setback John had at least made the job of his allies easier by dividing the Capetian army. Then happened the disastrous Battle of Bouvines in which all his allies were defeated by King Philip II. The Battle of Bouvines July 27, 1214, was a conclusive medieval battle ending the twelve year old War of Bouvines took ground exactly opposite in
John was beaten, the economy of the Kingdom of England was bankrupted and he was then seen as a failed plunderer.  All the money he could gather and all the power he used brought nothing and his allies were all down or captured.
In 1215 English barons were convinced that John would not respect the convention of the charter he had just signed and they sent a letter to the French court in which they offered the crown of England to Prince Louis. The First Barons' War ( 1215 &ndash 1217) was a combination of a Civil war in the Kingdom of England between on the one hand the forces of Magna Carta ( Latin for Great Charter, literally " Great Paper " also called Magna Carta Libertatum ( Great Charter of Freedoms By November a Capetian garrison was sent in no less than London to support the rebels and on 22 May 1216 Capetians forces had landed at Sandwich led by Prince Louis himself. Events 334 BC - The Greek army of Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia in the Battle of the Granicus. Sandwich is a historic town in Kent, south-east England. It was one of the Cinque Ports and still has many original medieval buildings John fled henceforth allowing Louis to capture London and Winchester.  By August most of eastern England was controlled apart Dover, Lincoln and Windsor. Dover is a town and major ferry port in the county of Kent, England. Lincoln (ˈlɪŋkən is a Cathedral city and County town of Lincolnshire, England. Windsor Castle, in Windsor in the English county of Berkshire, is the largest inhabited Castle in the world and dating back to the time of King Alexander II of Scotland travelled to Canterbury and paid homage to Prince Louis as King of England for the Northern Territories. Alexander II ( Mediaeval Gaelic: Alaxandair mac Uilliam; Modern Gaelic Alasdair mac Uilleim) (24 August 1198 &ndash 6 July 1249 King of Scots Canterbury ( ˈkæntəbɹ̩i is a City in eastern Kent in the South East region of England. 
John died 2 months later, defeated even in England. The following regency installed the Magna Carta in law, that charter signed by John and was not applied until then, since Henry III was too young to do it himself. A regent, from the Latin regens "who reigns" is a person selected to act as Head of state (ruling or not because the ruler is a minor Magna Carta ( Latin for Great Charter, literally " Great Paper " also called Magna Carta Libertatum ( Great Charter of Freedoms Henry III (1 October 1207 &ndash 16 November 1272 was the son and successor of John "Lackland" as King of England, reigning for fifty-six years from 1216 The Anglo-Normans barons then withdrew their supports to Louis. He was defeated nearly a year later at Lincoln and Sandwich, thus ended his claim on England that he conceded in the Treaty of Lambeth in September 1217. The Second Battle of Lincoln occurred at Lincoln Castle on 20 May 1217, during the First Barons' War, between the forces of the future Louis The Treaty of Lambeth, also known as the Treaty of Kingston, was signed on an island at Kingston-upon-Thames in 1217 by Prince Louis of France Norman barons were now divided between allegiances.
This quote taken from Capetian France 987 - 1328 summarises the reasons of the Angevin collapse well enough:
|“||It is often said of the Plantagenet lands in the late twelfth century that they were an empire in decline, divided by the treachery of Henry II's sons and held together only with difficulty by Richard I and John; and the attempt to hold them together gravely overstrained their resources and undermined their power from within, making their survival as a unit quite impossible. Thus Philip's conquest becomes unavoidable, and John's responsibility is greatly diminished.||”|
The hypothetical continuation and expansion of the Angevin Empire over several centuries has been the subject of several tales of alternate history. Alternate history or alternative history is a subgenre of Speculative fiction (or Science fiction) and Historical fiction Historically both English and French historians had viewed the juxtaposition of England and French lands under Angevin control as something of an aberration and an offence to national identity. To English historians the lands in France were an encumbrance, while French historians considered the union to be an English empire. 
This is what Whig historian Macaulay, in 1849, wrote in his History of England about the union of the two lands. Whig history or Whiggish historiography presents the past as an inevitable progression towards ever greater liberty and enlightenment culminating in modern forms of liberal 
|“||Had the Plantagenets, as at one time seemed likely, succeeded in uniting all France under their government, it is probable that England would never have had an independent existence. Her princes, her lords, her prelates, would have been men differing in race and language from the artisans and the tillers of the earth. The revenues of her great proprietors would have been spent in festivities and diversions on the banks of the Seine. The noble language of Milton and Burke would have remained a rustic dialect, without a literature, a fixed grammar, or a fixed orthography, and would have been contemptuously abandoned to the use of boors. No man of English extraction would have risen to eminence, except by becoming in speech and habits a Frenchman. . . . . . . .||”|
The Plantagenet kings had adopted wine as main drink, replacing beer and cider used by the Norman kings. Wine is an Alcoholic beverage made from the fermentation of Grape juice Beer is the world's oldest and most widely consumed Alcoholic beverage and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea For the non-alcoholic beverage commonly known in the US as "cider" see Apple cider. The ruling class of the Angevin Empire was also French speaking, while the church retained Ecclesiastical Latin. Langues d'oïl is the linguistic and historical designation of the Gallo-Romance languages originating from the northern territories of Roman Gaul, Ecclesiastical Latin (sometimes called Church Latin) is the Latin dialect as used in documents of the Roman Catholic Church and in its Latin liturgies
The 12th century is also the century of the Gothic architecture, first known as "Opus Francigenum", from the work of the Abbot Suger at Saint Denis in 1140. See also Gothic art Gothic architecture is a style of Architecture which flourished during the high and late medieval period. Suger (c 1081 &ndash 13 January 1151) was one of the last French abbot-statesmen a historian and the influential first patron of Gothic architecture The Basilica of Saint Denis ( French: Basilique de Saint-Denis, or simply Basilique Saint-Denis) is the burial site of almost all the French The Early English Period began around 1180 or 1190, in the times of the Angevin Empire, but this religious architecture was totally independent of the Angevin Empire, it was just born at the same moment and spread at those times in England. English Gothic is the name of the Architectural style that flourished in England from about 1180 until about 1520 The strongest influence on architecture directly associated to the Plantagenets is about kitchens.
The British royal motto is said to come from these times: "Dieu et mon droit" were Richard's alleged words while these Angevin kings had also adopted three crawling lions for symbol. Dieu et mon droit has generally been used as the Motto of English, and later British, monarchs since being adopted by Henry V (1413–1422 The royal coat of arms of England was the official coat of arms of the monarchs of England, and were used as the official coat of arms of the Kingdom of England If these symbols did not represent England at first (they were Plantagenet's personal coat of arms and did not represent a political structure) they are today often associated to England. Normandy and Aquitaine also retained leopards on their flags though, the Norman symbol being probably the oldest one here.
From a political point of view the continental issues were given more attention from the monarchs of England than the British ones already under the Normans.  Under Angevin lordship things became even more clear as the balance of power was dramatically set in France and the Angevin kings often spent more times in France than England.  With the loss of Normandy and Anjou the fiefdom was cut in two and then the descendants of the Plantagenets can be regarded as English kings accounting Gascony in their domain. The English people (from the adjective in Englisc) are a Nation and Ethnic group native to England who predominantly speak English 
Due to the nature of the Angevin Empire there is a good number of sources in French. Thus to enjoy the largest array of sources requires a good knowledge of both English and French.