|French literary history|
André Marie Chénier (October 30, 1762 – July 25, 1794) was a French poet and is associated with the events of the French Revolution of which he was a victim. This article is a general introduction to French literature For detailed information on French literature in specific historic periods see the separate historical articles in the Medieval French literature is for the purpose of this article Literature written in Oïl languages (particularly Old French and early Middle For more information on historical developments in this period see Renaissance, History of France, and Early Modern France. French literature of the 17th century &mdashthe so-called Grand Siècle &mdashspans the reigns of Henry IV of France, the Regency of Marie de Medici French literature of the 18th century usually refers to the literature written between 1715, the year of the death of King Louis XIV of France, and 1798 the year French literature of the nineteenth century is for the purpose of this article literature written in French from (roughly 1799 to 1900 French literature of the twentieth century is for the purpose of this article literature written in French from (roughly 1895 to 1990 Contemporary French literature is French literature roughly from the 1990s to Today. Chronological list of French language authors (regardless of nationality by date of birth Events 637 - Antioch surrenders to the Muslim forces under Rashidun Caliphate after the Battle of Iron bridge. Year 1762 ( MDCCLXII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Events 285 - Diocletian appoints Maximian as Caesar, co-ruler Year 1794 ( MDCCXCIV) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. A poet is a person who writes Poetry. Etymology From the Ancient greek: ποιέω, poieō: "I make or compose" The French Revolution (1789–1799 was a period of political and social upheaval in the History of France, during which the French governmental structure previously an His sensual, emotive poetry marks him as one of the precursors of the Romantic movement. Romanticism is a complex artistic literary and intellectual movement that originated in the second half of the 18th century in Western Europe, and gained strength during the His career was brought to an abrupt end when he was guillotined for alleged "crimes against the state", just three days before the end of the Reign of Terror. The guillotine ( pronounced /ˈgijətin/ or /ˈgɪlətin/ in English in French was a device used for carrying out executions by Decapitation. Saint justjpg|thumbnail|200px| Louis Antoine Léon de Saint-Just]] The Reign of Terror' (5 September 1793 &ndash 28 July 1794 or simply The Terror (la Terreur was Chénier's life has been the subject of Umberto Giordano's opera Andrea Chenier and novels such as Dickens's Tale of Two Cities. Umberto Menotti Maria Giordano ( August 28, 1867 &ndash November 12, 1948) was an Italian composer mainly of Opera. Andrea Chénier is an Opera in four acts by the Verismo composer Umberto Giordano, set to an Italian Libretto by Luigi Illica A Tale of Two Cities (1859 is the second Historical novel by Charles Dickens, set in London and Paris before and during the
He was born in the Galata district (today Karaköy neighborhood) of Istanbul, in today's Turkey. Galata or Galatae is a district in Istanbul, the largest city of Turkey. Karaköy, the modern name for the ancient Galata, is a commercial neighborhood in the Beyoğlu district of Istanbul, Turkey, located at the northern Istanbul (historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see the other Names of Istanbul) is the largest city of Turkey Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches His father, Louis Chénier, a native of Languedoc, after twenty years in the Levant as a cloth-merchant, was appointed to a position equivalent to that of French consul at Istanbul. Languedoc ( in French Lengadòc in Occitan) is a former Province of France, now continued in the modern-day ''régions'' of Languedoc-Roussillon See also Names of the Levant The Levant (lə'vænt is a geographical term that denotes a large area in Western Asia, roughly bounded on the north by the His mother, Élisabeth Santi-Lomaca, whose sister was grandmother of Adolphe Thiers, was of Greek origins. Louis-Adolphe fr Thiers ( Marseille, 16 April 1797&ndash3 September 1877 was a French politician and Historian. Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία  When André was three years old, his father returned to France, and from 1768 to 1775 served as consul-general of France in Morocco. Year 1768 ( MDCCLXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Year 1775 ( MDCCLXXV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Morocco (المغرب "al-Maghrib" officially the Kingdom of Morocco (المملكة المغربية is a country located in North Africa The family, of which André was the third son, and Marie-Joseph (see below) the fourth, remained in France; and after a few years, during which André ran wild with an aunt in Carcassonne, he distinguished himself as a verse-translator from the classics at the Collège de Navarre (the school in former days of Jean Gerson and Bossuet) in Paris. Carcassonne (Carcassona is a fortified French town in the Aude département, of which it is the Prefecture, The College of Navarre ( Collège de Navarre) was one of the Colleges of the historic University of Paris. Jean Charlier de Gerson ( December 13, 1363 – July 12, 1429) French scholar educator reformer and poet chancellor of the Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet ( September 27, 1627 - April 12, 1704) was a French Bishop and theologian, renowned Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city
In 1783 he obtained a cadetship in a French regiment at Strasbourg, but the novelty soon wore off. Year 1783 ( MDCCLXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or Strasbourg (Strasbourg stʁazbuʁ Alsatian: Strossburi,; Straßburg) is the capital and principal City of the Alsace région He returned to Paris before the end of the year, was well received by his family, and mixed in the cultivated circle which frequented the salon of his mother, among them Lebrun-Pindare, Lavoisier, Lesueur, Dorat, Parmy, and a little later the painter Jacques-Louis David. A salon is a gathering of stimulating people of quality under the roof of an inspiring hostess or host partly to amuse one another and partly to refine their taste and increase their knowledge through Ponce Denis Écouchard Lebrun ( August 11, 1729 - August 31, 1807) was a French lyric Poet. Jean-François Le Sueur (or Lesueur) ( 15 February 1760 — 6 October 1837) was a French Composer, best known for his Claude Joseph Dorat ( December 31, 1734 &ndash April 29, 1780) was a French writer also known as Le Chevalier Dorat. Jacques-Louis David (August 30 1748 &ndash December 29 1825 was a highly influential French painter in the Neoclassical style considered to be
He had already chosen his vocation as a poet, and was steeped in the classical archaism of the time, when, in 1784, his taste for the antique was confirmed by a visit to Rome in the company of two school friends, the brothers Trudaine. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 From Naples, after visiting Pompeii, he returned to Paris, his mind fermenting with poetic images and projects, few of which he was destined to realize. Naples ( Napoli, Neapolitan: Nàpule) is a historic City in southern Italy, the Capital of the Pompeii is a ruined and partially buried Roman town-city near modern Naples and Caserta in the Italian region of Campania, in For nearly three years, however, he was enabled to study and to experiment in verse without any active pressure or interruption from his family — three precious years in which the first phase of his art as a writer of idylls and bucolics, imitated to a large extent from Theocritus, Bion and the Greek anthologists, was elaborated. Pastoral, as an adjective refers to the lifestyle of Shepherds and Pastoralists moving livestock around larger areas of land according to seasons and availability Theocritus ( Greek: Θεόκριτος the creator of Ancient Greek Bucolic Poetry, flourished in the 3rd century BC
Among the poems written or at least sketched during this period were L'Oaristys, L'Aveugle, La Jeune Malode, Bacchus, Euphrosine and La Jeune Tarentine, the last a synthesis of his purest manner, mosaic though it is of reminiscences of at least a dozen classical poets. As in glyptic so in poetic art, the Hellenism of the time was decadent and Alexandrine rather than Attic of the best period. Hellenism, as a neoclassical movement distinct from other Roman or Greco-Roman forms of Neoclassicism emerging after the European Renaissance, is most often associated An alexandrine is a line of poetic meter comprising 12 Syllables Alexandrines are common in the German literature of the Baroque period and But Chénier is always far more than an imitator. La Jeune Tarentine is a work of personal emotion and inspiration. The colouring is that of classic mythology, but the spiritual element is as individual as that of any classical poem by Milton, Gray, Keats or Tennyson. John Milton ( 9 December, 1608 – 8 November, 1674) was an English Poet, Prose Polemicist and Thomas Gray ( December 26, 1716 – July 30, 1771) was an English Poet, classical scholar and professor at Cambridge Alfred Tennyson 1st Baron Tennyson (6 August 1809 – 6 October 1892 was Poet Laureate of the United Kingdom and remains one of the most popular English poets
Apart from his idylls and his elegies, Chénier also experimented from early youth in didactic and philosophic verse, and when he commenced his Hermes in 1783 his ambition was to condense the Encyclopédie of Denis Diderot into a poem somewhat after the manner of Lucretius. Encyclopédie ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences des arts et des métiers (Encyclopedia or a systematic dictionary of the sciences arts and crafts was a general Denis Diderot ( October 5, 1713 – July 31, 1784) was a French Philosopher and writer Titus Lucretius Carus (ca 99 BC- ca 55 BC was a Roman Poet and Philosopher. This poem was to treat of man's position in the Universe, first in an isolated state, and then in society. The Universe is defined as everything that Physically Exists: the entirety of Space and Time, all forms of Matter, Energy It remains fragmentary, and though some of the fragments are fine, its attempt at scientific exposition approximates too closely to the manner of Erasmus Darwin to suit a modern ear. Erasmus Darwin (12 December 1731&ndash18 April 1802 was an English Physician, natural philosopher physiologist inventor and poet Another fragment called L'Invention sums Chénier's Ars Poetica in the verse "Sur des pensers nouveaux, faisons des vers antiques. " Suzanne represents the torso of a Biblical poem on a very large scale, in six cantos.
In the meantime, André had published nothing, and some of these last pieces were in fact not yet written, when in November 1787 an opportunity of a fresh career presented itself. The new ambassador at the Court of St. James's, M. The Court of St James's is the name of the Royal court of the United Kingdom. de la Luzerne, was connected in some way with the Chénier family, and he offered to take André with him as his secretary. The offer was too good to be refused, but the poet hated himself on the banks of the fière Tamise, and wrote in bitter ridicule of "Ces Anglais. Nation toute à vendre à qui peut la payer. De contrée en contrée allant au monde entier, Offrir sa joie ignoble et son faste grossier. " He seems to have been interested in the poetic diction of John Milton and James Thomson, and a few of his verses are remotely inspired by Shakespeare and Thomas Gray. John Milton ( 9 December, 1608 – 8 November, 1674) was an English Poet, Prose Polemicist and James Thomson ( 11 September, 1700 &ndash 27 August, 1748) was a Scottish Poet and playwright known for his masterpiece William Shakespeare ( baptised To say, however, that he studied English literature would be an exaggeration.
The events of 1789 and the startling success of his younger brother, Marie-Joseph, as political playwright and pamphleteer, concentrated all his thoughts upon France. Year 1789 ( MDCCLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common A playwright, also known as a dramatist, is a person who writes dramatic literature or Drama. A pamphleteer is a historical term for someone who creates or distributes Pamphlets Pamphlets were used to broadcast the writer's opinions on an issue for example in order In April 1790 he could stand London no longer, and once more joined his parents at Paris in the rue de Cléry. The France that he plunged into with such impetuosity was upon the verge of anarchy. Anomie, in contemporary English language is a sociological term that signifies in individuals an erosion diminution or absence of personal norms standards or values A strong constitutionalist, Chénier took the view that the Revolution was already complete and that all that remained to be done was the inauguration of the reign of law. A constitutional monarchy, or a limited monarchy, is a form of Constitutional Government, wherein either an elected or hereditary Monarch is The French Revolution (1789–1799 was a period of political and social upheaval in the History of France, during which the French governmental structure previously an Moderate as were his views and disinterested as were his motives, his tactics were passionately and dangerously aggressive. From an idyllist and elegist we find him suddenly transformed into an unsparing master of poetical satire. Satire is often strictly defined as a literary genre or form; although in practice it is also found in the graphic and Performing arts In satire human His prose Avis au peuple Iran Qais (August 24, 1790) was followed by the rhetorical Jeu de paume, a somewhat declamatory moral ode addressed to the painter David. Events 49 BC - Julius Caesar 's General Gaius Scribonius Curio is defeated in the Second Battle of the Bagradas River Year 1790 ( MDCCXC) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year
In the meantime he orated at the Feuillants Club, and contributed frequently to the Journal de Paris from November 1791 to July 1792, when he wrote his scorching iambes to Collot d'Herbois, Sur les Suisses révoltés du regiment de Châteauvieux. In Greek mythology, Iambe was a goddess of verse especially scurrilous ribald humour Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois ( June 19, 1749 &ndash January 8, 1796) was a French actor dramatist essayist and revolutionary The insurrection of August 10, 1792 uprooted his party, his paper and his friends, and the management of relatives who kept him out of the way in Normandy alone saved him from the September Massacres. Events 612 BC - Killing of Sinsharishkun, King of Assyrian Empire Year 1792 ( MDCCXCII) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year Normandy (Normandie Norman: Normaundie) is a geographical region corresponding to the former Duchy of Normandy. September Massacres were a wave of Mob violence which overtook Paris in late summer 1792, during the French Revolution. In the month following these events his democratic brother, Marie-Joseph, had entered the Convention. During the French Revolution, the National Convention or Convention, in France, comprised the Constitutional and legislative assembly André's sombre rage against the course of events found vent in the line on the Maenads who mutilated the king's Swiss Guard, and in the Ode a Charlotte Corday congratulating France that "Un scélérat de moins rampe dans cette fange. Marie-Anne Charlotte de Corday d'Armont ( July 27, 1768 – July 17, 1793) known to history as Charlotte Corday, was a figure of the " At the express request of Malesherbes he provided some arguments to the materials collected for the defence of the king. Guillaume-Chrétien de Lamoignon de Malesherbes, often referred to as Malesherbes or Lamoignon-Malesherbes ( December 6, 1721 &ndash
After the king's execution he sought a secluded retreat on the Plateau de Satory at Versailles and only went out after nightfall. Versailles (vɛʀsaj in French) formerly de facto capital of the kingdom of France, is now a wealthy suburb of Paris and is still an important There he wrote the poems inspired by Fanny (Mme Laurent Lecoulteux), including the exquisite Ode à Versailles, one of his freshest, noblest and most varied poems. His solitary life at Versailles lasted nearly a year. On March 7, 1794 he was arrested at the house of Mme Piscatory at Passy. Events 161 - Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius dies and is succeeded by co-Emperors Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus Year 1794 ( MDCCXCIV) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Passy is an exclusive area of Paris, France, located in the XVIe arrondissement, on the Right Bank. Two obscure agents of the Committee of Public Safety were in search of a marquise who had flown, but an unknown stranger was found in the house and arrested on suspicion of being the aristocrat that they were searching for. The Committee of Public Safety (Comité de salut public le Haut Comité de la santé publique which is an entirely unrelated present-day institution--> set up by the This was Chénier, who had come on a visit of sympathy.
He was taken to the Luxembourg and afterwards to Saint-Lazare. The Palais du Luxembourg in the VIe arrondissement of Paris, north of the Jardin du Luxembourg, is where the French Senate meets During the 140 days of his imprisonment there he wrote the marvellous iambes (in alternate lines of 12 and 8 syllables), which, in the words of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, "hiss and stab like poisoned bullets," and which were transmitted to his family by a venal gaoler. There he wrote the best known of all his verses, the pathetic Jeune captive, a poem at once of enchantment and of despair. Suffocating in an atmosphere of cruelty and baseness, Chénier's agony found expression almost to the last in these murderous iambes which he launched against the Convention. Ten days before the end, the painter Joseph-Benoît Suvée completed the well-known portrait. Joseph-Benoît Suvée ( Bruges, 3 January 1743 - Rome, 9 February 1807) was a Belgian painter strongly influenced He might have been overlooked but for the well-meant, indignant officiousness of his father. Marie-Joseph had done his best to prevent this, but he could do nothing more.
Robespierre, who was himself on the brink of the volcano, remembered the venomous sallies in the Journal de Paris. Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre (maksimiljɛ̃ fʁɑ̃swa maʁi izidɔʁ də ʁɔbɛspjɛʁ ( 6 May 1758 – 28 July 1794) Chénier was one of the last persons that Robespierre had executed. At sundown, Chénier was taken by cart to the guillotine and with him was a Princess of Monaco who was guillotined with him on the very day of his condemnation on a bogus charge of conspiracy, André Chénier was guillotined. The guillotine ( pronounced /ˈgijətin/ or /ˈgɪlətin/ in English in French was a device used for carrying out executions by Decapitation. Three days later Robespierre was seized and executed without trial, ending the Terror.
The record of Chénier last moments by La Touche is rather melodramatic and is certainly not above suspicion. He was interred in the Cimetière de Picpus. The Picpus Cemetery ( Fr: Cimetière de Picpus is the largest private cemetery in the city of Paris, France.
Incomplete as was his career — he was not quite thirty-two — his life was cut short in a crescendo of all its nobler elements. Exquisite as was already his susceptibility to beauty and his mastership of the rarest poetic material, we cannot doubt that Chénier was preparing for still higher flights of lyric passion and poetic intensity. Nothing that he had yet done could be said to compare in promise of assured greatness with the iambes, the Odes and the Jeune Captive. At the time of his death he left practically nothing to tell the world of his genius, and his reputation has had to be retrieved from oblivion page by page, and almost poem by poem.
During his lifetime only his Jeu de paume (1791) and Hymne sur les Suisses (1792) had been given to the world. The Jeune Captive appeared in the Decade philosophique, Jan. 9, 1795; La Jeune Tarentine in the Mercure of March 22, 1801. Events 238 - Gordian I and his son Gordian II are proclaimed Roman emperor. Year 1801 ( MDCCCI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting on Tuesday Chateaubriand quoted three or four passages in his Genie du christianisme.
Fayette and Lefeuvre-Deumier also gave a few fragments; but it was not until 1819 that an attempt was made by Henri de Latouche to collect the poems in a substantive volume. Fayette is the name of a number of places in the United States of America. Hyacinthe-Joseph Alexandre Thabaud de Latouche, commonly known as Henri de Latouche ( 2 February 1785 - 9 March 1851) was a French Since the appearance of the editio princeps of Chénier's poems in La Touche's volume, many additional poems and fragments have been discovered, and an edition of the complete works of the poet, collated with the manuscripts bequeathed to the Bibliothèque Nationale by Mme Elisa de Chénier in 1892, has been edited by Paul Dimoff and published by Delagrave. In Classical scholarship, editio princeps is a Term of art. It means roughly the first printed edition of a work that previously had existed only in
During the same period the critical estimates of the poet have fluctuated in a truly extraordinary manner. Sainte-Beuve in his Tableau of 1828 sang the praises of Chénier as an heroic forerunner of the Romantic movement and a precursor of Victor Hugo. Saint Beuve redirects here For the eponymous saint see Beuve Abbess of Saint Pierre de Reims. Victor-Marie Hugo ( ( February 26, 1802 – May 22, 1885) was a French Poet, Playwright, Novelist Chénier, he said, had "inspired and determined" Romanticism. Romanticism is a complex artistic literary and intellectual movement that originated in the second half of the 18th century in Western Europe, and gained strength during the This suggestion of modernity in Chénier was echoed by a chorus of critics who worked the idea to death; in the meantime, the standard edition of Chénier's works was being prepared by M. Becq de Fouquiéres and was issued in 1862, but rearranged and greatly improved by the editor in 1872. The same patient investigator gave his New Documents on André Chénier to the world in 1875.
In the second volume of La Vie littéraire Anatole France contests the theory of Sainte-Beuve. Anatole France (16 April 1844—12 October 1924 born François-Anatole Thibault, Anatole France studied at the Collège Stanislas and after graduation Far from being an initiator, he maintains that Chénier's poetry is the last expression of an expiring form of art. His matter and his form belong of right to the classic spirit of the 18th century. He is a contemporary, not of Hugo and Leconte de Lisle, but of Suard and Morellet. Charles Marie René Leconte de Lisle ( October 22, 1818 – July 17, 1894) was a French Poet of the Parnassian André Morellet ( March 7, 1727 - January 12, 1819) was a French Economist and writer Émile Faguet sums up on the side of M. Émile Faguet ( December 17, 1847 - June 7, 1916) was a French writer and Critic. France in his volume on the 18th century (1890). The 18th century lasted from 1701 to 1800 in the Gregorian calendar, in accordance with the Anno Domini / Common Era numbering system Chénier's real disciples, according to the latest view, are Leconte de Lisle and M. de Heredia, mosaistes who have at heart the cult of antique and pagan beauty, of "pure art" and of "objective poetry. José-Maria de Heredia (in Spanish: José María de Heredia, November 22, 1842 - October 3, 1905) Cuban born " Heredia himself reverted to the judgment of Sainte-Beuve to the effect that Chénier was the first to make modern verses, and he adds, "I do not know in the French language a more exquisite fragment than the three hundred verses of the Bucoliques. " Chénier's influence has been specially remarkable in Russia, where his last hours became the subject of an important poem by Pushkin (1825), while Ivan Kozlov translated La Jeune Captive, La Jeune Tarentine and other famous pieces. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Ivan Ivanovich Kozlov ( April 22, 1779, Moscow — February 11, 1840, St
The general French verdict on his work is in the main well summed by Morillot, when he says that, judged by the usual tests of the Romantic movement of the 1820s (love for strange literatures of the North, medievalism, novelties and experiments), Chénier would inevitably have been excluded from the cénacle of 1821, On the other hand he brought to the world ennui and melancholy which were among the early symptoms of the movement, and he experimented in French verse in a manner which would have led to his excommunication by the typical performers of the 18th century. What is universally admitted is that Chénier was a very great artist, who like Ronsard opened up sources of poetry in France which had long seemed dried up. Pierre de Ronsard ( 11 September, 1524 – December 1585 was a French Poet and "prince of poets" (as his own generation in France In England it is easier to feel his attraction than that of some far greater reputations in French poetry, for, rhetorical though he nearly always is, he yet reveals something of that quality which to the Northern mind has always been of the very essence of poetry, that quality which made Sainte-Beuve say of him, that he was the first great poet "personnel et réveur" in France since La Fontaine. His diction is still very artificial, the poetic diction of Delille transformed in the direction of Hugo, but not very much. Jacques Delille ( June 22, 1738 - May 1, 1813) was a French Poet and Translator. Victor-Marie Hugo ( ( February 26, 1802 – May 22, 1885) was a French Poet, Playwright, Novelist On the other hand, his descriptive power in treating of nature shows far more art than the Trianin school ever attained. His love of the woodland and his political fervour often remind us of Shelley, and his delicate perception of Hellenic beauty, and the perfume of Greek legend, give us almost a foretaste of Keats. Percy Bysshe Shelley (August 4 1792 – July 8 1822 ˈpɝːsɪ ˈbɪʃ ˈʃɛlɪ was one of the major English Romantic poets and is widely considered to be among For these reasons, among others, Chénier, whose art is destined to so many vicissitudes of criticism in his own country, seems assured among English readers of a place among the Dei Majores of French poetry.
The Chénier literature of late years has become enormous. His fate has been commemorated in numerous plays, pictures and poems, notably in the opera André Chénier by Umberto Giordano, the epilogue by Sully-Prudhomme, the Stello by Alfred de Vigny, the delicate statue by Puech in the Luxembourg, and the well-known portrait in the centre of the "Last Days of the Terror. Andrea Chénier is an Opera in four acts by the Verismo composer Umberto Giordano, set to an Italian Libretto by Luigi Illica Umberto Menotti Maria Giordano ( August 28, 1867 &ndash November 12, 1948) was an Italian composer mainly of Opera. René-François-Armand (Sully Prudhomme ( Paris, France, March 16, 1839 - Châtenay-Malabry, France, September Alfred Victor de Vigny ( March 27, 1797 &ndash September 17, 1863) was a French Poet, Playwright, and Novelist " The best editions are still those of Becq de Fouquières (Paris, 1862, 1872 and 1881), though these are now supplemented by those of Louis Moland (2 vols. Louis Aimé Victor Becq de Fouquières (1831-1887 was a versatile French Man of letters from Paris. , 1889) and R. Guillard (2 vols. , 1899).