|Andrés Manuel López Obrador|
2000 – 2005
|Preceded by||Rosario Robles Berlanga|
|Succeeded by||Alejandro Encinas Rodríguez|
|Born||November 13, 1953 |
|Spouse||Beatriz Gutiérrez Mueller|
|Profession||Politician / Activist|
Andrés Manuel López Obrador a. The Head of Government (Jefe de Gobierno wields executive power in the Mexican Federal District. Rosario Robles Berlanga (b 1956) is a left-wing Mexican politician who was appointed substitute Head of Government of the Federal District (" Alejandro Encinas Rodríguez is a left-wing Mexican politician affiliated with the Party of the Democratic Revolution. Events 1002 - English king Ethelred orders the killing of all Danes in England, known today as the St Year 1953 ( MCMLIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Macuspana is a City and its surrounding municipality in the south-central part of the state of Tabasco in southeastern Mexico Tabasco is a state in Mexico. It is bordered by the states of Veracruz to the west Chiapas to the south and Campeche to the The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. The Party of the Democratic Revolution (in Spanish: Partido de la Revolución Democrática, PRD is one of the three main political parties in Mexico. k. a. "El Peje" (born November 13, 1953) is a Mexican politician affiliated with the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD). Events 1002 - English king Ethelred orders the killing of all Danes in England, known today as the St Year 1953 ( MCMLIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. The Party of the Democratic Revolution (in Spanish: Partido de la Revolución Democrática, PRD is one of the three main political parties in Mexico. He is recognized by his followers as the leader of a civil resistance movement rejecting the results of the 2006 presidential election. For other elections in Mexico during 2006 see 2006 Mexican elections For election disputes and controversies see Mexican general election 2006
He held the position of Head of Government of the Federal District (roughly, Mayor of Mexico City) from 2000 to 2005, before resigning in July 2005 to contend the 2006 presidential election, representing the Coalition for the Good of All, a PRD-led coalition that also includes the Convergence party and the Labor Party. The Head of Government (Jefe de Gobierno wields executive power in the Mexican Federal District. For other elections in Mexico during 2006 see 2006 Mexican elections For election disputes and controversies see Mexican general election 2006 The Coalition for the Good of All (" Coalición por el Bien de Todos " was a left-wing coalition created by the Party Convergence ( Spanish:) is a political party in Mexico. It was previously known as Convergence for Democracy (Convergencia por la Democracia The Labor Party ( Partido del Trabajo, abbreviated as "PT" is a nationally recognized Political party in Mexico.
Andrés Manuel López Obrador (AMLO) was born in Macuspana, in the southern state of Tabasco, in 1953. Macuspana is a City and its surrounding municipality in the south-central part of the state of Tabasco in southeastern Mexico Tabasco is a state in Mexico. It is bordered by the states of Veracruz to the west Chiapas to the south and Campeche to the Year 1953 ( MCMLIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. He graduated from the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) in 1987 with a major in political and social sciences. The National Autonomous University of Mexico (in Spanish: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México UNAM) is a Public university based Year 1987 ( MCMLXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar) He joined the PRI in 1976 to actively collaborate in Carlos Pellicer's campaign for a senate seat for Tabasco. Year 1976 ( MCMLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Carlos Pellicer Cámara ( January 16, 1897 &ndash February 16, 1977) born in Villahermosa, Tabasco, was part of the The Senate ( Spanish: Cámara de Senadores or Senado) is the upper house of Mexico 's Bicameral Congress. A year later, he headed the Instituto Indigenista (Indigenous People's Institute) of his state. In 1984, he relocated to Mexico City to work at the Instituto Nacional del Consumidor (National Consumers' Institute), a Government agency. Year 1984 ( MCMLXXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1984 Gregorian calendar)
López Obrador is rumored to be an Evangelical Christian or Presbyterian, which would be consistent with other natives from his home state but at odds with his image as a center-left politician. Evangelicalism is a theological movement tradition and system of beliefs most closely associated with Protestant Christianity, which identifies with the Gospel Presbyterianism is a family of Christian denominations within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity López publicly denied being a Protestant, and in a television interview he called himself a Roman Catholic. 
López Obrador was president of the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) in his home state. The Institutional Revolutionary Party ( Spanish: Partido Revolucionario Institucional or PRI) is a Mexican Political party that wielded He resigned his post working for the government of this state in 1988 to join the new dissenting left wing of the PRI, then called the Democratic Current, led by Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas. Year 1988 ( MCMLXXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar) Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas Solórzano (born May 1 1934) is a prominent Mexican politician This movement formed the National Democratic Front and later became the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD). The National Democratic Front (Frente Democrático Nacional was a coalition of left-wing Mexican political parties created in 1988 presidential elections, and that is the immediate The Party of the Democratic Revolution (in Spanish: Partido de la Revolución Democrática, PRD is one of the three main political parties in Mexico.
In 1994, López Obrador ran for the governorship of his home state, but lost to the PRI's Roberto Madrazo in a highly controversial election where Roberto Madrazo was questioned for his excessive expenses in political propaganda. Year 1994 ( MCMXCIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar) Roberto Madrazo Pintado (born July 30, 1952) is a Mexican politician affiliated with the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI Madrazo's campaign was much more expensive than the presidential campaign of Bill Clinton. William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III, August 19 1946 served as the forty-second President of the United States
López Obrador gained national exposure as an advocate for the rights of indigenous people when in 1996 he appeared on national TV drenched in blood following confrontations with police force for blocking Pemex oil wells to defend the rights of local indigenous people impacted by pollution. Year 1996 ( MCMXCVI) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar) Petróleos Mexicanos ( PEMEX) is Mexico 's state-owned Petroleum company 
López Obrador was president of the PRD from 2 August 1996 to 10 April 1999. Events 338 BC - A Macedonian army led by Philip II defeated the combined forces of Athens and Thebes in the Year 1996 ( MCMXCVI) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar) Events 879 - Louis III becomes King of the Western Franks. 1407 - the lama Year 1999 ( MCMXCIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar)
On 2 July 2000 he was elected Head of Government of the Federal District—a position akin to that of a city mayor, but that oversees the whole Federal District—after having won with 38. Events 310 - Pope Miltiades is elected 626 - In fear of assassination Li Shimin ambushes and kills his rival 2000 ( MM) was a Leap year that started on Saturday of the Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. The Head of Government (Jefe de Gobierno wields executive power in the Mexican Federal District. A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning "greater" is a modern title used in many countries for the highest ranking officer in a municipal government Mexico City (in Spanish: Ciudad de México, México DF, México or simply Méjico) is the Capital city of Mexico 3% of votes.  His candidacy was contested by political opponents who claimed he was not a resident of the capital city, but they negotiated not to make an issue of it.
During his time as Head of Government, López Obrador became one of the most recognizable politicians in Mexico. López Obrador left the Federal District government with an 84% approval rating according to Consulta Mitofsky, a leading pollster; according to an article by Reforma, López kept 80% of the promises he made as a candidate. The National Association to Promote Library and Information Services to Latinos and the Spanish-speaking, more commonly known as REFORMA, is an affiliate of the American 
As mayor, López Obrador implemented various social programs that included extending cash checks to help vulnerable groups: single mothers, senior citizens and the physically and mentally challenged. He also founded the first new university in Mexico City in three decades, the Universidad Autónoma de la Ciudad de México UACM.
López Obrador hired Rudolph Giuliani to craft a zero-tolerance policy that would help reduce the escalating crime in Mexico City. KBE Per, "Postnominal letters should be included when they are issued by a country or organization the subject has been closely associated with 
He directed the restoration and modernization of Mexico City's historic downtown, which has 16th-17th century buildings and a large number of tourist attractions, yet had been badly maintained, overcrowded, and crime-ridden in the last few decades. He led a joint venture with Carlos Slim Helú, a native of downtown Mexico City, to expropriate, restore, rebuild and gentrify large parts of the area, creating attractive shopping and residential areas for middle and upper income residents. Carlos Slim Helú (born January 28 1940) is a Mexican Businessman born to Lebanese parents largely focused on the Telecommunications Expropriation refers to Confiscation of Private property with the stated purpose of establishing social equality. Gentrification, or urban gentrification, is the change in an Urban area associated with the movement of more affluent individuals into a lower-class
López Obrador used fiscal policy to encourage private sector investment in housing. Fiscal policy, taking the scope of Budgetary policy, refers to government policy that attempts to influence the direction of the economy through changes in government taxes  He granted construction firms large tax breaks and changed zoning regulations to make construction projects more financially attractive. This led to the construction of more condominiums and office building during his tenure than during any other period in Mexico City history. New high density condos have emerged in the upscale neighborhoods of Polanco and Lomas. 
To improve traffic flow in the city's two main inner city roads, Periférico and Viaducto, he added sections of second stories to their existing infrastructure. The effect of this in aiding the traffic problem in Mexico City is yet to be seen. An express bus service, the "Metrobús", based on the successful Curitiba model, was built down Avenida Insurgentes, cutting through the city some 20 km from north to south. Bus rapid transit ( BRT) is a broad term given to a variety of transportation systems that through improvements to infrastructure vehicles and scheduling attempt to use Metrobús is a Bus rapid transit (BRT system in Mexico City, Mexico. Curitiba (pron kuɾi'tibɐ or kuɾi'tʃibɐ is the capital City of the Brazilian state of Paraná. Avenida de los Insurgentes ( English: Insurgents' Avenue) sometimes known simply as Insurgentes, is the longest Avenue in Mexico City 
All elected government officials in Mexico, from mayors to the President, and all legislators, local and federal, have an official immunity called fuero that prevents criminal charges to be presented against them. The Constitutional Citizen President of the United Mexican States (the official title in Spanish is Ciudadano Presidente Constitucional de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos If a person protected by fuero commits a crime, there has to be a process to remove the immunity so the person can be presented with such charges. The process is called desafuero. The Spanish -language term desafuero refers to the process through which a government official's immunity to criminal prosecution is removed
In 2001 a landowner sued the government of Mexico City for having expropriated a strip of land. Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. The expropriation took place before López Obrador was elected Head of Government of the Federal District. The strip of land had been expropriated to fulfill a contract in which the government of Mexico City had to give access to a high level hospital in an upscale part of town. López Obrador had to decide whether to comply with the court order regarding the potential lawsuit over the strip of land or fulfilling the contract with the hospital. His administration chose the latter.
The process was kept slow, until in 2004 the Attorney General's Office asked Congress to strip López Obrador of his immunity under charges of a misdemeanor (ignoring a court order). "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " In Mexico the Office of the Attorney General ( Spanish Procuraduría General de la República) is an institution belonging to the Federal executive branch A misdemeanor, or misdemeanour, in many common law legal systems is a "lesser" criminal act Under federal law, any person with criminal charges during the electoral process would not be eligible to contest in a presidential election. Because of the general slowness of the judicial system, it was very likely that a process started in 2004 would continue until the presidential campaigns of 2006, and so the process of bringing López Obrador to court would have ended his ambitions of running for the presidency in 2006.
López Obrador used the moment to advance his popularity, and even put himself in a position where he was about to set foot in jail, only to be bailed out by political opponents who claimed López Obrador should follow the same judicial process as anyone else. Traditionally bail is some form of Property deposited or pledged to a Court in order to persuade it to release a suspect from jail, on the understanding One of the largest public marches ever seen was organized in support of López against the desafuero.
Some analysts agree that the desafuero process was politically motivated by the high approval ratings shown by López Obrador. Likewise, some newspaper editorial boards throughout the world charged that the desafuero was politically motivated (including The New York Times and the Washington Post) and that it should be stopped, and that excluding Obrador from the upcoming elections would delegitimize the eventual winner. The Washington Post is the largest and most circulated Newspaper in Washington D Still, some analysts believed that López should have faced the force of the law, and thus becoming the first and only public official in Mexican history to be prosecuted (after a long tradition of impunity in government).
After congress voted in favor of removing López Obrador from immunity, López Obrador resigned his post for a few days. President Vicente Fox, wanting to avoid a political cataclysm, and knowing that the decision made by the congress was against the will of millions of people, appeared on national TV in April 2005, indicating that the issue would not be pursued any longer. Vicente Fox Quesada ( born July 2 1942) is a Mexican politician who served as President of Mexico from 2000 to 2006 and currently The whole deal ended up closed on a technicality, and López Obrador, though without immunity, was not prosecuted (and thus remained eligible to compete in the presidential election). For other elections in Mexico during 2006 see 2006 Mexican elections For election disputes and controversies see Mexican general election 2006 A few weeks later, Attorney General Rafael Macedo de la Concha resigned. Rafael Macedo de la Concha (born May 6, 1950 in Mexico City) is a Mexican army general and former Attorney General in the cabinet
On July 6, 2006 the Federal Electoral Institute (IFE) announced the final vote count in the 2006 presidential election, resulting in a narrow margin of 0. Events 1044 - The Battle of Ménfő takes place 1189 - Richard the Lionheart is crowned King of England Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. The Federal Electoral Institute ( Spanish: Instituto Federal Electoral, IFE is an autonomous public organization responsible for organizing federal elections For other elections in Mexico during 2006 see 2006 Mexican elections For election disputes and controversies see Mexican general election 2006 56 percentage points of victory for his opponent, Felipe Calderón. This article is about the current president of Mexico For the Filipino politician and historical figure see Felipe Calderón y Roca. López Obrador appealed against the results and mobilized large protests against the election. However, on 5 September 2006, the Federal Electoral Tribunal (TEPJF) ruled that the election was fair and that Felipe Calderón was winner and would become President of Mexico. Events 1590 - Alexander Farnese 's army forces Henry IV of France to raise the siege of Paris. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. The Electoral Tribunal of the Federal Judiciary ( Spanish: Tribunal Electoral del Poder Judicial de la Federación or TEPJF) is a venue within This article is about the current president of Mexico For the Filipino politician and historical figure see Felipe Calderón y Roca. The Constitutional Citizen President of the United Mexican States (the official title in Spanish is Ciudadano Presidente Constitucional de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos 
In contesting the election, López and his party made two primary arguments: (a) that President Fox, the CCE and other organizations had interfered during the presidential campaign, which is strictly prohibited by Mexican electoral law, thereby providing grounds to annul the election, and (b) that the votes were fraudulently tallied on 2 July. Some media believed that López Obrador and his party failed to present sufficient proof of the supposed fraud. Other media believed that López Obrador did present sufficient evidence, and that the Court's decision was flawed. In reality, López Obrador's demands couldn't be met because laws didn't allow the recounting of votes; they could only be counted where there was sufficient doubt about the results. Given this circumstance, a partial recount was made, and Felipe Calderón won again.
The court declared that President Fox, and the CCE, a business interest group, had interfered in the elections in the form of campaigning for a given candidate, which is against campaign laws. The TEPJF determined that it was not possible to accurately evaluate the influence on the election results caused by these interferences but estimated the impact of Fox's interference as insignificant to the results of the election, and stated that similarly, it could not gauge the impact of CCE's interference. Therefore the court decided that both interferences could not be considered as a probable judicial cause to annul the election, and the court decided to rule that the election was valid and fair
López Obrador and his party also alleged irregularities in a large number of polling stations and demanded a national recount. He only challenged the votes tallied for President, while in the same election, and through the same organization, votes were also tallied for legislators. The same election, according to López Obrador and his party, was fraudulent and non-fraudulent. The court ruled that the evidence presented did not back his claim of fraud. Ultimately the TEPJF, in a unanimous vote ordered a recount of about 9% of the polling stations.  In response to the result, López Obrador's followers proclaimed him "Legitimate President".
In September 2005, López was nominated as presidential pre-candidate for the PRD for the 2006 general election after the "moral leader" of the party, Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas, declined to participate in the internal elections when polls showed López had 90% party support. For other elections in Mexico during 2006 see 2006 Mexican elections For election disputes and controversies see Mexican general election 2006 Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas Solórzano (born May 1 1934) is a prominent Mexican politician
Until March 2006 he was considered the presidential front runner by the majority of polls; however, polls in late April show a steady decline in López's numbers.  Many polls at the time showed López to have fallen to second place. In others he continued at his top position.  López discredited the first polls, indicating foul play coming from Los Pinos. Los Pinos is both Mexico 's official presidential residence and offices the home &ndash for a six-year period &ndash of the President of Mexico.
López Obrador has been severely criticized by left-wing politicians and analysts for including in his close staff many former members of the PRI who actively fought against his party in the 1980s and 1990s, most notably Arturo Núñez (one of the FOBAPROA's author), Manuel Camacho Solís and Marcelo Ebrard. The 1980s was the decade spanning from January 1 1980 to December 31 1989. The 1990s collectively refers to the years between and including 1990 and 1999 FOBAPROA ( Fondo Bancario de Protección al Ahorro or "Banking Fund for the Protection of Savings" is a controversial fund created in Mexico in 1990 to attempt Manuel Camacho Solís (b March 30, 1946 in Mexico City) is a Mexican politician who served with President Carlos Salinas Marcelo Luis Ebrard Casaubón (b October 10, 1959 in Mexico City) is a Mexican politician affiliated to the Party of the Democratic Also the guerrilla leader of the EZLN, Subcomandante Marcos, openly declared López Obrador to be a false left-wing candidate, arguing that he is a centrist candidate. The Zapatista Army of National Liberation ( Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional, EZLN) is an armed Revolutionary group based in Chiapas Subcomandante Marcos, also known as Delegado Cero in matters concerning the Other Campaign, describes himself as the spokesman for the Mexican rebel The "moral leader" and founder of the PRD, Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas, did not participate in any campaign events but stated that he would still vote for his party, the PRD. Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas Solórzano (born May 1 1934) is a prominent Mexican politician
López Obrador's proposals, including his 50 commitments, produced mixed opinions from analysts. The Washington Post ran a news article indicating that López Obrador used Franklin D. Roosevelt as inspiration for his 50 commitments. The Washington Post is the largest and most circulated Newspaper in Washington D 
On May 19, Roberto Madrazo, presidential candidate for the PRI, considered by all polls to be in a distant third place, hinted at the possibility of an alliance with López Obrador to prevent Felipe Calderón from winning the election, after both the parties had criticized the government for what, in their opinion, is supposed illegal support by the federal government for the PAN candidate's campaigning. Events 1535 - French explorer Jacques Cartier sets sail on his second voyage to North America with three ships 110 men and Roberto Madrazo Pintado (born July 30, 1952) is a Mexican politician affiliated with the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI This article is about the current president of Mexico For the Filipino politician and historical figure see Felipe Calderón y Roca. The PRD has said that both parties have entered into an information sharing agreement regarding the issue.  This, combined with calls from high ranking PRI member Manuel Bartlett (former interior secretary when the alleged 1988 presidential election fraud was committed) to vote for López, aroused media speculation that the PRI and the PRD would indeed ally. Manuel Bartlett Díaz (b Puebla de Zaragoza, Puebla, 1936- was Mexico's Secretary of the Interior during the six year term of Miguel de la Madrid The general election was held in Mexico on Wednesday July 6, 1988.
On May 28, after López Obrador had discounted any such alliance because the PRI and PRD political tendencies cannot be conciliated, Roberto Madrazo indicated that his comments were misunderstood, and that he will not step down nor will he endorse another candidate. Events 585 BC - A Solar eclipse occurs as predicted by Greek philosopher and scientist Thales, while Alyattes is battling Roberto Madrazo Pintado (born July 30, 1952) is a Mexican politician affiliated with the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI  On 6 July 2006, Felipe Calderón was recognized as the winner of the presidential election by a narrow margin of 243,934 votes, though the claim is disputed by López Obrador, who claims there were widespread irregularities in the vote and wants every single vote recounted (A generalized recount is only legal in extreme circumstances according to Mexican Electoral Tribunal Jurisprudence S3ELJ14-2004 ). Events 1044 - The Battle of Ménfő takes place 1189 - Richard the Lionheart is crowned King of England Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. This article is about the current president of Mexico For the Filipino politician and historical figure see Felipe Calderón y Roca. For other elections in Mexico during 2006 see 2006 Mexican elections For election disputes and controversies see Mexican general election 2006 On July 8, 2006, López called for nationwide protests to ask for a recount of all votes, stating that "the government would be responsible for any flare-up of anger after officials rejected his demand for a manual recount of Sunday's extremely close vote. Events 939 - The Major Occultation or Ghaybat el-Kubra of Muhammad al-Mahdi 1099 - First Crusade: 15000 Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. "
López's 50 commitments can be found here.
López Obrador announced his victory to his supporters on the night of the election day stating that according to exit polls he had won by 500,000 votes. The results of the Mexican general election of July 2, 2006 were Controversial and are still being contested He did not cite any polls at the time, later he referenced Covarrubias and IMO.  Several days later, the Federal Electoral Institute published its final tally, which had him down by a margin of 0. 58%, or approximately 243,000 votes. López Obradorthen initiated legal challenges, claiming election irregularities in 54% of polling stations, and demanded publicly the votes to be recounted "vote by vote" in all polling stations. The case was discussed by the Federal Electoral Tribunal (TEPJF) and finally dismissed. The Electoral Tribunal of the Federal Judiciary ( Spanish: Tribunal Electoral del Poder Judicial de la Federación or TEPJF) is a venue within
While the case was discussed in the Electoral Tribunal, the IFE has called for the candidates to refrain from proclaiming themselves as winner, president-elect, or president until the final resolution was taken. Both candidates disobeyed this call. In an interview by U. S. Spanish-language TV network Univisión, López referred to himself as "President of Mexico". Univision is a Spanish-language television network in the United States and Puerto Rico. 
López Obrador held several gatherings in downtown Mexico City with hundreds of thousands of people attending, pressuring for a "vote for vote" general recount. On 31 July, in an act of civil disobedience, he organized the blocking 12 kilometers of one of the most important roads in the capital, Paseo de la Reforma, which houses several important hotels, corporate main offices and the Mexico City Stock Market. Events 30 BC - Battle of Alexandria: Mark Antony achieves a minor victory over Octavian 's forces but most of his army subsequently Paseo de la Reforma ( English: "Reform's Walk" is a 12 kilometer long grand avenue in Mexico City, Mexico.  Business groups said the blockades cost Mexico City businesses located near the areas of conflict daily losses of 350,000,000 Mexican pesos (about US$35 million). The peso ( sign: $; code: MXN) is the currency of Mexico. The symbol used for the peso is " $ " basically  In order to compensate, they have asked the Government of Mexico City to exempt them from paying taxes this year.
On Saturday 5 August, the TEPJF met in public session to decide the outcome of the complaints the PRD and its coalition partners filed. Events 642 - Battle of Maserfield - Penda of Mercia defeats and kills Oswald of Bernicia. The seven magistrates voted unanimously to order the recount of 11,839 ballot boxes in 155 districts (9. 2% of the total), despite López's public demand that all votes and ballot boxes be recounted.  The TEPJF based its decision of a partial recount on its finding that, despite publicly demanding a vote-by-vote general recount, López Obrador's party filed legal challenges to 71,000 polling stations (54%). Therefore, by law, the TEPJF found it could order a recount of only those 71,000 polling stations in controversy. The TEPJF ruled that it could not order a recount of the votes not in controversy because "the certainty asked by the [López Obrador] Coalition is tied to the respect for the tallies certified by the citizens in the polling stations not in controversy". However, the TEPJF did certify that principles of certainty in elections were grounds for a recount in some of the stations in controversy, since there was evidence of possible irregularities. 
López Obrador rejected the resolution as narrow and he and his followers thus intensified their civil resistance. For about two hours on 9 August, protesters took over the tollbooths on four federal highways. Events 48 BC - Caesar's civil war: Battle of Pharsalus - Julius Caesar decisively defeats Pompey at Pharsalus These roads link Mexico City to Cuernavaca, Querétaro, Toluca, and Pachuca. The protesters prevented personnel from charging tolls in some of these roads and allowed vehicles to pass freely. Also, hundreds of López supporters surrounded four of the main offices of foreign banks, including Citibank's Banamex, BBVA's Bancomer, and the Mexican subsidiary of HSBC, closing them for about four hours, claiming that the foreign banks "ransack the country" and "widen the barrier between rich and poor" and because, supposedly, these banks had participated in the politics of the country supporting the PAN candidate Felipe Calderón. This article is about the current president of Mexico For the Filipino politician and historical figure see Felipe Calderón y Roca. 
On August 8 López Obrador sent a message to the press, regarding the blockades, where he explained to the people, "10 reasons" in which he stands to continue the "peaceful civil resistance". Events 1220 - Sweden is defeated by Estonian tribes in the Battle of Lihula. 
López Obrador held a rally, which he called a "National Democratic Convention", on 16 September, Independence Day, when a military parade was also scheduled to be held. Events 1400 - Owain Glyndŵr is declared Prince of Wales by his followers The Grito de Dolores ("Cry of Dolores" was the Battle cry of the Mexican War of Independence, uttered on September 16, 1810 by Miguel The "democratic convention" started after the military parade.
Claiming that all Mexican institutions are linked and protect each other, López Obrador said that the country's institutions "no longer work" and called for the creation of new ones.  He was quoted saying "the big changes in Mexico have never been produced through conventional politics, but in the streets". Some have understood this as a call for revolution.
López Obrador led a rally on the day of the state of the union speech, where sympathizers celebrated the President being prevented from delivering his speech inside congress.  They claimed that the President "had created a police state" in the area around the Congress building and interpreted it as a violation of the Constitution that made it impossible for Congress to be called into session, and thereby enabling Fox to address the chamber.  He explicitly told his followers not to be lured into violent confrontations, declaring, "We aren't going to fall into any trap. We aren't going to be provoked".  He also asked his followers to remain in the Zócalo, instead of marching to the legislative palace, the site of the state of the union speech, as had been planned.
According to a poll published on December 1, 2006 in El Universal, 42% believe that Calderón's victory was fraudulent, and 46% believe that it was not. Events 800 - Charlemagne judges the accusations against Pope Leo III in the Vatican Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar.  Nonetheless, 74% of Mexicans believe that the civil resistance should not continue.
On 20 November 2006, Mexican Revolution day, López Obrador's sympathizers proclaimed him "Legitimate President" in a rally at the Zócalo in Mexico City. Events 284 - Diocletian was chosen as Roman Emperor. 762 - Bögü Khan of the Uyghurs, Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. The Mexican Revolution (Revolución Mexicana was a major armed struggle that started with an uprising led by Francisco I  The action was planned in another rally, the "National Democratic Convention", in which supporters gave him the title. At the Convention, López Obrador called for the establishment of a parallel government and shadow cabinet. He also advocated the abolition or reform of several institutions, alleging they are spoiled and corrupt, and asked for changes to the constitution to ensure the institutions work "for the people", and provide welfare and assistance to the elderly and other vulnerable groups.
After his supporters proclaimed him as "Legitimate President of Mexico" , López created a "Cabinet of Denounciation" to counter all moves done by President Felipe Calderón. The Constitutional Citizen President of the United Mexican States (the official title in Spanish is Ciudadano Presidente Constitucional de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos This article is about the current president of Mexico For the Filipino politician and historical figure see Felipe Calderón y Roca. It is expected that this "alternative cabinet" be used as a pressure mechanism to the initiatives of the government. 
Days later, López Obrador announced that he would earn a salary of $50,000 pesos (roughly $4600 USD) a month, provided by donations. The peso ( sign: $; code: MXN) is the currency of Mexico. The symbol used for the peso is " $ " basically The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been 
Several reactions to López Obrador's "legitimate presidency" include an opinion by El País saying that López Obrador's "lack of consideration to democratic institutions and rule of law seriously endanger civil peace in Mexico". El País ( Spanish for "The Country" is the most widely-circulated Daily newspaper in Spain.  After speculation of whether or not López Obrador's self-proclamation was against the law, the PRI has said that this political action is not a crime. The Institutional Revolutionary Party ( Spanish: Partido Revolucionario Institucional or PRI) is a Mexican Political party that wielded  Liébano Sáenz, chief of staff of former President Ernesto Zedillo, stated that López Obrador "will become the conscience of the nation, which will do much good to Mexican democracy.  Raúl Vera López, Roman Catholic bishop of Saltillo, Coahuila, declared that López Obrador's so called "legitimate presidency" is a result of the "profound discontent with how the country has been run," and that Obrador has "very deep moral backing. "
A poll conducted by Grupo Reforma indicated that 56% of Mexicans disapprove of López taking the title, while only 19% approve. '''Grupo Reforma is the largest printed media company in Mexico and Latin America Sixty-three percent of those polled have also said that the former candidate has lost credibility. Other responses in the poll include 82% describing the political atmosphere in Mexico as "tense", and 45% of the polled blaming it on the PRD, with only 20% blaming it on the PAN, and 25% blaming both parties. The National Action Party ( Spanish Partido Acción Nacional) known by the acronym PAN, is a conservative and Christian democratic (The poll was a telephone survey of 850 adults on November 18 with 95% confidence interval of +/-3. In Statistics, a confidence interval (CI is an interval estimate of a Population parameter. 4% margin of error. The margin of error is a statistic expressing the amount of random Sampling error in a survey 's results ). 
In the first few months of President Calderón's term, he has announced initiatives that mirror those of López, like price ceilings for tortillas, in the form of a "Tortilla Price Stabilization Pact", that protect local producers of corn, a Presidential Decree limiting the President's salary and that of cabinet ministers, and a proposal for a constitutional amendment that, if passed, would significantly lower salaries for all public servants in all three branches of government, and impose a cap on compensation. This article is about the current president of Mexico For the Filipino politician and historical figure see Felipe Calderón y Roca. Incomes policies in Economics are Wage and Price controls, most commonly instituted as a response to Inflation. In Mexico, Central America, the Caribbean, the United States, and Canada, a tortilla is a type of thin unleavened The Tortilla Price Stabilization Pact was an agreement between the Mexican Federal Government, headed by President Felipe Calderón, and several Maize (ˈmeɪz ( Zea mays L. ssp mays) known as corn in some countries is a cereal grain domesticated in Mesoamerica  These measures have been interpreted as actions "seeking to fulfill a campaign promise to incorporate the agenda of election rival Andrés Manuel López Obrador into his government". 
In 2008, the PRD held elections to renew its leadership. López Obrador candidate, Alejandro Encinas Rodríguez went against Jesús Ortega. Alejandro Encinas Rodríguez is a left-wing Mexican politician affiliated with the Party of the Democratic Revolution. Jesús Ortega Martínez (b November 5, 1952 in Aguascalientes) is a Mexican Left-wing politician affiliated to the Party of Allegations of fraud by both factions halted recounts and raised doubts about the legitimacy of the election. Media figures commented that, while López Obrador had used phrases such as "fraud", "illegitimacy", "corruption", etc in the 2006 Mexican elections, the same phrases were now used to describe the PRD's election, and many feared that, no matter what the outcome, there would be a "legitimate" and a "spurius" President inside the Party.  According to exit polls conducted by Mitofsky and IMO, Encinas won by 5% and 8% points, respectively. 
The Mexican Congress was taken by legislators of the Broad Progressive Front (FAP), the PRD, PT and Convergence Parties, on April 10, 2008 because of their disagreement with the Mexican Government regarding energy policies' discussions, claiming they violate the Constitution. The Broad Progressive Front (Frente Amplio Progresista FAP) is a legislative electoral and governmental coalition of Center-left and Leftist political Events 879 - Louis III becomes King of the Western Franks. 1407 - the lama 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common López Obrador's followers took both Houses of the Congress and have them chained, so nobody could enter, thus, avoiding the approval of secondary laws which could led to a partial privatization of the Mexican national oil company, PEMEX. Petróleos Mexicanos ( PEMEX) is Mexico 's state-owned Petroleum company Chairs and tables were used as barricades. López Obrador requested a 4-month long debate on energy policies and not a 50-day debate presented by the PAN, PRI, Green Party and New Alliance. The Ecologist Green Party of Mexico ( Spanish: Partido Verde Ecologista de México known by the abbreviation PVEM)is one of the six political parties This article is about the Mexican Party for other political parties of the same name see New Alliance Party (disambiguation The New Alliance
On April 16, 2008, a tendentious TV spot was shown on México's Televisa, comparing López Obrador with Benito Mussolini, Adolf Hitler, Augusto Pinochet and Victoriano Huerta, the last Mexican President who closed the Congress, due to the fact that those historical figures had, at one time, either dissolved or killed parliament members, even though the comparison is not real due to the following points:
Unless otherwise noted, in Spanish and published in Mexico.
Rosario Robles Berlanga
|Head of Government of the Federal District|
Alejandro Encinas Rodríguez
Porfirio Muñoz Ledo
|President of the Party of the Democratic Revolution|
Pablo Gómez Alvarez
|Party of the Democratic Revolution Presidential candidate|