Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula in the 9th century BC to a large empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. The Roman Republic was the phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a Republican form of government a period which began with the overthrow of the The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial The Western Roman Empire refers to the western half of the Roman Empire, from its division by Diocletian in 285 the other half of the Roman Empire was the Eastern A Civilization is a society in which large numbers of people share a variety of common elements Th Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula (Penisola italiana or Penisola appenninica) is one of the three Peninsulas of Southern Europe An empire (from the Latin " Imperium " denoting military Command within the ancient Roman government) is a State that  In its twelve centuries of existence, Roman civilization shifted from a monarchy, to a republic based on a combination of oligarchy and democracy, to an increasingly autocratic empire. A monarchy is a Form of government in which supreme power is actually or nominally lodged in an individual who is the Head of state, often for life or The Roman Republic was the phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a Republican form of government a period which began with the overthrow of the Oligarchy' ( Greek, Oligarkhía) is a Form of government where Political power effectively rests with a small elite segment Democracy is a form of government in which the supreme power is held completely by the people under a free electoral system An autocracy is a Form of government in which the Political power is held by a single self-appointed ruler The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial It came to dominate Western Europe and the area surrounding the Mediterranean Sea through conquest and assimilation. Western Europe at its most general meaning means 'all the countries in the West of Europe ' An invasion is a military offensive consisting of all or large parts of the Armed forces of one geopolitical entity aggressively entering territory A region or society where several different groups are spontaneously assimilated is sometimes referred to as a Melting pot.
The Roman empire went into decline in the 5th century AD. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial Plagued by internal instability and attacked by various migrating peoples, the western part of the empire, including Hispania, Gaul, and Italy, broke up into independent kingdoms in the 5th century. The Decline of the Roman Empire, leading to the Fall of the Roman Empire, or the Fall of Rome, was the end of the Western Roman Empire. The Migration Period, also called Barbarian Invasions, or sometimes Völkerwanderung ( German for "wandering of peoples" is the English name The Western Roman Empire refers to the western half of the Roman Empire, from its division by Diocletian in 285 the other half of the Roman Empire was the Eastern Hispania was the name given by the Romans to the whole of the Iberian Peninsula (modern Portugal, Spain, Andorra, Gibraltar Gaul (Gallia was the Roman name for the region of Western Europe comprising present day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Th Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula (Penisola italiana or Penisola appenninica) is one of the three Peninsulas of Southern Europe The eastern part of the empire, governed from Constantinople, survived this crisis, and would live on for another millennium, until its last remains were finally annexed by the emerging Ottoman Empire. Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish This eastern, medieval stage of the Empire is usually referred to as the Byzantine Empire by historians.
Roman civilization is often grouped into "classical antiquity" with ancient Greece, a civilization that inspired much of the culture of ancient Rome. Classical antiquity (also the classical era or classical period) is a broad term for a long period of cultural History centered on the Mediterranean The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca Endless such activities were also conducted in other cities under ancient Rome Ancient Rome contributed greatly to the development of law, war, art, literature, architecture, technology and language in the Western world, and its history continues to have a major influence on the world today. Law is a system of rules enforced through a set of Institutions used as an instrument to underpin civil obedience politics economics and society War is an international relations Dispute, characterized by organized Violence between National Military units Art refers to a diverse range of Human activities creations and expressions that are appealing to the Senses or Emotions of a human individual Literature is the Art of written works Literally translated the word means "acquaintance with letters" (from Latin littera letter The term architecture (from Greek αρχιτεκτονικήarchitektoniki) can be used to mean a process a profession or documentation Technology is a broad concept that deals with a Species ' usage and knowledge of Tools and Crafts and how it affects a species' ability to control and adapt A language is a dynamic set of visual auditory or tactile Symbols of Communication and the elements used to manipulate them The term Western world, the West or the Occident ( Latin: occidens -sunset -west as distinct from the Orient) can have multiple meanings The History of the city of Rome spans 2800 years of the existence of a city that grew from a small Italian village in the 9th century BC into the center
According to legend, Rome was founded on April 21, 753 BC by twin descendants of the Trojan prince Aeneas, Romulus and Remus. A legend ( Latin, legenda, "things to be read" is a Narrative of human actions that are perceived both by teller and listeners to The founding of Rome is reported by many legends which in recent times are beginning to be supplemented by more scientific reconstructions Events 753 BC - Romulus and Remus found Rome ( traditional date) Troy ( Greek: grc Τροία Troia, also, Ilion; Latin: Trōia, Īlium, Hittite: Wilusa or This article is about the Roman hero For other uses see Aeneas (disambiguation. Romulus (c 771 BC– c 717 BC and Remus (c 771 BC–c 753 BC are the traditional founders of Rome, appearing in Roman mythology  The Latin King Numitor of Alba Longa was ejected from his throne by his cruel brother Amulius and Numitor's daughter, Rhea Silvia, gave birth to Romulus and Remus. In Roman mythology, King Numitor of Alba Longa, son of Procas, was the father of Rhea Silvia. Alba Longa (in Italian sources occasionally written Albalonga) was an ancient city of Latium in central Italy southeast of Rome in the Alban In Roman mythology, Amulius was the brother of Numitor and son of Procas. Rhea Silvia (also written as Rea Silvia) and also known as Ilia, was the mythical mother of the twins Romulus and Remus, who founded the  Rhea Silvia was a Vestal Virgin who was raped by Mars, making the twins half-divine. In Ancient Rome, the Vestal Virgins ( sacerdos Vestalis) were the virgin Holy female Priests of Vesta, the Goddess of the Mars was the Roman Warrior god, the son of Juno and Jupiter, husband of Bellona, and the lover of Venus. The term " demigod " meaning "half-god" is used to describe mythological figures whose one parent was a god and whose other parent was human The new king feared that Romulus and Remus would take back the throne, so they were to be drowned.  A she-wolf (or a shepherd's wife in some accounts) saved and raised them, and when they were old enough, they returned the throne of Alba Longa to Numitor.  The twins then founded their own city, but Romulus killed Remus in a quarrel over which one of them was to reign as the King of Rome, though some sources state the quarrel was about who was going to give their name to the city. The Roman Kingdom ( Latin: Regnum Romanum) was the monarchical Government of the city of Rome Romulus became the source of the city's name.  As the city was bereft of women, legend says that the Latins invited the Sabines to a festival and stole their unmarried maidens, leading to the integration of the Latins and the Sabines. The Sabines ( Latin Sabini, Singular Sabinus) were an Italic tribe that lived in ancient Italy, inhabiting 
The city of Rome grew from settlements around a ford on the river Tiber, a crossroads of traffic and trade. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 The Tiber ( Latin Tiberis, Italian Tevere) is the third-longest River in Italy, rising in the Apennine mountains  According to archaeological evidence, the village of Rome was probably founded sometime in the 8th century BC, though it may go back as far as the 10th century BC, by members of the Latin tribe of Italy, on the top of the Palatine Hill. Archaeology, archeology, or archæology (from Greek grc ἀρχαιολογία archaiologia – grc ἀρχαῖος archaīos Latin is the name of various peoples or ethnicities related to the Latium region in the Italian Peninsula, to the Latin language, or to its descendants The Palatine Hill ( Latin: Collis Palatium or Mons Palatinus) is the centermost of the Seven Hills of Rome  The Etruscans, who had previously settled to the north in Etruria, seem to have established political control in the region by the late 7th century BC, forming the aristocratic and monarchial elite. Etruscan civilization is the modern English name given to the culture and way of life of a people of ancient Italy Etruria &mdash usually referred to in Greek and Latin source texts as Tyrrhenia &mdash was a region of Central Italy, located in an area The Etruscans apparently lost power in the area by the late 6th century BC, and at this point, the original Latin and Sabine tribes reinvented their government by creating a republic, with much greater restraints on the ability of rulers to exercise power. A republic is a State or Country that is not led by a hereditary Monarch, but in which the people (or at least a part of its people have impact on its 
The Roman Republic was established around 509 BC, according to later writers such as Livy, when the last of the seven kings of Rome, Tarquin the Proud, was deposed, and a system based on annually elected magistrates and various representative assemblies was established. The Roman Republic was the phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a Republican form of government a period which began with the overthrow of the Titus Livius (traditionally 59 BC &ndash AD 17 known as Livy in English, was a Roman historian who wrote a monumental history of Rome Lucius Tarquinius Superbus (also called Tarquin the Proud or Tarquin II) was the last of the seven Legendary Kings of Rome, son of Tarquinius The Roman Magistrates were elected officials in Ancient Rome.  A constitution set a series of checks and balances, and a separation of powers. The Constitution of the Roman Republic or Mos maiorum (Latin for "customs of the ancestors" was an unwritten set of guidelines and principles The most important magistrates were the two consuls, who together exercised executive authority in the form of imperium, or military command. Consul (abbrev cos; Latin plural consules) was the highest elected office of the Roman Republic and an appointive office under the Empire Imperium in a broad sense translates as power. In Ancient Rome the concept applied to People, and meant something like "power  The consuls had to work with the senate, which was initially an advisory council of the ranking nobility, or patricians, but grew in size and power over time. The Roman Senate was a political institution in Ancient Rome. The term " patrician " originally referred to a group of elite families in Ancient Rome, including both their natural and  Other magistracies in the Republic include praetors, aediles, and quaestors. Praetor was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities the commander of an Army, either before Aedile ( Aedilis, from aedes aedis "temple" "building" was an office of the Roman Republic. Quaestors were originally appointed by the Consuls to investigate criminal acts and determine if the consul needed to take public action  The magistracies were originally restricted to patricians, but were later opened to common people, or plebeians. Plebs were the general body of landowners of Roman Citizens in Ancient Rome.  Republican voting assemblies included the comitia centuriata (centuriate assembly), which voted on matters of war and peace and elected men to the most important offices, and the comitia tributa (tribal assembly), which elected less important offices. 
The early 5th Century BCE saw an influx of Gauls (Gallic Celts) push south of Cisalpine Gaul into Etruscan territory, which they took by force of arms. The Battle of the Allia was a battle of the first Gallic invasion of Italy Gaul (Gallia was the Roman name for the region of Western Europe comprising present day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Gaul (Gallia was the Roman name for the region of Western Europe comprising present day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western The Gauls were led by Brennus of the Senones tribe, and the Romans sent an envoy of three delegates to meet with him and determine his intentions and, covertly, the strength of his army. Brennus (or Brennos) is the name of two Gaulish chieftains famous in ancient history The Senones were a Gallic people of Gallia Celtica, who in the time of Julius Caesar inhabited the district which now includes the departments of The meeting did not go well, and ended in violence. Brennus, taken aback by what he referred to as a violation of the Laws of War, demanded the three Romans be handed over to him for punishment. Brennus (or Brennos) is the name of two Gaulish chieftains famous in ancient history The Romans refused, leading the Gauls to march on Rome in July, 387 BC. In response, the Romans, under A. Quintus Sulpicius, attempted to form a defense against the approaching Gauls. The result was a crushing defeat of the Romans near the River Allia, and the subsequent sack of Rome. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 The Romans retreated to the citadel on the Capitoline Hill, and remained in relative safety as they watched the looting and burning of the city. The Capitoline Hill, between the Forum and the Campus Martius, is one of the seven hills of Rome. After a period of seven months of Gallic occupation of the city, the Romans approached Brennus for terms of peace. Brennus (or Brennos) is the name of two Gaulish chieftains famous in ancient history Brennus settled on the sum of one-thousand pounds of gold, and the Gauls subsequently departed Rome.
The Romans gradually subdued the other peoples on the Italian peninsula, including the Etruscans. Etruscan civilization is the modern English name given to the culture and way of life of a people of ancient Italy  The last threat to Roman hegemony in Italy came when Tarentum, a major Greek colony, enlisted the aid of Pyrrhus of Epirus in 281 BC, but this effort failed as well. Hegemony (hɨˈdʒɛməni (Amer /hɨˈɡɛməni/ (Brit (ἡγεμονία hēgemonía) is a concept that has been used to describe and explain the dominance of one social Not to be confused with Toronto. Taranto ( Ancient Greek: Tarās; Modern Greek: Tarantas) is a coastal city in The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca Pyrrhus (318-272 BC ( Greek: Πύρρος Aιακιδης Pyrros Aiakides was one of the most successful ancient Greek generals of the Hellenistic  The Romans secured their conquests by founding Roman colonies in strategic areas, establishing stable control over the region.  In the second half of the 3rd century BC, Rome clashed with Carthage in the first of three Punic Wars. Carthage (Καρχηδών Karkhēdōn, Carthago from the Phoenician קרת חדשת phn-Latn Qart-ḥadašt meaning new town) refers The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage between 264 and 146 BC and were probably the largest wars yet of the ancient These wars resulted in Rome's first overseas conquests, of Sicily and Hispania, and the rise of Rome as a significant imperial power. Sicily ( Italian and Sicilian: Sicilia) is an autonomous region of Italy. Hispania was the name given by the Romans to the whole of the Iberian Peninsula (modern Portugal, Spain, Andorra, Gibraltar  After defeating the Macedonian and Seleucid Empires in the 2nd century BC, the Romans became the dominant people of the Mediterranean Sea. Macedon or Macedonia ( Greek grc Μακεδονία grc-Latn Makedonía) was the name of a kingdom centered in the northern-most The Seleucid Empire /sə'lusɪd/ ( 312 - 63 BC) was a Hellenistic empire i 
Foreign dominance led to internal strife. Senators became rich at the provinces' expense, but soldiers, who were mostly small-scale farmers, were away from home longer and could not maintain their land, and the increased reliance on foreign slaves and the growth of latifundia reduced the availability of paid work. In Ancient Rome, a province (Latin provincia, pl provinciae) was the basic and until the Tetrarchy (circa Slavery as an institution in Mediterranean cultures of the ancient world comprised a mixture of Debt-slavery, slavery as a punishment for crime and Latifundia are pieces of property covering tremendous areas The latifundia (Latin lātifundium; lātus, "spacious" + fundus, "farm estate"  Income from war booty, mercantilism in the new provinces, and tax farming created new economic opportunities for the wealthy, forming a new class of merchants, the equestrians. Mercantilism is the idea that a colony should export more goods than it imports and that a colony should sell at higher prices and buy at lower prices Tax farming was originally a Roman practice whereby the burden of Tax collection was reassigned by the Roman State to private individuals or groups Merchants function as professionals who deal with Trade, dealing in commodities that they do not produce themselves in order to produce Profit.  The lex Claudia forbade members of the Senate from engaging in commerce, so while the equestrians could theoretically join the Senate, they were severely restricted in terms of political power. Lex Claudia was a law established in Ancient Rome in 218 BC. The law was written by Quintus Claudius then Tribune of the Plebs, stating that  The Senate squabbled perpetually, repeatedly blocking important land reforms and refusing to give the equestrian class a larger say in the government. Land reforms (also Agrarian reform, though that can have a broader meaning is an often- controversial alteration in the societal arrangements whereby government Violent gangs of the urban unemployed, controlled by rival Senators, intimidated the electorate through violence. The situation came to a head in the late 2nd century BC under the Gracchi brothers, a pair of tribunes who attempted to pass land reform legislation that would redistribute the major patrician landholdings among the plebeians. The Gracchi brothers were a pair of tribunes in 2nd century BC who attempted to pass Land reform legislation in Ancient Rome that would redistribute the major patrician Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Byzantine Greek form τριβούνος) was a title shared by 2–3 elected magistracies in the Both brothers were killed, but the Senate passed some of their reforms in an attempt to placate the growing unrest of the plebeian and equestrian classes. The denial of Roman citizenship to allied Italian cities led to the Social War of 91–88 BC. Citizenship in the time of Ancient Rome was a privileged status afforded to certain individuals with respect to laws property and governance This article is about the conflict between Rome and her Italian allies between 91 and 88 BC For the Athenian conflict with its allies between 357 and 355 BC see  The military reforms of Gaius Marius resulted in soldiers often having more loyalty to their commander than to the city, and a powerful general could hold the city and Senate ransom. This article is about the Roman statesman who reorganized the army and was seven times Consul  This led to civil war between Marius and his protegé Sulla, and culminated in Sulla's dictatorship of 81–79 BC. Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix ( Latin: L•CORNELIVS•L•F•P•N•SVLLA•FELIX (c Dictator was a Political office of the Roman Republic. The dictator was above the three branches of government in the Constitution of the Roman Republic 
In the mid-1st century BC, three men, Julius Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus, formed a secret pact—the First Triumvirate—to control the Republic. Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, commonly known as Pompey /'pɑmpi/ Pompey the Great or Pompey the Triumvir ( Classical Latin abbreviation Marcus Licinius Crassus ( Latin: M·LICINIVS·P·F·P·N·CRASSVS (ca See also the First Triumvirate (Argentina which came to power in 1811 After Caesar's conquest of Gaul, a stand-off between Caesar and the Senate led to civil war, with Pompey leading the Senate's forces. The Gallic Wars were a series of Military campaigns waged by the Roman proconsul Julius Caesar against several Gallic tribes, lasting from The Roman civil war of 49 BC sometimes called Caesar's Civil War, is one of the last conflicts within the Roman Republic. Caesar emerged victorious, and was made dictator for life. Dictator was a Political office of the Roman Republic. The dictator was above the three branches of government in the Constitution of the Roman Republic  In 44 BC, Caesar was assassinated by senators who opposed Caesar's assumption of absolute power and wanted to restore constitutional government, but in the aftermath a Second Triumvirate, consisting of Caesar's designated heir, Octavian, and his former supporters, Mark Antony and Lepidus, took power. AssassiNation is the sixth album by Krisiun, released in 2006 on Century Media. See also the Second Triumvirate (Argentina which held power in 1812 Augustus ( Latin: IMPERATOR·CAESAR·DIVI·FILIVS·AVGVSTVS September 23 63 BC – August 19 AD 14) born Gaius Octavius Thurinus, was Marcus Antonius (in Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N ( c January 14 83 BC&ndash August 1, 30 BC known in English as Mark Marcus Aemilius Lepidus ( Latin: M·AEMILIVS·M·F·Q·N·LEPIDVSborn ca 90 BC died 13 BC, was a Patrician Roman politician  However, this alliance soon descended into a struggle for dominance. Lepidus was exiled, and when Octavian defeated Antony and Cleopatra of Egypt at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, he became the undisputed ruler of Rome. Exile means to be away from one's home (ie city state or country while either being explicitly refused permission to return and/or being threatened by prison or death upon return Cleopatra VII Philopator (in Greek, Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ; January 69 BC &ndash 30 BC was a Hellenistic ruler of Egypt This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. The Battle of Actium was the decisive engagement in the Final War of the Roman Republic between the forces of Octavian and the combined forces of Mark Antony 
With his enemies defeated, Octavian took the name Augustus and assumed almost absolute power, retaining only a pretense of the Republican form of government. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial  His designated successor, Tiberius, took power without serious opposition, establishing the Julio-Claudian dynasty, which lasted until the death of Nero in 68. Tiberius Julius Caesar Augustus (or Tiberius I) born Tiberius Claudius Nero (November 16 42 BC – March 16 AD 37) was the second Roman The Julio-Claudian Dynasty refers to the first five Roman Emperors: Augustus (Octavian Tiberius, Caligula (Gaius Claudius, and Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus ( December 15, 37 – June 9, 68) born Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, also called  The territorial expansion of what was now the Roman Empire continued, and the state remained secure, despite a series of emperors widely viewed as depraved and corrupt (for example, Caligula is argued by some to have been insane and Nero had a reputation for cruelty and being more interested in his private concerns than the affairs of the state). The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (August 31 AD 12 &ndash January 24 AD 41 more commonly known by his nickname Caligula (kəˈlɪɡjʊlə was a Roman Emperor Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus ( December 15, 37 – June 9, 68) born Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, also called Their rule was followed by the Flavian dynasty. The Flavian dynasty was a Roman imperial Dynasty, which ruled the Roman Empire between 69 and 96 AD encompassing the reigns of Vespasian (69&ndash79  During the reign of the "Five Good Emperors" (96–180), the Empire reached its territorial, economic, and cultural zenith. The Five Good Emperors is a term that refers to five consecutive emperors of the Roman Empire who represented a line of virtuous and just rule — Nerva, Trajan In broad terms the zenith is the direction pointing directly above a particular location ( Perpendicular, Orthogonal)  The state was secure from both internal and external threats, and the Empire prospered during the Pax Romana ("Roman Peace"). Pax Romana ( Latin for " Roman Peace " was the long period of relative peace and minimal expansion by military force  With the conquest of Dacia during the reign of Trajan, the Empire reached the peak of its territorial expansion; Rome's dominion now spanned 2. Dacia, in ancient geography was the land of the Dacians. It was named by the ancient Hellenes ( Greeks) " Getae " Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus, commonly known as Trajan ( September 18 53 &ndash August 9 117) was a Roman Emperor who 5 million square miles (6. 5 million km²). 
The period between 193 and 235 was dominated by the Severan dynasty, and saw several incompetent rulers, such as Elagabalus. The Severan dynasty was a Roman imperial Dynasty, which ruled the Roman Empire between 193 and 235. Elagabalus (c 203 &ndash March 11 222) also known as Heliogabalus or Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, was a Roman Emperor of the  This and the increasing influence of the army on imperial succession led to a long period of imperial collapse and external invasions known as the Crisis of the Third Century. Crisis of the Third Century (or "Military Anarchy" or "Imperial Crisis" was the crumbling and near collapse of the Roman Empire between 235  The crisis was ended by the more competent rule of Diocletian, who in 293 divided the Empire into an eastern and western half ruled by a tetrarchy of two co-emperors and their two junior colleagues. Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus ( ca. December 22 244 The modern historian Timothy Barnes takes December 22 as his birthdate Tetrarchy ( Greek: "leadership of four " can be applied to any system of government where power is divided between four individuals  The various co-rulers of the Empire competed and fought for supremacy for more than half a century. On May 11, 330, Emperor Constantine I firmly established Byzantium as the capital of the Roman Empire and renamed it Constantinople. Events 330 - Byzantium is renamed ''Nova Roma'' during a dedication ceremony but is more popularly referred to as Constantinople Events By Place Roman Empire May 11 — Constantine I refounds Byzantium, renames it New Rome Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus (27 February ca. 272 &ndash 22 May 337 commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or Saint Constantine This article is about the city See also Byzantine Empire. Byzantium ( Greek: Βυζάντιον Latin: la BYZANTIVM The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS  The Empire was permanently divided into the Eastern Roman Empire (later known as the Byzantine Empire) and the Western Roman Empire in 395. The Western Roman Empire refers to the western half of the Roman Empire, from its division by Diocletian in 285 the other half of the Roman Empire was the Eastern 
The Western Empire was constantly harassed by barbarian invasions, and the gradual decline of the Roman Empire continued over the centuries. "Barbarian" is a pejorative term for an uncivilized person either in a general reference to a member of a nation or Ethnos perceived The Decline of the Roman Empire, leading to the Fall of the Roman Empire, or the Fall of Rome, was the end of the Western Roman Empire.  In the 4th century, the westward migration of the Huns caused the Visigoths to seek refuge within the borders of the Roman Empire. The Huns were an early confederation of Central Asian equestrian nomads or semi-nomads with a Turkic core of aristocracy The Visigoths (Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, or Wisi were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East  In 410, the Visigoths, under the leadership of Alaric I, sacked the city of Rome itself. The Visigoths (Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, or Wisi were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Alaric I ( Alareiks in the original Gothic; Alarik or Alarich in modern Germanic languages Alaricus in Latin and Alarico  The Vandals invaded Roman provinces in Gaul, Spain, and northern Africa, and in 455 sacked Rome.  On September 4, 476, the Germanic chief Odoacer forced the last Roman emperor in the west, Romulus Augustus, to abdicate. Events 476 - Romulus Augustus, last emperor of the Western Roman Empire, is deposed when Odoacer proclaims himself Events By place Western Roman Empire September 4 — Romulus Augustus, the last Emperor of the Western Roman Empire Odoacer (435–493 also known as Odovacar (from the Germanic Audawakrs, meaning "watchful of wealth" was a Roman general and the Romulus Augustus (c 461/463 &ndash after 476 sometimes known as Romulus Augustulus ( Little Augustus) was the last Western Roman Emperor reigning from  Having lasted for approximately 1200 years, the rule of Rome in the West came to an end. This article refers to the cardinal direction for other uses see West (disambiguation. 
The Eastern Empire, by contrast, would suffer a similar fate, though not as drastic. Justinian managed to briefly reconquer Northern Africa and Italy, but Byzantine possessions in the West were reduced to southern Italy and Sicily within a few years after Justinian's death. Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus ( Greek: Φλάβιος Πέτρος Σαββάτιος Ιουστινιανός; known in English as Justinian I or North Africa or Northern Africa is the Northernmost Region of the African Continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Sicily ( Italian and Sicilian: Sicilia) is an autonomous region of Italy.  In the east the Byzantines were threatened by the rise of Islam, whose followers rapidly conquered territories in Syria and Egypt and soon presented a direct threat to Constantinople. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics.  The Byzantines, however, managed to stop Islamic expansion into their lands during the 8th century, and beginning in the 9th century reclaimed the conquered lands.  In 1000 AD the Eastern Empire was at its height: Basileios II reconquered Bulgaria and Armenia, culture and trade flourished. Basil II, surnamed the Bulgar-slayer (Βασίλειος Β΄ Βουλγαροκτόνος Basileios II Boulgaroktonos, 958 &ndash December 15 1025  However, soon after the expansion was abruptly stopped in 1071 at the Battle of Manzikert. The Battle of Manzikert, or Malazgirt, was fought between the Byzantine Empire and Seljuq forces led by Alp Arslan on August 26 1071 near Manzikert This finally lead the empire into a dramatic decline. Several centuries of internal strife and Turkic invasions ultimately paved the way for Emperor Alexius I Comnenus to send a call for help to the West in 1095. The Turkic peoples are Eurasian peoples residing in northern central and western Eurasia who speak languages belonging to the Turkic language family Alexios I Komnenos, or Comnenus (Greek Αλέξιος Α' Κομνηνός (1048 &ndash August 15, 1118) Byzantine emperor (1081&ndash1118  The West responded with the Crusades, eventually resulting in the Sack of Constantinople by participants in the Fourth Crusade. The Crusades were a series of military campaigns of a religious character waged by much of Christian Europe against external and internal opponents The Fourth Crusade (1202&ndash1204 was originally designed to conquer Muslim Jerusalem by means of an invasion through Egypt. The Fourth Crusade (1202&ndash1204 was originally designed to conquer Muslim Jerusalem by means of an invasion through Egypt. The conquest of Constantinople in 1204 would see the fragmentation of what little remained of the empire into successor states, the ultimate victor being that of Nicaea.  After the recapture of Constantinople by imperial forces, the empire was little more than a Greek state confined to the Aegean coast. Etymology In ancient times there were various explanations for the name Aegean. The Eastern Empire came to an end when Mehmed II conquered Constantinople on May 29, 1453. Events 363 - Roman Emperor Julian defeats the Sassanid army in the Battle of Ctesiphon, under the walls of the 
Life in ancient Rome revolved around the city of Rome, located on seven hills. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 The Seven Hills of Rome east of the river Tiber form the geographical heart of Rome, within the walls of the ancient city The city had a vast number of monumental structures like the Colosseum, the Forum of Trajan and the Pantheon. A monument is a structure either explicitly created to commemorate a person or important event or which has become important to a social group as a part of their remembrance of past The Colosseum or Roman Coliseum, originally the Flavian Amphitheatre ( Latin: Amphitheatrum Flavium, Italian Anfiteatro Flavio History The forum was built on the order of Emperor Trajan with the spoils of war from the conquest of Dacia, which ended in 106. The Pantheon ( Latin Pantheon, from Greek Πάνθειον Pantheon, meaning "Temple of all the gods" is a building in Rome It had fountains with fresh drinking-water supplied by hundreds of miles of aqueducts, theatres, gymnasiums, bath complexes complete with libraries and shops, marketplaces, and functional sewers. The ancient Romans constructed numerous aqueducts ( Latin aquaeductūs, sing The Roman theatre is a theatre building built by the Romans for watching theatrical performances. The gymnasium in Ancient Greece functioned as a training facility for competitors in public Games It was also a place for socializing and engaging in intellectual This page is on buildings used for Roman bathing For the activity in general see Ancient Roman bathing. Throughout the territory under the control of ancient Rome, residential architecture ranged from very modest houses to country villas. The term architecture (from Greek αρχιτεκτονικήarchitektoniki) can be used to mean a process a profession or documentation A Roman villa is a Villa that was built or lived in during the Roman republic and the Roman Empire. In the capital city of Rome, there were imperial residences on the elegant Palatine Hill, from which the word palace is derived. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial House generally refers to a Shelter or Building that is a Dwelling or place for Habitation by Human beings. The Palatine Hill ( Latin: Collis Palatium or Mons Palatinus) is the centermost of the Seven Hills of Rome The low and middle classes lived in the city center, packed into apartments, which were almost like modern ghettos. A ghetto is described as a "portion of a city in which members of a minority group live especially because of social legal or economic pressure
The imperial city of Rome was the largest urban center of its time, with a population of about one million people (about the size of London in the early 19th century, when London was the largest city in the world), with some high-end estimates of 14 million and low-end estimates of 450,000.  The public spaces in Rome resounded with such a din of hooves and clatter of iron chariot wheels that Julius Caesar had once proposed a ban on chariot traffic during the day. The chariot is the earliest and simplest type of Carriage, used in both peace and war as the chief vehicle of many ancient peoples Historical estimates indicate that around 20 percent of the population under jurisdiction of ancient Rome (25–40%, depending the standards used, in Roman Italy) lived in innumerable urban centers, with population of 10,000 and more and several military settlements, a very high rate of urbanization by pre-industrial standards. Most of these centers had a forum and temples and same type of buildings, on a smaller scale, as found in Rome. The Forum was the public space in the middle of a Roman city It had a great social importance and was often the scene of diverse activities including political discussions
Initially, Rome was ruled by kings, who were elected from each of Rome's major tribes in turn. The Roman Kingdom ( Latin: Regnum Romanum) was the monarchical Government of the city of Rome  The exact nature of the king's power is uncertain. He may have held near-absolute power, or may also have merely been the chief executive of the Senate and the people. A chief executive officer ( CEO) or chief executive is typically the highest-ranking corporate officer ( executive) or administrator SPQR is an initialism from a Latin phrase Senātus Populusque Rōmānus ("The Senate and the People of Rome" or "The At least in military matters, the king's authority (Imperium) was likely absolute. Imperium in a broad sense translates as power. In Ancient Rome the concept applied to People, and meant something like "power He was also the head of the state religion. Ancient Roman religion encompasses the collection of Beliefs and Rituals practised in Ancient Rome in the form of Cult practices In addition to the authority of the King, there were three administrative assemblies: the Senate, which acted as an advisory body for the King; the Comitia Curiata, which could endorse and ratify laws suggested by the King; and the Comitia Calata, which was an assembly of the priestly college which could assemble the people in order to bear witness to certain acts, hear proclamations, and declare the feast and holiday schedule for the next month. The Roman Senate was a political institution in Ancient Rome. The Roman Assemblies were institutions in Ancient Rome. They functioned as the machinery of the Roman legislative branch and thus (theoretically at least passed all legislation The Roman Assemblies were institutions in Ancient Rome. They functioned as the machinery of the Roman legislative branch and thus (theoretically at least passed all legislation A festival is an event usually and ordinarily staged by a local community which centers on some unique aspect of that community
The class struggles of the Roman Republic resulted in an unusual mixture of democracy and oligarchy. Class struggle is the active expression of Class conflict looked at from any kind of socialist perspective The Roman Republic was the phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a Republican form of government a period which began with the overthrow of the Democracy is a form of government in which the supreme power is held completely by the people under a free electoral system Oligarchy' ( Greek, Oligarkhía) is a Form of government where Political power effectively rests with a small elite segment The word republic comes from the Latin res publica which literally translates to public business. Roman laws traditionally could only be passed by a vote of the Popular assembly (Comitia Tributa). The Roman Assemblies were institutions in Ancient Rome. They functioned as the machinery of the Roman legislative branch and thus (theoretically at least passed all legislation Likewise, candidates for public positions had to run for election by the people. However, the Roman Senate represented an oligarchic institution, which acted as an advisory body. The Roman Senate was a political institution in Ancient Rome. In the Republic, the Senate held great authority (auctoritas), but no actual legislative power; it was technically only an advisory council. However, as the Senators were individually very influential, it was difficult to accomplish anything against the collective will of the Senate. New Senators were chosen from among the most accomplished patricians by Censors (Censura), who could also remove a Senator from his office if he was found "morally corrupt"; a charge that could include bribery or, as under Cato the Elder, embracing one's wife in public. The term " patrician " originally referred to a group of elite families in Ancient Rome, including both their natural and A Censor was a magistrate of high rank in the ancient Roman Republic. Bribery, a form of pecuniary corruption is an act usually implying money or gift given that alters the behaviour of the recipient in ways not consistent with the duties of that person Marcus Porcius Cato ( Latin: M·PORCIVS·M·F·CATO (234 BC Tusculum &ndash149 BC was a Roman statesman surnamed the Censor Later, under the reforms of the dictator Sulla, Quaestors were made automatic members of the Senate, though most of his reforms did not survive. Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix ( Latin: L•CORNELIVS•L•F•P•N•SVLLA•FELIX (c Quaestors were originally appointed by the Consuls to investigate criminal acts and determine if the consul needed to take public action
The Republic had no fixed bureaucracy, and collected taxes through the practice of tax farming. Bureaucracy is the structure and set of regulations in place to control activity usually in large organizations and government Tax farming was originally a Roman practice whereby the burden of Tax collection was reassigned by the Roman State to private individuals or groups Government positions such as quaestor, aedile, or praefect were funded from the office-holder's private finances. Quaestors were originally appointed by the Consuls to investigate criminal acts and determine if the consul needed to take public action Aedile ( Aedilis, from aedes aedis "temple" "building" was an office of the Roman Republic. Prefect (from the Latin praefectus, perfect participle of praeficere: "make in front" i In order to prevent any citizen from gaining too much power, new magistrates were elected annually and had to share power with a colleague. A magistrate is a judicial officer In Common law systems a magistrate usually has limited authority to administer and enforce the Law. For example, under normal conditions, the highest authority was held by two consuls. Consul (abbrev cos; Latin plural consules) was the highest elected office of the Roman Republic and an appointive office under the Empire In an emergency, a temporary dictator could be appointed. Dictator was a Political office of the Roman Republic. The dictator was above the three branches of government in the Constitution of the Roman Republic Throughout the Republic, the administrative system was revised several times to comply with new demands. In the end, it proved inefficient for controlling the ever-expanding dominion of Rome, contributing to the establishment of the Roman Empire. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial
In the early Empire, the pretense of a republican form of government was maintained. The Roman Emperor was portrayed as only a princeps, or "first citizen", and the Senate gained legislative power and all legal authority previously held by the popular assemblies. The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman State during the imperial period (starting at about 27 BC The Latin word Princeps (plural principes) means exactly 'a prime' However, the rule of the emperors became increasingly autocratic over time, and the Senate was reduced to an advisory body appointed by the emperor. An autocracy is a Form of government in which the Political power is held by a single self-appointed ruler The Empire did not inherit a set bureaucracy from the Republic, since the Republic did not have any permanent governmental structures apart from the Senate. The Emperor appointed assistants and advisers, but the state lacked many institutions, such as a centrally planned budget. Budget (from French bougette, purse generally refers to a list of all planned expenses and revenues Some historians have cited this as a significant reason for the decline of the Roman Empire. The Decline of the Roman Empire, leading to the Fall of the Roman Empire, or the Fall of Rome, was the end of the Western Roman Empire.
The territory of the Empire was divided into provinces. In Ancient Rome, a province (Latin provincia, pl provinciae) was the basic and until the Tetrarchy (circa The number of provinces increased with time, both as new territories were conquered and as provinces were divided into smaller units to discourage rebellions by powerful local rulers. Rebellion is a refusal of obedienceIt may therefore be seen as encompassing a range of Behaviours from Civil disobedience and mass Nonviolent resistance  Upon the rise of Augustus and the Principate, the provinces were divided into imperial and senatorial provinces, depending on which institution had the right to select the governor. Augustus ( Latin: IMPERATOR·CAESAR·DIVI·FILIVS·AVGVSTVS September 23 63 BC – August 19 AD 14) born Gaius Octavius Thurinus, was The Principate is the first period of the Roman Empire, extending from the beginning of the reign of Caesar Augustus to the Crisis of the Third Century, During the Tetrarchy, the provinces of the empire were divided into 12 dioceses, each headed by a praetor vicarius. Tetrarchy ( Greek: "leadership of four " can be applied to any system of government where power is divided between four individuals In many rites of the Roman Catholic Church and in Anglican churches, a diocese is an administrative territorial unit administered by a Bishop. Praetor was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities the commander of an Army, either before The civilian and military authority were separated, with civilian matters still administered by the governor, but with military command transferred to a dux. Dux (plural duces) is Latin for leader (from the verb ducere, 'to lead' and could refer to anyone who commanded troops such
On a local level, towns were divided into colonia, colonies composed of former soldiers or members of the Roman underclass, and municipia, towns composed of enfranchised provincials. A Roman colonia (plural coloniae) was originally a Roman outpost established in conquered territory to secure it These cities were given constitutions based on the Roman model, with the elected duovirs and aediles serving as magistrates, and with the local curia, appointed from men of property for life, serving in an advisory capability, similar to the Senate.
The roots of the legal principles and practices of the ancient Romans may be traced to the law of the twelve tables (from 449 BC) to the codification of Emperor Justinian I (around 530 AD). Roman law is the legal system of Ancient Rome. As used in the West the term commonly refers to legal developments prior to the Roman/Byzantine state's adopting The Law of the Twelve Tables ( Lex Duodecim Tabularum, more informally simply Duodecim Tabulae) was the ancient Legislation that stood at the foundation The Corpus Juris Civilis ("Body of Civil Law" is the modern name for a collection of fundamental works in Jurisprudence, issued from 529 Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus ( Greek: Φλάβιος Πέτρος Σαββάτιος Ιουστινιανός; known in English as Justinian I or Roman law as preserved in Justinian's codes continued into the Byzantine Empire, and formed the basis of similar codifications in continental Western Europe. Western Europe at its most general meaning means 'all the countries in the West of Europe ' Roman law continued, in a broader sense, to be applied throughout most of Europe until the end of the 17th century.
The major divisions of the law of ancient Rome, as contained within the Justinian and Theodosian law codes, consisted of Ius Civile, Ius Gentium, and Ius Naturale. The Ius Civile ("Citizen law") was the body of common laws that applied to Roman citizens.  The Praetores Urbani (sg. Praetor was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities the commander of an Army, either before Praetor Urbanus) were the individuals who had jurisdiction over cases involving citizens. The Ius Gentium ("Law of nations") was the body of common laws that applied to foreigners, and their dealings with Roman citizens.  The Praetores Peregrini (sg. Praetor was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities the commander of an Army, either before Praetor Peregrinus) were the individuals who had jurisdiction over cases involving citizens and foreigners. Ius Naturale encompassed natural law, the body of laws that were considered common to all being.
Ancient Rome commanded a vast area of land, with tremendous natural and human resources. As such, Rome's economy remained focused on agriculture and trade. Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture Agricultural free trade changed the Italian landscape, and by the 1st century BC, vast grape and olive estates had supplanted the yeoman farmers, who were unable to match the imported grain price. Free trade is a system in which the trade of goods and services between or within countries flows unhindered by government-imposed restrictions For the Tokyo University supercomputer see Gravity Pipe. GRAPE, or GRA phics P rogramming E nvironment is The Olive ( Olea europaea) is a Species of small Tree in the family Oleaceae, native to the coastal areas of the eastern Yeoman is noun used to indicate a variety of positions or Social classes In the 16th century a yeoman was also a Farmer of middling social status who owned The annexation of Egypt, Sicily and Tunisia in North Africa provided a continuous supply of grains. Annexation ( Latin ad, to and nexus, joining is the legal incorporation of some territory into another geo-political entity (either adjacent or non-contiguous This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. Sicily ( Italian and Sicilian: Sicilia) is an autonomous region of Italy. Tunisia (تونس Tūnis officially the Tunisian Republic ( is a country located in North Africa. North Africa or Northern Africa is the Northernmost Region of the African Continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan In turn, olive oil and wine were Italy's main exports. Olive oil is a fruit oil obtained from the olive ( Olea europaea; family Oleaceae along with Lilacs Jasmine and ash trees Ancient Rome played a pivotal role in the history of Wine. The earliest influences of Viticulture on the Italian peninsula In Economics, an export is any good or Commodity, Transported from one country to another country in a Legitimate fashion Two-tier crop rotation was practiced, but farm productivity was overall low, around 1 ton per hectare. Explanation The hectare is commonly used in most countries around the world especially in domains concerned with land planning and management such as Agriculture,
Industrial and manufacturing activities were smaller. For other uses of this term see Industry (disambiguation An industry (from Latin industrius, "diligent industrious" Manufacturing (from Latin manu factura, "making by hand" is the use of tools and labor to make things for use or sale The largest such activity were the mining and quarrying of stones, which provided basic construction materials for the buildings of that period. Mining is the extraction of valuable Minerals or other geological materials from the earth usually (but not always from an Ore body A quarry is a type of open-pit mine from which rock or Minerals are extracted In manufacturing, production was on a relatively small scale, and generally consisted of workshops and small factories that employed at most dozens of workers. However, some brick factories employed hundreds of workers. A brick is a block of Ceramic material used in Masonry construction laid using mortar.
Some economic historians (like Peter Temin) argue that the economy of the Early Roman Empire was a market economy and one of the most advanced agricultural economies to have existed (in terms of productivity, urbanization and development of capital markets), comparable to the most advanced economies of the world before the Industrial Revolution, namely the economies of 18th century England and 17th century Netherlands. Dr Peter Temin (born 1937 is a widely cited economist and economic historian currently Elisha Gray II Professor of Economics MIT and former head of the Economics Department The Industrial Revolution was a period in the late 18th and early 19th centuries when major changes in agriculture manufacturing and transportation had a profound effect on the England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands There were markets for every type of good, for land, for cargo ships; there was even an insurance market.
The economy of the early Republic was largely based on smallholding and paid labor. However, foreign wars and conquests made slaves increasingly cheap and plentiful, and by the late Republic, the economy was largely dependent on slave labor for both skilled and unskilled work. Slavery as an institution in Mediterranean cultures of the ancient world comprised a mixture of Debt-slavery, slavery as a punishment for crime and Slaves are estimated to have constituted around 20% of the Roman Empire's population at this time and 40% in the city of Rome. Only in the Roman Empire, when the conquests stopped and the prices of slaves increased, did hired labor become more economical than slave ownership.
Although barter was used in ancient Rome, and often used in tax collection, Rome had a very developed coinage system, with brass, bronze, and precious metal coins in circulation throughout the Empire and beyond—some have even been discovered in India. Barter is a type of Trade in which goods or services are directly exchanged Brass is any Alloy of Copper and Zinc; the proportions of zinc and copper can be varied to create a range of brasses with varying properties Bronze is any of a broad range of Copper alloys, usually with Tin as the main additive but sometimes with other elements such as Phosphorus Precious Metal is the eighteenth episode in the of the popular American Crime drama, which is set in Las Vegas, Nevada. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Before the 3rd century BC, copper was traded by weight, measured in unmarked lumps, across central Italy. Copper (ˈkɒpɚ is a Chemical element with the symbol Cu (cuprum and Atomic number 29 The original copper coins (as) had a face value of one Roman pound of copper, but weighed less. The pound or pound-mass (abbreviation lb, lbm, or sometimes in the United States #) is a unit of Mass Thus, Roman money's utility as a unit of exchange consistently exceeded its intrinsic value as metal. After Nero began debasing the silver denarius, its legal value was an estimated one-third greater than its intrinsic. Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus ( December 15, 37 – June 9, 68) born Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, also called The Roman Currency system included the denarius (plural denarii) after 211 BC a small Silver coin, Legal tender or forced tender is Payment that by Law, cannot be refused in settlement of a Debt ( Debtor cannot successfully be sued
Horses were too expensive, and other pack animals too slow, for mass trade on the Roman roads, which connected military posts rather than markets, and were rarely designed for wheels. A pack animal is a Beast of burden used by Humans as means of Transporting materials by attaching them so their weight bears on the Animal The Roman Roads were essential for the growth of the Roman Empire, by enabling the Romans to move armies and trade goods and to communicate news As a result, there was little transport of commodities between Roman regions until the rise of Roman maritime trade in the 2nd century BC. A commodity is anything for which there is demand but which is supplied without qualitative differentiation across a market Roman Trade was the engine that drove the economy of the late Roman Republic and the early Roman Empire. During that period, a trading vessel took less than a month to complete a trip from Gades to Alexandria via Ostia, spanning the entire length of the Mediterranean. Cádiz ( Spanish:) is a city and port in southwestern Spain. It is the capital of the province of the same name, a province which is one of eight Alexandria ( Egyptian Arabic: اسكندريه Eskendereyya; Standard Arabic: ar الإسكندرية Al-Iskandariyya; Ἀλεξάνδρεια Ostia Antica was the Harbour of Ancient Rome and perhaps its first colonia.  Transport by sea was around 60 times cheaper than by land, so the volume for such trips was much larger.
Roman society is largely viewed as hierarchical, with slaves (servi) at the bottom, freedmen (liberti) above them, and free-born citizens (cives) at the top. Social hierarchy is a multi-tiered pyramid-like social or functional structure having an apex as the centralization of power Slavery as an institution in Mediterranean cultures of the ancient world comprised a mixture of Debt-slavery, slavery as a punishment for crime and A freedman is a former slave who has been manumitted or emancipated. Free citizens were themselves also divided by class. The broadest, and earliest, division was between the patricians, who could trace their ancestry to one of the 100 Patriarchs at the founding of the city, and the plebeians, who could not. The term " patrician " originally referred to a group of elite families in Ancient Rome, including both their natural and Originally a patriarch was a man who exercised autocratic authority as a Pater familias over an extended family Plebs were the general body of landowners of Roman Citizens in Ancient Rome. This became less important in the later Republic, as some plebeian families became wealthy and entered politics, and some patrician families fell on hard times. Anyone, patrician or plebeian, who could count a consul as his ancestor was a noble (nobilis); a man who was the first of his family to hold the consulship, such as Marius or Cicero, was known as a novus homo ("new man") and ennobled his descendants. Nobility is a government-privileged title which may be either hereditary (see Hereditary titles) or for a lifetime This article is about the Roman statesman who reorganized the army and was seven times Consul Marcus Tullius Cicero ( Classical Latin ˈkikeroː usually ˈsɪsərəʊ in English January 3, 106 BC &ndash December 7, 43 BC was a Roman Novus homo (or homo novus, Latin for "new man" plural novi homines) was the term in Ancient Rome for a Patrician ancestry, however, still conferred considerable prestige, and many religious offices remained restricted to patricians.
A class division originally based on military service became more important. Membership of these classes was determined periodically by the Censors, according to property. A Censor was a magistrate of high rank in the ancient Roman Republic. The wealthiest were the Senatorial class, who dominated politics and command of the army. Next came the equestrians (equites, sometimes translated "knights"), originally those who could afford a warhorse, who formed a powerful mercantile class. Several further classes, originally based on what military equipment their members could afford, followed, with the proletarii, citizens who had no property at all, at the bottom. Before the reforms of Marius they were ineligible for military service and are often described as being just barely above freed slaves in terms of wealth and prestige.
Voting power in the Republic was dependent on class. Citizens were enrolled in voting "tribes", but the tribes of the richer classes had fewer members than the poorer ones, all the proletarii being enrolled in a single tribe. Voting was done in class order and stopped as soon as a majority of the tribes had been reached, so the poorer classes were often unable even to cast their votes.
Allied foreign cities were often given the Latin Right, an intermediary level between full citizens and foreigners (peregrini), which gave their citizens rights under Roman law and allowed their leading magistrates to become full Roman citizens. The Latin Right (Latin ius Latii or Latinitas or Latium) was a civic status given by the Romans intermediate between full Roman citizenship While there were varying degrees of Latin rights, the main division was between those con suffrage ("with vote"; enrolled in a Roman tribe and able to take part in the comitia tributa) and sans suffrage ("without vote"; unable to take part in Roman politics). Some of Rome's Italian allies were given full citizenship after the Social War of 91–88 BC, and full Roman citizenship was extended to all free-born men in the Empire by Caracalla in 212. This article is about the conflict between Rome and her Italian allies between 91 and 88 BC For the Athenian conflict with its allies between 357 and 355 BC see Citizenship in the time of Ancient Rome was a privileged status afforded to certain individuals with respect to laws property and governance Caracalla ( April 4 188 &ndash April 8, 217) born Lucius Septimius Bassianus and later Women shared some basic rights with their male counterparts, but were not fully regarded as citizens and were thus not allowed to vote or participate in politics.
The basic units of Roman society were households and families. The household is the basic unit of analysis in many Social, Microeconomic and Government models Family denotes a group of People affiliated by consanguinity affinity or co-residence  Households included the head (usually the father) of the household, pater familias (father of the family), his wife, children, and other relatives. " Pater Familias " or " Pater Families " is the third Season finale of Ghost Whisperer, it originally aired on May In the upper classes, slaves and servants were also part of the household.  The head of the household had great power (patria potestas, "father's power") over those living with him: He could force marriage (usually for money) and divorce, sell his children into slavery, claim his dependents' property as his own, and even had the right to punish or kill family members (though this last right apparently ceased to be exercised after the 1st century BC). 
Patria potestas even extended over adult sons with their own households: A man was not considered a paterfamilias, nor could he truly hold property, while his own father lived.  During the early period of Rome's history, a daughter, when she married, fell under the control (manus) of the paterfamilias of her husband's household, although by the late Republic this fell out of fashion, as a woman could choose to continue recognizing her father's family as her true family.  However, as Romans reckoned descent through the male line, any children she had would belong to her husband's family. Kinship is a relationship between any entities that share a genealogical origin through either biological cultural or historical descent 
Groups of related households formed a family (gens). In Ancient Rome, a gens (pl gentes) was a Clan, Caste, or group of Families, that shared a common name (the Families were based on blood ties or adoption, but were also political and economic alliances. Adoption is the act of legally placing a child with a Parent or parents other than those to whom they were born Especially during the Roman Republic, some powerful families, or Gentes Maiores, came to dominate political life. The Roman Republic was the phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a Republican form of government a period which began with the overthrow of the In Ancient Rome, a gens (pl gentes) was a Clan, Caste, or group of Families, that shared a common name (the
Ancient Roman marriage was often regarded more as a financial and political alliance than as a romantic association, especially in the upper classes. Ancient Roman marriage was often regarded more as a financial and political Alliance than as a romantic association especially in Fathers usually began seeking husbands for their daughters when they reached an age between twelve and fourteen. The husband was almost always older than the bride. While upper class girls married very young, there is evidence that lower class women often married in their late teens or early twenties.
In the early Republic, there were no public schools, so boys were taught to read and write by their parents, or by educated slaves, called paedagogi, usually of Greek origin. The Roman school is the education system of the Ancient Rome. Slavery is a social-economic system under which certain persons — known as slaves — are deprived of personal freedom and compelled to perform labour or services  The primary aim of education during this period was to train young men in agriculture, warfare, Roman traditions, and public affairs. Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture War is an international relations Dispute, characterized by organized Violence between National Military units Endless such activities were also conducted in other cities under ancient Rome  Young boys learnt much about civic life by accompanying their fathers to religious and political functions, including the Senate for the sons of nobles.  The sons of nobles were apprenticed to a prominent political figure at the age of 16, and campaigned with the army from the age of 17 (this system would still be in use among some noble families well into the imperial era).  Educational practices were modified following the conquest of the Hellenistic kingdoms in the 3rd century BC and the resulting Greek influence, although it should be noted that Roman educational practices were still significantly different from Greek ones.  If their parents could afford it, boys and some girls at the age of 7 were sent to a private school outside the home called a ludus, where a teacher (called a litterator or a magister ludi, and often of Greek origin) taught them basic reading, writing, arithmetic, and sometimes Greek, until the age of 11.  Beginning at age 12, students went to secondary schools, where the teacher (now called a grammaticus) taught them about Greek and Roman literature. Greek literature refers to those writings autochthonic to the areas of Greek influence typically though not necessarily in one of the Greek dialects throughout the Latin literature, the body of written works in the Latin language remains an enduring legacy of the culture of Ancient Rome.  At the age of 16, some students went on to rhetoric school (where the teacher, almost always Greek, was called a rhetor). Rhetoric has had many definitions no simple definition can do it justice  Education at this level prepared students for legal careers, and required that the students memorize the laws of Rome.  Pupils went to school every day, except religious festivals and market days. There were also summer holidays.
The native language of the Romans was Latin, an Italic language the grammar of which relies little on word order, conveying meaning through a system of affixes attached to word stems. A language is a dynamic set of visual auditory or tactile Symbols of Communication and the elements used to manipulate them Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. The Italic subfamily is a member of the Indo-European language family's Centum branch The grammar of Latin, like that of other ancient Indo-European languages, is highly inflected, which allows for a large degree of flexibility when choosing word order An affix is a Morpheme that is attached to a stem to form a word In Linguistics, a stem (sometimes also theme) is the part of a word that is common to all its inflected variants  Its alphabet was based on the Etruscan alphabet, which was in turn based on the Greek alphabet. Old Italic refers to several now extinct Alphabet systems used on the Italian Peninsula in ancient times for various Indo-European (predominantly Italic The Greek alphabet (Ελληνικό αλφάβητο is a set of twenty-four letters that has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early  Although surviving Latin literature consists almost entirely of Classical Latin, an artificial and highly stylized and polished literary language from the 1st century BC, the actual spoken language of the Roman Empire was Vulgar Latin, which significantly differed from Classical Latin in grammar and vocabulary, and eventually in pronunciation. Latin literature, the body of written works in the Latin language remains an enduring legacy of the culture of Ancient Rome. Classical Latin is the form of the Latin language used by the ancient Romans in what is usually regarded as "classical" Latin literature. A literary language is a register of a Language that is used in Literary Writing. Vulgar Latin (in Latin sermo vulgaris, "folk speech" is a Blanket term covering the popular Dialects and Sociolects of the Latin Grammar is the field of Linguistics that covers the Rules governing the use of any given natural language. The vocabulary of a person is defined either as the set of all Words that are understood by that person or the set of all words likely to be used by that person when constructing 
While Latin remained the main written language of the Roman Empire, Greek came to be the language spoken by the well-educated elite, as most of the literature studied by Romans was written in Greek. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly In the eastern half of the Roman Empire, which later became the Byzantine Empire, Latin was never able to replace Greek, and after the death of Justinian Greek became the official language of the Byzantine government.  The expansion of the Roman Empire spread Latin throughout Europe, and over time Vulgar Latin evolved and dialectized in different locations, gradually shifting into a number of distinct Romance languages. A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος dialektos) is a variety of a Language that is characteristic of a particular group of The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages, or Neolatin languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family comprising all
Although Latin is an extinct language with very few remaining fluent speakers, it remains in use in many ways, such as through Ecclesiastical Latin, the traditional language of the Roman Catholic Church and the official language of the Vatican City. According to some definitions an extinct language is a Language which no longer has any speakers, whereas a dead language is a language which is no longer spoken Ecclesiastical Latin (sometimes called Church Latin) is the Latin dialect as used in documents of the Roman Catholic Church and in its Latin liturgies Vatican City, officially the State of the Vatican City (Stato della Città del Vaticano is a Landlocked sovereign City-state whose territory Additionally, even after fading from common usage Latin maintained a role as western Europe's lingua franca, an international language of academia and diplomacy. A lingua franca (from Italian, literally meaning Frankish language, see etymology under Sabir and Italian below is any Language widely Diplomacy is the art and practice of conducting Negotiations between representatives of groups or states Although eventually supplanted in this respect by French in the 19th century and English in the 20th, Latin continues to see heavy use in religious, legal, and scientific terminology—it has been estimated that 80% of all scholarly English words derive directly or indirectly from Latin. French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States
Archaic Roman religion, at least concerning the gods, was made up not of written narratives, but rather of complex interrelations between gods and humans. Ancient Roman religion encompasses the collection of Beliefs and Rituals practised in Ancient Rome in the form of Cult practices Roman mythology, or more appropriately Latin mythology, refers to the mythological beliefs of the Italic people inhabiting the region of Latium and its Ancient Roman religion encompasses the collection of Beliefs and Rituals practised in Ancient Rome in the form of Cult practices A narrative or story is a construct created in a suitable format (written spoken poetry prose images song Theater, or Dance) that describes a sequence of  Unlike in Greek mythology, the gods were not personified, but were vaguely-defined sacred spirits called numina. Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the ancient Greeks concerning their gods and Heroes the nature of the world and the origins and significance Numen ("presence" plural numina) is a Latin term for the power of either a deity or a spirit that is present in places and objects in the Romans also believed that every person, place or thing had its own genius, or divine soul. In Roman mythology, every man had a genius and every woman a juno ( Juno was also the name of the queen of the gods During the Roman Republic, Roman religion was organized under a strict system of priestly offices, which were held by men of senatorial rank. The Roman Republic was the phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a Republican form of government a period which began with the overthrow of the Ancient Roman religion encompasses the collection of Beliefs and Rituals practised in Ancient Rome in the form of Cult practices The College of Pontifices was uppermost body in this hierarchy, and its chief priest, the Pontifex Maximus, was the head of the state religion. The Pontifex Maximus was the high priest of the Ancient Roman College of Pontiffs. Flamens took care of the cults of various gods, while augurs were trusted with taking the auspices. A flamen was a name given to a Priest assigned to a state-supported god or goddess in Roman religion. The Augur was a priest and official in the classical world especially Ancient Rome and Etruria. An auspice ( Latin: auspicium from auspex, literally "one who looks at birds" is a type of Omen already familiar The sacred king took on the religious responsibilities of the deposed kings. The Rex Sacrorum ( Latin: "king of sacred things" was the office of the highest-ranking priest under the Roman Kingdom. In the Roman empire, emperors were held to be gods, and the formalized imperial cult became increasingly prominent. The Imperial cult in Ancient Rome was the worship of a few select emperors as gods once they were deceased the only emperor to
As contact with the Greeks increased, the old Roman gods became increasingly associated with Greek gods. The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca  Thus, Jupiter was perceived to be the same deity as Zeus, Mars became associated with Ares, and Neptune with Poseidon. In Roman mythology, Jupiter was the king of the gods and the god of Sky and Thunder. Zeus (zjuːs in Greek: nominative: Zeús /zdeús/ genitive: Diós; Modern Greek /'zefs/ in Greek mythology Mars was the Roman Warrior god, the son of Juno and Jupiter, husband of Bellona, and the lover of Venus. In Greek mythology, Ares ( Ancient Greek:, Μodern Greek Άρης) is the son of Zeus and Hera. In Greek mythology, Poseidon ( Greek:; Latin: Neptūnus) was the god of the Sea and as "Earth-Shaker" The Roman gods also assumed the attributes and mythologies of these Greek gods. The transferral of anthropomorphic qualities to Roman Gods, and the prevalence of Greek philosophy among well-educated Romans, brought about an increasing neglect of the old rites, and in the 1st century BC, the religious importance of the old priestly offices declined rapidly, though their civic importance and political influence remained. Anthropomorphism is the attribution of uniquely Human characteristics to non-human creatures and beings natural and supernatural phenomena material states and objects Ancient Greek philosophy focused on the role of Reason and Inquiry. Roman religion in the empire tended more and more to center on the imperial house, and several emperors were deified after their deaths. In Eastern Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodoxy and Eastern Catholic theology theosis (written also theiosis, theopoiesis, theōsis
Under the empire, the Romans absorbed the mythologies of their conquered subjects, often leading to situations in which the temples and priests of traditional Italian deities existed side by side with those of foreign gods.  Numerous foreign cults grew popular, such as the worship of the Egyptian Isis and the Persian Mithras. This article does not discuss "cult" in the original sense of "veneration" or "religious practice" for that usage see Cult (religious practice Isis is a goddess in Ancient Egyptian religious beliefs and is celebrated in their mythology as the ideal mother and wife patron of nature and magic friend of slaves sinners For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. The Mithraic Mysteries or Mysteries of Mithras (also Mithraism) was a Roman mystery religion which became popular among the military in the late Beginning in the 2nd century, Christianity began to spread in the Empire, despite initial persecution. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings Persecution is the systematic mistreatment of an individual/group by another group Beginning with Emperor Nero, Roman official policy towards Christianity was negative, and at some points, simply being a Christian could be punishable by death. Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus ( December 15, 37 – June 9, 68) born Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, also called Under Emperor Diocletian, the persecution of Christians reached its peak. Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus ( ca. December 22 244 The modern historian Timothy Barnes takes December 22 as his birthdate The persecution of Christians refers to the Religious persecution of Christians both historically and in the current era However, it became an officially supported religion in the Roman state under Constantine I and became exponentially popular. Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus (27 February ca. 272 &ndash 22 May 337 commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or Saint Constantine After a brief and unsuccessful pagan revival by the emperor Julian the Apostate Christianity became the permanent religion of the empire. Flavius Claudius Julianus, known also as Julian or Julian the Apostate (331 or 332 to 26 June 363) was Roman Emperor (Caesar All religions except Christianity were prohibited in 391 by an edict of Emperor Theodosius I. Flavius Theodosius (January 11 347 – January 17 395 also called Theodosius I and Theodosius the Great ( Greek: Θεοδόσιος Α΄ 
Roman painting styles show Greek influences, and surviving examples are primarily frescoes used to adorn the walls and ceilings of country villas, though Roman literature includes mentions of paintings on wood, ivory, and other materials. Roman art includes the visual arts produced in Ancient Rome, and in the territories of the Roman empire. Latin literature, the body of written works in the Latin language remains an enduring legacy of the culture of Ancient Rome. Roman sculpture refers to the Sculpture of Ancient Rome. Roman sculpture often involved copying of Ancient Greek sculpture. Painting (pān'tīng in Art, is the practice of applying Color to a Surface (support base such as e The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca Fresco (plural either frescos or frescoes) is any of several related Painting types done on Plaster on walls or A villa was originally an Upper-class Country house, though since its origins in Roman times the idea and function of a villa has evolved considerably Latin literature, the body of written works in the Latin language remains an enduring legacy of the culture of Ancient Rome. Wood is hard fibrous lignified structural tissue produced as secondary Xylem in the stems of Woody plants notably trees but also shrubs Ivory is formed from Dentine and constitutes the bulk of the Teeth and Tusks of animals such as the Elephant, Hippopotamus,  Several examples of Roman painting have been found at Pompeii, and from these art historians divide the history of Roman painting into four periods. Pompeii is a ruined and partially buried Roman town-city near modern Naples and Caserta in the Italian region of Campania, in The first style of Roman painting was practiced from the early 2nd century BC to the early- or mid-1st century BC. It was mainly composed of imitations of marble and masonry, though sometimes including depictions of mythological characters. Marble is a nonfoliated Metamorphic rock resulting from the Metamorphism of Limestone, composed mostly of Calcite (a crystalline form of Masonry is the building of structures from individual units laid in and bound together by mortar, and the term "masonry" can also refer to the units themselves The second style of Roman painting began during the early 1st century BC, and attempted to realistically depict three-dimensional architectural features and landscapes. The third style occurred during the reign of Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD), and rejected the realism of the second style in favor of simple ornamentation. Augustus ( Latin: IMPERATOR·CAESAR·DIVI·FILIVS·AVGVSTVS September 23 63 BC – August 19 AD 14) born Gaius Octavius Thurinus, was Realism is a visual art style that depicts the actuality of what the eyes can see A small architectural scene, landscape, or abstract design was placed in the center with a monochrome background. The fourth style, which began in the 1st century AD, depicted scenes from mythology, while retaining architectural details and abstract patterns. 
Portrait sculpture during the period utilized youthful and classical proportions, evolving later into a mixture of realism and idealism. During the Antonine and Severan periods, more ornate hair and bearding became prevalent, created with deeper cutting and drilling. This page is on the Roman imperial dynasty for Catholic clergy of the same name see Anthonians The Antonines most often referred to were two successive The Severan dynasty was a Roman imperial Dynasty, which ruled the Roman Empire between 193 and 235. Advancements were also made in relief sculptures, usually depicting Roman victories. A relief is a Sculptured Artwork where a modeled form is raised (or alternatively lowered from a flattened background without being disconnected from it
Latin literature was from its very inception influenced heavily by Greek authors. Latin literature, the body of written works in the Latin language remains an enduring legacy of the culture of Ancient Rome. Some of the earliest extant works are of historical epics telling the early military history of Rome. An epic is a lengthy Narrative poem, ordinarily concerning a serious subject containing details of heroic deeds and events significant to a culture or nation As the Republic expanded, authors began to produce poetry, comedy, history, and tragedy. Comedy (from the Greek κωμωδίαkomodia has a popular meaning (any discourse generally intended to amuse especially in Television, Film, and History is the study of the past particularly the written record Those who study history as a Profession are called Historians Etymology
Roman music was largely based on Greek music, and played an important part in many aspects of Roman life. Much of what defines Western European culture in terms of Philosophy, Science, and the arts has origins in the culture of Ancient  In the Roman military, musical instruments such as the tuba (a long trumpet) or the cornu (similar to a French horn) were used to give various commands, while the bucina (possibly a trumpet or horn) and the lituus (probably an elongated J-shaped instrument), were used in ceremonial capacities. Commonwealth English! -->The military of ancient Rome relates to the combined military forces of Ancient Rome from the founding of the city  Music was used in the amphitheaters between fights and in the odea, and in these settings is known to have featured the cornu and the hydraulis (a type of water organ). An amphitheatre (alternatively amphitheater) is an open-air venue for spectator sports concerts rallies or theatrical performances  The majority of religious rituals featured musical performances, with tibiae (double pipes) at sacrifices, cymbals and tambourines at orgiastic cults, and rattles and hymns across the spectrum. Cymbals are a modern percussion instrument Cymbals consist of thin normally round plates of various Cymbal alloys; see Cymbal making for a discussion of their The tambourine or Marine is a Musical instrument of the percussion family consisting of a frame often of wood or plastic with pairs of small metal jingles An orgy (όργιον was a secret cultic congregation at nighttime in Ancient Greek religion, overseen by an orgiophant (a teacher or revealer of A rattle is a Percussion instrument. It consists of a hollow body filled with small uniform solid objects like sand or nuts A hymn is a type of Song, usually religious specifically written for the purpose of praise adoration or Prayer, and typically addressed to a deity/deities  Some music historians believe that music was used at almost all public ceremonies.  Music historians are not certain as to whether or not Roman musicians made a significant contribution to the theory or practice of music. Music theory is the field of study that deals with the Mechanics of music and how Music works 
The graffiti, brothels, paintings, and sculptures found in Pompeii and Herculaneum suggest that the Romans had a very sex-saturated culture. Graffiti (singular graffito; the plural is used as a Mass noun) is the name for images or lettering scratched scrawled painted or marked in any manner on property For the 2008 film of this name see The Brothel. For the television series of this name see Cathouse The Series. Painting (pān'tīng in Art, is the practice of applying Color to a Surface (support base such as e Pompeii is a ruined and partially buried Roman town-city near modern Naples and Caserta in the Italian region of Campania, in Herculaneum (in modern Italian Ercolano) is an ancient Roman town located in the territory of the current commune of Ercolano. 
The youth of Rome had several forms of play and exercise, such as jumping, wrestling, boxing, and racing. Jumping or leaping is an ability that most Humans and many Animals share to some degree Wrestling is the act of physical engagement between two people in which each wrestler strives to get an advantage over or control of the opponent Boxing (sometimes also known as English boxing or pugilism) is a Combat sport in which two participants generally of similar weight, Types of racing Unassisted human racing Using only the Human body 's own Muscles Running: Cross country  In the countryside, pastimes for the wealthy also included fishing and hunting.  The Romans also had several forms of ball playing, including one resembling handball. American (or court) handball, usually referred to simply as Handball, is a Sport in which players hit a small rubber ball against one or more  Dice games, board games, and gamble games were extremely popular pastimes. Dice games are games that use or incorporate a die as their sole or central component usually as a Random device. A board game is a Game in which counters or pieces that are placed on removed from or moved across a "board" (a premarked surface usually specific to that game  Women did not participate in these activities. For the wealthy, dinner parties presented an opportunity for entertainment, sometimes featuring music, dancing, and poetry readings.  Plebeians sometimes enjoyed such parties through clubs or associations, although recreational dining usually meant patronizing taverns. A tavern or pot-house is loosely a place of Business where people gather to drink Alcoholic beverages and more than likely also be served Food  Children entertained themselves with toys and such games as leapfrog. Leapfrog is a Children's game in which players vault over each other's stooped Backs The first participant rests hands on knees and bends over this is called 
A popular form of entertainment were gladiatorial combats. Gladiators (gladiatores "swordsmen" or "one who uses a sword" from la ''gladius'' "sword" were professional fighters in Ancient Rome who fought Gladiators fought either to the death, or to "first blood" with a variety of weapons and in a variety of different scenarios. These fights achieved their height of popularity under the emperor Claudius, who placed the final outcome of the combat firmly in the hands of the emperor with a hand gesture. Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus or Claudius I ( August 1, 10 BC &ndash October 13, AD 54 ( Tiberius Claudius Drusus from birth to Contrary to popular representations in film, several experts believe the gesture for death was not "thumbs down". Although no one is certain as to what the gestures were, some experts conclude that the emperor would signify "death" by holding a raised fist to the winning combatant and then extending his thumb upwards, while "mercy" was indicated by a raised fist with no extended thumb.  Animal shows were also popular with the Romans, where foreign animals were either displayed for the public or combined with gladiatorial combat. A prisoner or gladiator, armed or unarmed, was thrown into the arena and an animal was released.
The Circus Maximus, another popular site in Rome, was primarily used for horse and chariot racing, and when the circus was flooded, there were even sea battles. The Circus Maximus ( Latin for greatest circus, in Italian Circo Massimo) is an ancient Hippodrome and mass entertainment This article is about the sport For other uses see Horserace (drinking game or Horse race (politics. Chariot racing (ἁρματοδρομία/armatodromia was one of the most popular ancient Greek, Roman and Byzantine Sports Chariot It was also used in many other events.  It could hold up to 385,000 people; people all over Rome would visit it. Two temples, one with seven large eggs and one with seven dolphins, lay in the middle of the track of Circus Maximus, and whenever the racers made a lap, one of each would be removed. This was done to keep the spectators and the racers informed on the race statistics. Other than sports, the Circus Maximus was also an area of marketing and gambling. In popular usage "marketing" is the promotion of products especially Advertising and Branding However in professional usage the term has a wider meaning of Higher authorities, like the emperor, also attended games in the Circus Maximus, as it was rude not to. They, knights, and many other people who were involved with the race sat in reserved seats located above everyone else. It was also found rude for emperors to root for a team. The Circus Maximus was created in 600 BC and hosted the last horse-racing game in 549 AD, lasting for over a millennium.
Ancient Rome boasted the most impressive technological feats of its day, using many advancements that would be lost in the Middle Ages and not be rivaled again until the 19th and 20th centuries. But though adept at adopting and synthesizing other cultures' technologies, the Roman civilization was not especially innovative or progressive. Many practical Roman innovations were adopted from earlier Greek designs. New ideas were rarely developed. Roman society considered the articulate soldier who could wisely govern a large household the ideal, and Roman law made no provisions for intellectual property or the promotion of invention. Roman law is the legal system of Ancient Rome. As used in the West the term commonly refers to legal developments prior to the Roman/Byzantine state's adopting Intellectual property ( IP) is a legal field that refers to creations of the mind such as musical literary and artistic works inventions and symbols names The concept of "scientists" and "engineers" did not yet exist, and advancements were often divided based on craft, as groups of artisans jealously guarded new technologies as trade secrets. A trade as an occupation usually refers to the profession that require some particular kind of skilled work A trade secret is a Formula, practice, Process, Design, instrument, Pattern, or compilation of Information which Nevertheless, a number of vital technological breakthroughs were spread and thoroughly used by Rome, contributing to an enormous degree to Rome's dominance and lasting influence in Europe.
Roman engineering constituted a large portion of Rome's technological superiority and legacy, and contributed to the construction of hundreds of roads, bridges, aqueducts, baths, theaters and arenas. Origins The Romans are generally famous for their advanced Engineering accomplishments although some of their own inventions were improvements on older ideas concepts The military engineering of Ancient Rome 's armed forces was of a scale and frequency far beyond that of any of its contemporaries Origins The Romans are generally famous for their advanced Engineering accomplishments although some of their own inventions were improvements on older ideas concepts An aqueduct is an artificial channel that is constructed to convey water from one location to another Public baths originated from a communal need for cleanliness Often the term public is misleading to some people as they will have restrictions based upon who can use the facility Theatre (or theater, see spelling differences) is the branch of the Performing arts defined by Bernard Beckerman as what "occurs when one An arena is an enclosed area often circular or oval-shaped designed to showcase Theater, musical performances or sporting events Many monuments, such as the Colosseum, Pont du Gard, and Pantheon, still remain as testaments to Roman engineering and culture. The Colosseum or Roman Coliseum, originally the Flavian Amphitheatre ( Latin: Amphitheatrum Flavium, Italian Anfiteatro Flavio The Pont du Gard is an aqueduct in the South of France constructed by the Roman Empire, and located in Vers-Pont-du-Gard near Remoulins The Pantheon ( Latin Pantheon, from Greek Πάνθειον Pantheon, meaning "Temple of all the gods" is a building in Rome
The Romans were particularly renowned for their architecture, which is grouped with Greek traditions into "Classical architecture". The Architecture of Ancient Rome adopted the external Greek architecture for their own purposes which were so different from Greek buildings as to create a new The Architecture of Ancient Rome adopted the external Greek architecture for their own purposes which were so different from Greek buildings as to create a new The term Classical architecture has a specific Archaeological meaning relating to the architecture of Classical Greece During the Roman Republic, it remained stylistically almost identical to Greek architecture. Architecture was extinct in Greece from the end of the Mycenaean period (about 1200 BC to the 7th century BC when urpeppeeban life and prosperity recovered Although there were many differences from Greek architecture, Rome borrowed heavily from Greece in adhering to strict, formulaic building designs and proportions. Aside from two new orders of columns, composite and Tuscan, and from the dome, which was derived from the Etruscan arch, Rome had relatively few architectural innovations until the end of the Republic. A classical order is one of the ancient styles of building design in the classical tradition, distinguished by their proportions and their characteristic profiles and details The composite order is a mixed order, combining the Volutes of the Ionic order with the leaves of the Corinthian order. Among the Classical orders of Architecture, the Tuscan order's place in the architectural canon is disputed A dome is a common structural element of Architecture that resembles the hollow upper half of a Sphere. Etruscan civilization is the modern English name given to the culture and way of life of a people of ancient Italy An arch is a structure that spans a space while supporting weight (e
Then, in the 1st century BC, Romans started to widely use concrete, invented in the late 3rd century BC. Concrete is a construction material composed of Cement (commonly Portland cement) as well as other cementitious materials such as Fly ash and Slag It was a powerful cement derived from pozzolana, and soon supplanted marble as the chief Roman building material and allowed many daring architectural schemata. In the most general sense of the word a cement is a binder a substance which sets and hardens independently and can bind other materials together Pozzolana, also known as pozzolanic ash is a fine sandy Volcanic ash, originally discovered and dug in Italy at Pozzuoli in the region around Marble is a nonfoliated Metamorphic rock resulting from the Metamorphism of Limestone, composed mostly of Calcite (a crystalline form of Also in the 1st century BC, Vitruvius wrote De architectura, possibly the first complete treatise on architecture in history. Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (born c 80–70 BC died after c 15 BC was a Roman Writer, Architect and Engineer (possibly praefectus fabrum De architectura ( Latin: "On architecture" is a treatise on Architecture written by the Roman Architect Vitruvius In late 1st century BC, Rome also began to use glassblowing soon after its invention in Syria about 50 BC. Glassblowing is a glassforming technique that involves inflating the molten glass into a bubble or parison with the aid of the blowpipe or blow tube Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية Mosaics took the Empire by storm after samples were retrieved during Lucius Cornelius Sulla's campaigns in Greece. Art History Mosaics of the 4th century BC are found in the Macedonian palace-city of Aegae, and they enriched the floors of Hellenistic Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix ( Latin: L•CORNELIVS•L•F•P•N•SVLLA•FELIX (c Article on history of Roman concrete
Concrete made possible the paved, durable Roman roads, many of which were still in use a thousand years after the fall of Rome. The Roman Roads were essential for the growth of the Roman Empire, by enabling the Romans to move armies and trade goods and to communicate news The construction of a vast and efficient travel network throughout the Empire dramatically increased Rome's power and influence. It was originally constructed to allow Roman legions to be rapidly deployed. For other uses see Legion The Roman Legion (from Latin legio "military levy Conscription," But these highways also had enormous economic significance, solidifying Rome's role as a trading crossroads—the origin of the saying "all roads lead to Rome". The Roman government maintained way stations which provided refreshments to travelers at regular intervals along the roads, constructed bridges where necessary, and established a system of horse relays for couriers that allowed a dispatch to travel up to 800 kilometers (500 mi) in 24 hours. A courier is a Person or company employed to deliver Messages packages and Mail.
The Romans constructed numerous aqueducts to supply water to cities and industrial sites and to assist in their agriculture. The ancient Romans constructed numerous aqueducts ( Latin aquaeductūs, sing Ancient Roman agriculture was highly regarded in Roman culture The city of Rome was supplied by 11 aqueducts with a combined length of 350 kilometres (220 mi).  Most aqueducts were constructed below the surface, with only small portions above ground supported by arches. Sometimes, where depressions deeper than 50 metres (165 ft) had to be crossed, inverted siphons were used to force water uphill. A siphon (also spelled syphon) is a continuous tube that allows liquid to drain from a reservoir through an intermediate point that is higher than the reservoir the flow being
The Romans also made major advancements in sanitation. Sanitation is the hygienic means of preventing human contact from the hazards of wastes to promote health Romans were particularly famous for their public baths, called thermae, which were used for both hygienic and social purposes. Bathing is the immersion of the body in a Fluid, usually Water or an aqueous solution This page is on buildings used for Roman bathing For the activity in general see Ancient Roman bathing. Many Roman houses came to have flush toilets and indoor plumbing, and a complex sewer system, the Cloaca Maxima, was used to drain the local marshes and carry waste into the Tiber river. A flush toilet or Water Closet (WC is a Toilet that disposes of human waste by using water to flush it through a drainpipe to another location Tap water ( running water) is part of indoor Plumbing, which became available in the late 19th century and common in the mid-20th century The Cloaca Maxima was one of the world's earliest Sewage systems In Geography, a marsh, or morass, is a type of Wetland which is subject Some historians have speculated that the use of lead pipes in the sewer and plumbing systems led to widespread lead poisoning which contributed to the decline in birth rate and general decay of Roman society leading up to the fall of Rome. Characteristics Lead has a dull luster and is a dense, Ductile, very soft highly Lead poisoning (also known as saturnism, plumbism, or painter's colic) is a medical condition caused by increased levels of the metal Lead in Crude birth rate is the natality or Childbirths per 1000 people per year The Decline of the Roman Empire, leading to the Fall of the Roman Empire, or the Fall of Rome, was the end of the Western Roman Empire. However, lead content would have been minimized because the flow of water from aqueducts could not be shut off; it ran continuously through public and private outlets into the drains, and only a small number of taps were in use. 
The early Roman army (c. 500 BC) was, like those of other contemporary city-states influenced by Greek civilization, a citizen militia which practiced hoplite tactics. The term militia is commonly used today to refer to a military force composed of ordinary Citizens to provide defense emergency law enforcement or Paramilitary service The word hoplite ( Greek: hoplitēs; pl hoplitai) derives from hoplon ( plural hopla) meaning an item of armour or equipment thus 'hoplite' It was small (the population of free males of military age was then about 9,000) and organized in five classes (in parallel to the comitia centuriata, the body of citizens organized politically), with three providing hoplites and two providing light infantry. The Roman Assemblies were institutions in Ancient Rome. They functioned as the machinery of the Roman legislative branch and thus (theoretically at least passed all legislation The early Roman army was tactically limited and its stance during this period was essentially defensive.  By the 3rd century BC, the Romans abandoned the hoplite formation in favor of a more flexible system in which smaller groups of 120 (or in some cases 60) men called maniples could maneuver more independently on the battlefield. Maniple (Latin manipulus) was a tactical unit of the Roman legion adopted from the Samnites during the Samnite Wars Thirty maniples arranged in three lines with supporting troops constituted a legion, totaling between 4,000 and 5,000 men. For other uses see Legion The Roman Legion (from Latin legio "military levy Conscription," The early Republican legion consisted of five sections, each of which was equipped differently and had different places in formation: the three lines of manipular heavy infantry (hastati, principes and triarii), a force of light infantry (velites), and the cavalry (equites). Hastati (Singular Hastatus) were a class of infantry in the armies of the early Roman Republic who originally fought as Spearmen, and later as Swordsmen Principes (Singular Princeps) were Spearmen, and later Swordsmen, in the armies of the early Roman Republic. Triarii (Singular Triarius) were Spearmen in the armies of the early Roman Republic. Velites (Singular Veles) were a class of infantry in the Polybian legions of the early Roman republic With the new organization came a new orientation toward the offensive and a much more aggressive posture toward adjoining city-states. 
At nominal full strength, an early Republican legion would have included 3,600 to 4,800 heavy infantry, several hundred light infantry and several hundred cavalrymen, for a total of 4,000 to 5,000 men.  Legions were often significantly understrength from recruitment failures or following periods of active service due to accidents, battle casualties, disease and desertion. During the Civil War, Pompey's legions in the east were at full strength because recently recruited, while Caesar's legions were in many cases well below nominal strength after long active service in Gaul. This pattern also held true for auxiliary forces. 
As described by Goldsworthy, both the Greek and Roman phalanx and the early Republican legions were intended to fight large scale battles involving a single quick, decisive clash with the enemy. At this they were generally very successful.  At the time of the Marian reforms in the late Republic (c. The Marian reforms of 107 BC were a group of military reforms initiated by Gaius Marius, a statesman and general of the Roman republic. 100 BC), further organizational change created a more flexible, resilient and versatile force. The legion was now divided into ten cohorts of 480 men each, comprising three of the old maniples (now called centuriae or "centuries" commanded by a centurion). Centuria ( Latin plural centuriae) is a Latin substantive from the stem centum (a hundred denoting units consisting of (originally only approximately Centurion redirects here This article is about the Roman soldier  Moreover, the velites (light infantry) and (probably) the equites were eliminated and replaced by auxilia (auxiliary units of cavalry, archers and slingers, and light infantry, usually recruited from non-citizens). Auxiliaries (from Latin: auxilia = "supports" formed the standing non-citizen corps of the Roman army of the Principate (30 BC&ndash284 AD There were no other subdivisions within a legion, but many men with specialized skills—medics, engineers, technicians, artillerymen—were included among the legionaries.  The centuries in a cohort had a unified command structure and were experienced at working with the other centuries in the cohort as a unit. A legion organized in cohorts was easier to control, and cohorts could easily be detached and act independently where that was useful on the battlefield or a separate smaller force was needed. Accordingly, legions organized in cohorts could conduct operations of almost any scale. 
Three long-term trends characterized the development of the Roman army over its history: increasing professionalization, a widening of the base for recruitment, and an increase in the variety and flexibility of military units. Until the late Republican period, the typical legionary was a property-owning citizen farmer from a rural area (an adsiduus) who served for particular (often annual) campaigns, and who supplied his own equipment and, in the case of equites, his own mount. Harris suggests that down to 200 BC, the average rural farmer (who survived) might participate in six or seven campaigns. Freedmen and slaves (wherever resident) and urban citizens did not serve except in rare emergencies.  After 200 BC, economic conditions in rural areas deteriorated as manpower needs increased, so that the property qualifications for service were gradually reduced. Beginning with Gaius Marius in 107 BC, citizens without property and some urban-dwelling citizens (proletarii) were enlisted and provided with equipment, although most legionaries continued to come from rural areas. This article is about the Roman statesman who reorganized the army and was seven times Consul Terms of service became continuous and long—up to twenty years if emergencies required it although Brunt argues that six or seven years was more typical.  Beginning in the 3rd century BC, legionaries were paid stipendium (amounts are disputed but Caesar famously "doubled" payments to his troops to 225 denarii a year), could anticipate booty and donatives (distributions of plunder by commanders) from successful campaigns and, beginning at the time of Marius, often were granted allotments of land upon retirement. The Roman Currency system included the denarius (plural denarii) after 211 BC a small Silver coin,  Cavalry and light infantry attached to a legion (the auxilia) were often recruited in the areas where the legion served. These troops were familiar with local conditions and fought in a style adapted to the local terrain.  Caesar formed a legion, the Fifth Alaudae, from non-citizens in Transalpine Gaul to serve in his campaigns in Gaul.  During the Civil War when large armies were required, both sides raised legions from non-citizens, as Goldsworthy notes, "without bothering with the formality of granting citizenship to the men on enlistment. " By the time of Caesar Augustus, the ideal of the citizen-soldier had been abandoned and the legions had become fully professional. Legionaries were paid 900 sesterces a year and could expect a payment of 12,000 sesterces on retirement. The sestertius, or sesterce, was an ancient Roman Coin. During the Roman Republic it was a small Silver, and rare coin issued 
At the end of the Civil War, Augustus reorganized Roman military forces, discharging soldiers and disbanding legions. The final war of the Roman Republic, also know as Antony's civil war or the' war between Antony and Octavian', was last of the Roman civil wars of the He retained 28 legions, which were now based in permanent camps on the frontier along the Rhine and Danube Rivers and in Syria. Composed of about 150,000 citizen legionaries, an approximately equal number of auxilia and a navy of unknown size, this establishment remained the standard until late in the history of the Empire.  During the Principate, with a few exceptions, warfare was conducted on a smaller scale. The Principate is the first period of the Roman Empire, extending from the beginning of the reign of Caesar Augustus to the Crisis of the Third Century, The auxilia were not organized into larger units but remained independent cohorts, and legionary troops themselves often operated as groups of cohorts rather than as full legions. A new versatile type of unit, the cohortes equitatae, combining cavalry and legionaries in a single formation could be stationed at garrisons or outposts, could fight on their own as balanced small forces or could combine with other similar units as a larger legion-sized force. This increase in organizational flexibility over time helped ensure the long-term success of Roman military forces. 
The Emperor Gallienus (253–268 AD) began yet another reorganization that created the final military structure of the late Empire. Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus (218-268 ruled the Roman Empire as co-emperor with his father Valerian from 253 to 260 and then as the sole Roman Emperor Withdrawing some legionaries from the fixed bases on the border, Gallienus created mobile forces (the Comitatenses or field armies) and stationed them behind and at some distance from the borders as a strategic reserve. Comitatenses is the Latin plural of comitatensis, originally the adjective derived from Comitatus ('company party suite' in this military context it This reduced the need to move troops from one province to another to reinforce the border in case of attacks. The border troops (limitanei) stationed at fixed bases continued to be the first line of defense. The Emperor Diocletian (284–305 AD) reversed this reorganization but it became the norm by the middle of the 4th century AD. Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus ( ca. December 22 244 The modern historian Timothy Barnes takes December 22 as his birthdate Diocletian also introduced the so-called Tetrarchy under which the Eastern and Western halves of the Empire were each governed by an "Augustus" (Emperor) and a "Caesar" (junior Emperor), who resided at different locations near the borders and commanded troops within their respective regions. Tetrarchy ( Greek: "leadership of four " can be applied to any system of government where power is divided between four individuals  The basic unit of the field army was the "regiment", legiones or auxilia for infantry and vexellationes for cavalry. Evidence suggests that nominal strengths may have been 1,200 men for infantry regiments and 600 for cavalry, although many records show lower actual troop levels (800 and 400). Many infantry and cavalry regiments operated in pairs under the command of a comes. The French Solar Energy Authority ( Commissariat à l'Energie Solaire, ComES) a public Scientific and industrial entity was set up in In addition to Roman troops, the field armies included regiments of "barbarians" recruited from allied tribes and known as foederati. Foederatus (pl foederati) is a Latin term whose definition and usage drifted in the time between the early Roman Republic and the By 400 AD, foederati regiments had become permanently established units of the Roman army, paid and equipped by the Empire, led by a Roman tribune and used just as Roman units were used. In addition to the foederati, the Empire also used groups of barbarians to fight along with the legions as "allies" without integration into the field armies. Under the command of the senior Roman general present, they were led at lower levels by their own officers. 
The nature of military leadership evolved greatly over the course of the history of Rome. Under the monarchy, the hoplite armies would have been led by the kings of Rome. During the early and middle Roman Republic, military forces were under the command of one of the two elected consuls for the year. Consul (abbrev cos; Latin plural consules) was the highest elected Political office of the Roman Republic and the Empire. During the later Republic, members of the Roman Senatorial elite, as part of the normal sequence of elected public offices known as the cursus honorum, would have served first as quaestor (often posted as deputies to field commanders), then as praetor (sometimes posted as provincial governors in charge of military forces in the relevant province), then as consul (supreme command of all military forces). The cursus honorum ( Latin: "course of honors" or "honors race" was the sequential order of Public offices held by aspiring Quaestors were originally appointed by the Consuls to investigate criminal acts and determine if the consul needed to take public action Praetor was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities the commander of an Army, either before Following the end of a term as praetor or consul, a Senator might be appointed by the Senate as a propraetor or proconsul (depending on the highest office previously held) to govern a foreign province. A promagistrate is a person who acts in and with the authority and capacity of a magistrate, but without holding a magisterial office A promagistrate is a person who acts in and with the authority and capacity of a magistrate, but without holding a magisterial office More junior officers (down to but not including the level of centurion) were selected by their commanders from their own clientelae or those recommended by political allies among the Senatorial elite. In Ancient Roman society a client ( Latin, Cliens) was a Plebeian who was sponsored by a Patron benefactor ( Patronus  Under Augustus, whose most important political priority was to place the military under a permanent and unitary command, the Emperor was the legal commander of each legion but exercised that command through a legatus (legate) he appointed from the Senatorial elite. A legatus (often anglicized as legate) was a general in the Roman army, equivalent to a modern general officer In a province with a single legion, the legate would command the legion (legatus legionis) and also serve as provincial governor, while in a province with more than one legion, each legion would be commanded by a legate and the legates would be commanded by the provincial governor (also a legate but of higher rank).  During the later stages of the Imperial period (beginning perhaps with Diocletian), the Augustan model was abandoned. Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus ( ca. December 22 244 The modern historian Timothy Barnes takes December 22 as his birthdate Provincial governors were stripped of military authority, and command of the armies in a group of provinces was given to generals (duces) appointed by the Emperor. Dux (plural duces) is Latin for leader (from the verb ducere, 'to lead' and could refer to anyone who commanded troops such These were no longer members of the Roman elite but men who came up through the ranks and had seen much practical soldiering. With increasing frequency, these men attempted (sometimes successfully) to usurp the positions of the Emperors who had appointed them. Decreased resources, increasing political chaos and civil war eventually left the Western Empire vulnerable to attack and takeover by neighboring barbarian peoples. 
Comparatively less is known about the Roman navy than the Roman army. Prior to the middle of the 3rd century BC, officials known as duumviri navales commanded a fleet of twenty ships used mainly to control piracy. This fleet was given up in 278 AD and replaced by allied forces. The First Punic War required that Rome build large fleets, and it did so largely with the assistance of and financing from allies. The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage between 264 and 146 BC and were probably the largest wars yet of the ancient This reliance on allies continued to the end of the Roman Republic. The quinquireme was the main warship on both sides of the Punic Wars and remained the mainstay of Roman naval forces until replaced by the time of Caesar Augustus by lighter and more maneuverable vessels. A quinquereme (Latin or penteres (Greek is a type of ancient oar-propelled warship that was used by the Greeks of the Hellenistic period and later by the Carthaginians As compared with a trireme, the quinquireme permitted the use of a mix of experienced and inexperienced crewmen (an advantage for a primarily land-based power), and its lesser maneuverability permitted the Romans to adopt and perfect boarding tactics using a troop of approximately 40 marines in lieu of the ram. Trireme ( τριήρης sing τριήρεις pl triremis sing A corvus (meaning "crow" or "raven" in Latin) or harpago (probably the correct ancient name) was a Roman military Naval tactics in the age of galleys were used from antiquity to the early 17th century when Sailing ships replaced oared Galleys Weapons Ships were commanded by a navarch, a rank equivalent to a centurion, who were usually not citizens. Navarch ( ναύαρχος, pronounced návarkhos) is a Greek word meaning "leader of the ships" which in some states became the title of an office Potter suggests that because the fleet was dominated by non-Romans, the navy was considered non-Roman and allowed to atrophy in times of peace. 
Available information suggests that by the time of the late Empire (350 AD), the Roman navy comprised a number of fleets including both warships and merchant vessels for transportation and supply. Warships were oared sailing galleys with three to five banks of oarsmen. Fleet bases included such ports as Ravenna, Arles, Aquilea, Misenum and the mouth of the Somme River in the West and Alexandria and Rhodes in the East. Flotillas of small river craft (classes) were part of the limitanei (border troops) during this period, based at fortified river harbors along the Rhine and the Danube. The fact that prominent generals commanded both armies and fleets suggests that naval forces were treated as auxiliaries to the army and not as an independent service. The details of command structure and fleet strengths during this period are not well known although it is known that fleets were commanded by prefects. 
The interest in studying ancient Rome arose presumably during the Age of Enlightenment in France. The Age of Enlightenment or The Enlightenment is a term used to describe a phase in Western philosophy and cultural life centered upon the eighteenth century This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Charles Montesquieu wrote a work Reflections on the Causes of the Grandeur and Declension of the Romans. Charles-Louis de Secondat baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu (Eng The first major work was The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire by Edward Gibbon, which encompassed the period from the end of 2nd century to the fall of the Byzantine Empire in 1453. The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (known popularly as The History) was written by English Historian Edward Gibbon ( April 27, 1737 January 16, 1794) was an English historian and Member of Parliament. Like Montesquieu Gibbon paid high tribute to the virtue of Roman citizens. Barthold Georg Niebuhr was a founder of the criticism and wrote The Roman History, carried until the First Punic war. Barthold Georg Niebuhr ( August 27, 1776 &ndash January 2, 1831) was a German statesman and Historian. The First Punic War ( 264 to 241 BC) was the first of three major wars fought between Carthage and the Roman Republic. Niebuhr has made an attempt to determine the way the Roman tradition appeared. According to him, Romans, like other people, had a historical ethos which was preserved mainly in the noble families. Ethos (ˈiːθɒs (grc ἦθος ἔθος plurals ethe (ἤθη ethea (ἤθεα is a Greek word originally meaning "accustomed During the Napoleonic period the work titled The History of Romans by Victor Duruy appeared. Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. Jean Victor Duruy ( September 11, 1811 &ndash November 25, 1894) was a French Historian and statesman It highlighted the Caesarean period popular at the time. History of Rome, Roman constitutional law and Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, all by Theodor Mommsen, became very important milestones. History of Rome (Ger Römische Geschichte) is a multi-volume history of Ancient Rome written by Theodor Mommsen. The Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum ( CIL) is a comprehensive collection of ancient Latin Inscriptions It forms an authoritative source Christian Matthias Theodor Mommsen ( 30 November 1817 &ndash 1 November 1903) was a German classical scholar, Later the work Greatness and Decline of Rome by Guglielmo Ferrero was published. Guglielmo Ferrero (guʎˈːelmo ferˈːero July 21, 1871 — August 3, 1942) was an Italian historian journalist and novelist author The Russian work Очерки по истории римского землевладения, преимущественно в эпоху Империи (The Outlines on Roman Landownership History, Mainly During the Empire) by Ivan Grevs contained information on the economy of Pomponius Atticus, one of the greatest landowners during the end of the Republic. Titus Pomponius Atticus, born Titus Pomponius (112 BC/110 BC/109 BC &ndash 35 BC/32 BC came from an old but not strictly noble Roman family of the equestrian