Andalusian classical music (or Arabo-Andalusian music, moussiqua al-âla) is a style of Arabic music found across North Africa, though it evolved out of the music of Andalusia between the 9th and 15th centuries, during the Al-Andalus period. Arabic music or Arab music ( Arabic: موسيقى عربية;) includes several genres and styles of Music ranging from Arabic classical North Africa or Northern Africa is the Northernmost Region of the African Continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan This article is on the music of Andalusia, a region in Spain. The 9th century is the period from 801 to 900 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era. Al-Andalus (الأندلس was the Arabic name given to those parts of the Iberian Peninsula governed by Muslims or It is now most closely associated with Morocco (al-Âla), though similar traditions are found in Algeria (Gharnâtî, and San'a), Tunisia and Libya (al-Maalûf). Morocco (المغرب "al-Maghrib" officially the Kingdom of Morocco (المملكة المغربية is a country located in North Africa Algeria ( ar [[Arabic]] الجزائر, Al Jaza'ir ælʤæˈzæːʔir Amazigh: ⴷⵥⴰⵢⴻⵔ Dzayer) officially the People's Tunisia (تونس Tūnis officially the Tunisian Republic ( is a country located in North Africa. Libya ( ليبيا ar-Latn Lībiyā; Libyan vernacular: Lībya; Amazigh:) officially the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Ma'lūf ( معلوف) is a genre of art music in the Andalusian classical music tradition of Tunisia. The popular musics of chaabi developed themselves as alternative to this classical form of music. Chaabi, also known as Chaâbi, Sha-bii, or Sha'bii, refers to two different Music genres in North Africa: Algerian
Andalusian classical music was allegedly born in the Emirate of Cordoba (Al-Andalus) in the 9th century. The Caliphate of Córdoba (Arabic خلافة قرطبة ruled the Iberian peninsula ( Al-Andalus) and North Africa from the city of Al-Andalus (الأندلس was the Arabic name given to those parts of the Iberian Peninsula governed by Muslims or The Persian musician Ziryâb (d. Abu l-Hasan ‘Ali Ibn Nafi‘ ( Persian and Arabic: أبو الحسن علي ابن نافع) (c 857), who became court musician of Abd al-Rahman II in Cordoba, is usually credited with its invention. Abd ar-Rahman II (عبد الرحمن الثاني (788-852 was Umayyad Emir of Cordoba in the Al-Andalus ( Moorish Iberia) Later, the poet, composer and philosopher Ibn Bâjja (d. 1139) of Saragossa is said to have combined the style of Ziryâb with Western classical music to produce a wholly new style that spread across Iberia and North Africa. Classical music is a broad term that usually refers to mainstream music produced in or rooted in the traditions of Western liturgical and Secular music
By the 11th century, Moorish Spain and Portugal had become a center for the manufacture of instruments. These goods spread gradually throughout France, influencing French troubadours, and eventually reaching the rest of Europe. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. A troubadour ( IPA:, originally) was a composer and performer of Occitan Lyric poetry during the High Middle Ages (1100&ndash1350 The English words lute, rebec, guitar, organ and naker are derived from Arabic oud, rabab, qitara, urghun and nagqara'. Lute can refer generally to any plucked string instrument with a neck (either Fretted or unfretted and a deep round back or more specifically to an instrument from The rebec (sometimes rebeck, and originally various other spellings is a bowed string Musical instrument. The guitar is a Musical instrument with ancient roots that is used in a wide variety of musical styles The organ (from Greek όργανον – organon "organ instrument tool" is a Keyboard instrument of one or more divisions each A naker or nakir is a small Drum, of Arabic origin and the forebear of the European Timpani (kettledrum The oud ( عود ʿūd, plural أعواد, a‘wād; kaban; Persian: بربط barbat; ud The rebab ( Arabic الرباب or رباب; also rebap, rabab, rebeb, The guitar is a Musical instrument with ancient roots that is used in a wide variety of musical styles
The classical music of Andalusia reached North Africa via centuries of cultural exchange, the Almohad dynasty and then the Marinid dynasty being present both in Al-Andalus and in Morocco and most of North Africa. The Almohad Dynasty (From Arabic الموحدون al-Muwahhidun, i The Anglicised name used for this article derives from the Arabic Banu Marin (also Benī Merīn, which is the source of the Spanish name Mass resettlements of Muslims and Sephardi Jews from Cordoba, Sevilla, Valencia and Granada, fleing the Reconquista, further expanded the reach of Andalusian music. A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion Sephardi Jews ( Hebrew: ספרדי, Standard Səfardi Tiberian Səp̄arədî; plural The Reconquista (a Spanish and Portuguese word for "Reconquest" Arabic: الاسترداد, "Recapturing" was a period
A suite form called the Andalusi nubah forms the basis of al-âla. Andalusi nubah ( أندلسي نوبة) is a genre found in the North African Maghrib states of Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia Though it has roots in Andalusia, the modern nûba probably is certainly a North African creation. Andalusia (Andalucía is an autonomous community of Spain. It is the most populous and the second largest in terms of land area Each nûba is dominated by one musical mode. In Music, a scale is an ordered series of Musical intervals which along with the key or tonic, define the pitches However mode It is said there used to be twenty-four nuba linked to each hour of the day, but in Morocco only eleven nuba have survived, which together include 25 "Andalusian" modes. Each nûba is divided into five parts called mîzân, each with a corresponding rhythm. The rhythms occur in the following order in a complete nuba:
An entire nuba can last six or seven hours, though this is never done today. Rather, in Morocco usually only one mîzân from any given nûba is performed at a time.
Each mizan begins with instrumental preludes called either tûshiya, m'shaliya or bughya, followed by as many as twenty songs (sana'i) in the entire mizan.
Andalusian classical music orchestras are spread across Morocco, including the cities of Fez, Tetouan, Chaouen, Tangier, Meknes, Rabat, and Casablanca. Fes or Fez ( Arabic: فاس, French Fès is the fourth largest City in Morocco, after Casablanca, Rabat Tétouan ( Arabic: تطوان (meaning eyes in the Berber language) also spelled Tetuan, sometimes Tettawen or Tettawan, is a city Chefchaouen (ʃəfʃɑwən ( شفشاون, Xauen or Chauen) is a city in northwest Morocco. Tangier or Tangiers ]] ( Tanja طنجة in Berber and Arabic, Tánger in Spanish Meknes (مكناس is a city in northern Morocco, located 130 kilometres from the capital Rabat and 60 kilometres from Fes. Rabat ( Arabic الرباط, transliterated ar-Rabāṭ or ar-Ribāṭ) population 2 million ( 2007 estimate) is the Casablanca (in Standard Arabic: الدار البيضاء ad-Dār al-Bayḍāʼ; Moroccan Arabic: dar beïda الدار البيضا
Andalusian classical music orchestras use instruments including oud (lute), rabab (rebec), darbouka (goblet drums), taarija (tambourine), qanún (zither) and kamenjah (violin). The oud ( عود ʿūd, plural أعواد, a‘wād; kaban; Persian: بربط barbat; ud Lute can refer generally to any plucked string instrument with a neck (either Fretted or unfretted and a deep round back or more specifically to an instrument from The rebab ( Arabic الرباب or رباب; also rebap, rabab, rebeb, The rebec (sometimes rebeck, and originally various other spellings is a bowed string Musical instrument. The goblet drum (also chalice drum) is a goblet shaped Hand drum used mostly in Arabic, Assyrian, Persian, Balkan, The goblet drum (also chalice drum) is a goblet shaped Hand drum used mostly in Arabic, Assyrian, Persian, Balkan, A taarija is a Moroccan drum single skin and tube played singly unlike the Tabla, which is a pair of drums The tambourine or Marine is a Musical instrument of the percussion family consisting of a frame often of wood or plastic with pairs of small metal jingles See also Kanun (disambiguation. Qanun ( قانون) refers to laws promulgated by Muslim sovereigns in particular the Ottoman Sultans The zither is a musical String instrument, most commonly found in Slovenia, Austria, Hungary, the southern regions of Germany, alpine The violin is a bowed String instrument with four strings usually tuned in Perfect fifths It is the smallest and highest-pitched member More recently, other instruments have been added to the ensemble, including piano, contrabass, cello, and even banjos, saxophones and clarinets, though these latter instruments are rare. The piano is a Musical instrument played by means of a keyboard that produces sound by striking steel strings with Felt covered hammers The violoncello (abbreviated to cello, or 'cello, plural cellos or celli —the c is tʃ The banjo is a Stringed instrument developed by enslaved Africans in the United States, adapted from several African instruments The clarinet is a Musical instrument in the Woodwind family The name derives from adding the suffix -et meaning little to the Italian word