Anatoli Nikoliavich Boukreev, Russian: Анато́лий Никола́евич Букре́ев, (January 16, 1958 - December 25, 1997) was a Russian (USSR/Kazakhstan) climber who made seven ascents of 8,000 metre peaks without supplemental oxygen. Russian ( transliteration:,) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages Events 27 BC - The title Augustus is bestowed upon Gaius Julius Caesar Octavian by the Roman Senate. Year 1958 ( MCMLVIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 274 - Roman Emperor Aurelian Year 1997 ( MCMXCVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending The eight-thousanders are the fourteen independent Mountains on Earth that are more than above Sea level. Oxygen (from the Greek roots ὀξύς (oxys (acid literally "sharp" from the taste of acids and -γενής (-genēs (producer literally begetteris the The direct transliteration of his Russian name is Anatoly Nikolayevich Bukreyev.
Boukreev was relatively unknown, though well accomplished, in the international climbing community until the 1996 spring climbing season on Mount Everest, when twelve people died in one of the biggest tragedies in the climbing history of Mount Everest. Mount Everest, also called Sagarmatha (सगरमाथा meaning Head of the Sky) or Chomolungma, Qomolangma or Zhumulangma (in The event was chronicled in the best-selling books The Climb by Boukreev and Into Thin Air by Jon Krakauer (among others). The Climb is an account by Russian mountaineer Anatoli Boukreev of the 1996 Everest Disaster, during which eight climbers lost their lives on Mount Into Thin Air A Personal Account of the Mt Everest Disaster is a bestselling Non-fiction book written by Jon Krakauer. Jon Krakauer (born April 12, 1954) is an American writer and Mountaineer, well-known for outdoor and mountain-climbing writing
Boukreev was born on January 16, 1958 in the southern Ural Mountains in the Soviet Union. Events 27 BC - The title Augustus is bestowed upon Gaius Julius Caesar Octavian by the Roman Senate. Year 1958 ( MCMLVIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Riphean redirects here For the time period see Riphean stage The Ural Mountains (Ура́льские го́ры Uralskiye The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 After completing high school in 1975, he attended Chelyabinsk University for Pedagogy in the Russian SFSR, where he majored in physics and earned his Bachelor of Science degree in 1979. Physics (Greek Physis - φύσις in everyday terms is the Science of Matter and its motion. At the same time, he also completed a coaching program for cross-country skiing. This article refers to the act of coaching people For other uses of the word see Coach (disambiguation Coaching -a definitionProminent Cross-country skiing (also known as XC skiing) is a Winter sport popular in many countries with large snowfields primarily Northern Europe,
After graduation, the 21-year-old dreamed of real mountains. Boukreev moved to Alma-Ata, the capital of the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic located at ridge Tiеn Shan. Almaty ( Алматы; formerly known as Alma-Ata ( Алма-Ата) also Verniy, (Верный is the largest city in Kazakhstan Since 1985 supporting a combined team of Kazakhstan on mountaineering, in 1991 after the breakup of the USSR he accepted Kazakhstan Republic citizenship. Kazakhstan, also Kazakstan ( Қазақстан, Qazaqstan, qɑzɑqˈstɑn Казахстан, Kazakhstán,) officially the
Picture: Anatoli Boukreev (left) and Martin Adams with Kazakhstan state flag on Everest 1996 - http://old.risk.ru/rus/pics/people/boukreev/galery/big_3.jpg
The major highlights of Boukreev's climbing career are as follows:
Boukreev was the lead climbing guide for the Mountain Madness expedition headed by Scott Fischer. Events 1450 - Battle of Formigny: Toward the end of the Hundred Years' War, the French attack and nearly annihilate English Kangchenjunga ( Nepali:कञ्चनजङ्घा Kanchanjaŋghā) SewaLungma ( Limbu language) is the third highest Events 313 - Roman emperor Licinius unifies the entire Eastern Roman Empire under his rule In Geology, a massif is a section of a planet's crust that is demarcated by faults or Flexures In the movement of the crust, a massif "Denali" redirects here For other meanings see Denali (disambiguation. Events 1291 - Scottish Nobles recognize the authority of Edward I of England. Dhaulagiri (धौलागिरी is the seventh highest Mountain in the world Events 3761 BC - The epoch (origin of the modern Hebrew calendar ( Proleptic Julian calendar) Mount Everest, also called Sagarmatha (सगरमाथा meaning Head of the Sky) or Chomolungma, Qomolangma or Zhumulangma (in Events 1264 - Battle of Lewes: Henry III of England is captured in France making Simon de Montfort the Events 1419 - First Defenestration of Prague. 1502 - Christopher Columbus lands at Guanaja in the Bay Islands off K2 is the second- highest Mountain on Earth (after Mount Everest) Events 1429 - Joan of Arc arrives to relieve the Siege of Orleans. Events 1252 - Pope Innocent IV issues the Papal bull Ad exstirpanda, which authorizes but also limits the Makalu (in Nepal officially मकालु;in China officially Makaru; Chinese: 马卡鲁山 Pinyin: Mǎkǎlǔ Shān) is the fifth Events 1521 - Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham, is executed for Treason. Events 350 - Roman usurper Nepotianus, of the Constantinian dynasty, is defeated and killed by troops of the Usurper President is a Title leaders of Organizations companies, Trade unions universities, and countries. Kazakhstan, also Kazakstan ( Қазақстан, Qazaqstan, qɑzɑqˈstɑn Казахстан, Kazakhstán,) officially the Events 314 - Roman Emperor Licinius is defeated by his colleague Constantine I at the Battle of Cibalae, and loses Events 1609 - Biblioteca Ambrosiana opens its reading room the second public library of Europe. Manaslu (मनास्लु also known as Kutang) is the eighth highest Mountain in the world located in the Mansiri Himal, part of the Nepalese Events 1291 - Scottish Nobles recognize the authority of Edward I of England. Events 1521 - Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham, is executed for Treason. Lhotse (in Nepal officially ल्होत्से, in China officially Lhozê; Tibetan in Wylie transliteration: lho rtse; Events 303 - On a voyage preaching the Gospel, Saint Fermin of Pamplona is beheaded in Amiens, France Cho Oyu (or Qowowuyag; in Nepal चोयु Tibetan in Wylie transliteration: jo bo dbu yag; Chinese: 卓奧有山 Pinyin Events 768 - Carloman I and Charlemagne are crowned Kings of The Franks. Shishapangma (officially Xixiabangma) is the fourteenth highest Mountain in the world and the lowest of the Eight-thousanders It was the last 8000 metre Events 1479 BC - Thutmose III ascends to the throne of Egypt, although power effectively shifts to Hatshepsut (according to Events 1430 - Siege of Compiègne: Joan of Arc is captured by the Burgundians while leading an army to relieve Compiègne Events 1456 - A retrial verdict acquits Joan of Arc of heresy 25 years after her death Broad Peak (originally named K3) known locally as Faichan Kangri, is the 12th highest Mountain on Earth. Events 1223 - Louis VIII becomes King of France upon the death of his father Philip II of France. Gasherbrum II (also known as K4) is the 13th highest Mountain on Earth, located on the border of Pakistan-China The 1996 Everest Disaster refers to a single day of the 1996 climbing season May 11, 1996, when eight people died on Mount Everest during summit attempts A guide is a person who leads people through unknown or unmapped country or conducts travellers and tourists through a place of interest Scott E Fischer ( December 24 1955 – May 11 1996) was an American climber and Guide, and the first American to summit The team included eight clients, each of whom had paid $65,000 USD for a fully-guided summit attempt of Everest:
¹All ages given relative to 1996. The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been Cerro Aconcagua is the highest mountain in the Americas, and the highest mountain outside Asia. "Denali" redirects here For other meanings see Denali (disambiguation. The State of Colorado ( or chiefly by nonresidents) is a state located in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States of America. The Seven Summits are the highest Mountains of each of the seven Continents Summiting all of them is regarded as a Mountaineering challenge first postulated Pete Schoening ( July 30, 1927 - September 22, 2004) was an American mountaineer Vinson Massif is the highest Mountain of Antarctica, located about 1200 km (750 mi from the South Pole. Gasherbrum I (also known as Hidden Peak or K5) is the 11th highest peak on Earth, located on the border of China-Pakistan (Kashmir The United States of America —commonly referred to as the
Pete Schoening had decided not to make the final push to the summit while still at Everest Base Camp. The team began the assault on the summit on May 6, planning to bypass Camp I and stop at Camp II for the night. However, when the guides reached Camp I, they found Kruse suffering from altitude sickness and possible cerebral edema in one of the tents. High altitude cerebral edema (or HACE) is a severe (frequently fatal form of Altitude sickness. Kruse returned to Base Camp with Fischer for treatment.
Starting around midnight on May 10, Boukreev, Neil Beidleman, Scott Fischer and a team of Sherpas began guiding the six remaining clients to the summit, starting from Camp IV on the South Col (7,900 m/25,900 ft). For other uses of the word Sherpa see Sherpa (disambiguation. Delays at the South Summit, caused by the failure of the climbing Sherpas to set the fixed ropes by the time the team reached that point, cost the team an hour on the ascent.
Climbing without supplementary oxygen, Boukreev reached the summit at 1:07 pm. He began his descent to Camp IV at 2:30 pm. By that time, Adams and Klev Schoening had summited, but Beidleman and the remaining four clients had not yet arrived. Boukreev recorded that he reached Camp IV by 5:00 pm. The reasons for Boukreev's decision to descend ahead of his clients are disputed.  Boukreev maintained that he wanted to be ready to assist struggling clients farther down the slope, and to retrieve hot tea and extra oxygen if necessary.  Journalist Jon Krakauer, who climbed with the Adventure Consultants expedition, asserts that Boukreev's refusal to use supplementary oxygen and lack of warm clothing made it too dangerous for him to wait at the summit for the remaining clients. Jon Krakauer (born April 12, 1954) is an American writer and Mountaineer, well-known for outdoor and mountain-climbing writing 
A blizzard struck at 4:00 pm, causing difficulties for the descending team members. The snow buried the fixed ropes and obliterated the trail that the team had broken on the ascent, resulting in several climbers getting lost on the South Col. Beidleman, Schoening, Fox, Madsen, Pittman, and Gammelgaard, along with Adventure Consultants' Mike Groom, Beck Weathers, and Yasuko Namba, wandered in the blizzard until midnight. Seaborn Beck Weathers (born December 1946) is an American Pathologist from Texas. was famous in her native Japan for becoming only the second Japanese woman (after Junko Tabei) to reach all of the Seven Summits including Everest where she died When they could no longer walk, they huddled some 20 m from a dropoff of the Kangshung Face.
Near midnight, the blizzard cleared enough for the team to see Camp IV, some 200 m away. Beidleman, Groom, Schoening, and Gammelgaard set off to find help. Madsen and Fox remained with the group to shout for the rescuers. Weathers got separated from the group. Boukreev located the climbers and first brought Pittman to safety, followed by Fox and Madsen. He was not able to go back a third time for Namba.
Fischer, meanwhile, had not reached the summit until 3:45 pm. He was ill, possibly suffering from HACE, and exhausted from the ascent. Fischer was unable to descend below the South Summit (8350 m/ 27395 ft) in the storm. The following day, the climbing Sherpas located Fischer, but his condition had deteriorated so much that they were only able to give palliative care. Boukreev made three subsequent rescue attempts, but found Fischer's frozen body at around 7pm.
In January 1997, Boukreev gave his expedition logs, personal journals, letters and an oral history to Gary Weston DeWalt, who consolidated all the information into a book called The Climb. The Climb is an account by Russian mountaineer Anatoli Boukreev of the 1996 Everest Disaster, during which eight climbers lost their lives on Mount Boukreev's account of the 1996 expedition differs in many respects from those offered in Krakauer's Into Thin Air, Weathers' Left for Dead, Gammelgaard's Climbing High, and Dickinson's The Other Side of Everest. Into Thin Air A Personal Account of the Mt Everest Disaster is a bestselling Non-fiction book written by Jon Krakauer. The Climb was also intended as a response to Krakauer's published criticisms of Boukreev's conduct as a guide.
On December 6, 1997, Todd Burleson, Pete Athans, and Boukreev were awarded the David A. Sowles Memorial Award by the American Alpine Club for their heroism and devotion in rescuing four lost climbers during this expedition. Events 1060 - Béla I of Hungary is crowned king of Hungary 1240 - Mongol invasion of Rus: Kiev Year 1997 ( MCMXCVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar Pete Athans is one of the world's foremost high-altitude Mountaineers He is best known for being the only non- Sherpa to summit Mount Everest seven times The David A Sowles Memorial Award is the American Alpine Club's highest award for valour bestowed at irregular intervals on Mountaineers who have "distinguished The American Alpine Club, or AAC, was founded in 1902 by Charles Ernest Fay, and is the leading national organization in the United States devoted to Mountaineering This is the Alpine Club's most prestigious award; other recipients have included Ed Viesturs and Ed Webster. Ed Viesturs (born June 22, 1959) is one of the world's premier high-altitude Mountaineers He is the first American, and 12th person overall
In an article in Salon magazine that revisited the 1996 Everest tragedy, writer Weston DeWalt says, "I spoke with Beidleman on April 17, 1997 -- three months before the submission of the manuscript for "The Climb" -- and in the course of that conversation I asked him about a comment he had made during the audio-taped debriefing of Mountain Madness climbers at the Everest Base Camp on May 15, 1996. Beidleman's comment: "I knew Anatoli had gone down. I had no problem with that. I knew that it would have been nice for him to stay, but at the same time it wouldn't have necessarily facilitated our descent any better. I wasn't aware of his instructions to go down immediately from Scott, but after hearing that, I support that. I think that's a very good idea, and, in fact, had he not gone down, his efforts at the bottom collecting people wouldn't have been possible. "
DeWalt continues, "Krakauer's claim -- which (Everest climber Martin) Adams says is not true -- to have been a witness to the first of the Boukreev-Fischer exchanges [re: Boukreev descending ahead of his team] was the same one he made to me when I interviewed him on April 21, 1997. Krakauer offered, "There were five people present for that. Scott and Andy Harris are dead. Anatoli, Martin Adams and I all heard this conversation. " As the interview went on, Krakauer backed away from that position and said, "What I do know is what Martin told me. " And the second exchange, the one in which Boukreev said that he and Scott agreed to the need for a rapid descent? In my April 21, 1997, interview with Krakauer, I asked him if he knew "for a fact" that a second exchange between Boukreev and Fischer had not taken place. Reflecting upon his suspicion that there had not been a second exchange, he said, "I could be wrong about that. I'm not -- I didn't -- I was there. I left the step [Hillary Step] before Anatoli. Now Scott himself -- I thought their conversation had ended by that point. Maybe I'm wrong. I wasn't there. But I'd be surprised if it continued beyond the time after I left, by the nature of -- well, anyway, I don't know that. "
DeWalt adds: "If I limit myself to the subjects of Krakauer's last response to Salon, one comes immediately to mind: Krakauer's charge that Anatoli was inadequately dressed on summit day, a charge proven to be untrue after an examination of photographs taken on the summit of Everest on May 10, 1996. "
In the winter of 1997, Boukreev was attempting to climb the south face of Annapurna I (8,078 m) along with Simone Moro, an accomplished Italian mountaineer. Annapurna ( Sanskrit, Nepali, Nepal Bhasa: अन्नपूर्णा is a series of peaks in the Himalaya, a -long Massif Simone Moro (born October 26, 1967 is one of the major and unconventional alpinists Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest They were accompanied by Dimitri Sobolev, a cinematographer from Kazakhstan, who was documenting the attempt. Kazakhstan, also Kazakstan ( Қазақстан, Qazaqstan, qɑzɑqˈstɑn Казахстан, Kazakhstán,) officially the On December 25 around noon, Boukreev and Moro were fixing ropes in a couloir at around the 5,700 m (18,700 ft) level. A rope is a length of Fibers twisted or Braided together to improve strength for pulling and Connecting. This page describes terms and Jargon related to Climbing and Mountaineering. Suddenly, a cornice broke loose from a ridge not visible from the climbing route. In climbing a cornice is an overhanging edge of Snow on a ridge or the crest of a mountain which are built up by drifting snow The resulting avalanche knocked Moro down the mountain where he landed just above their tent at Camp I (5,200 m/17,060 ft). This article refers to the natural event For other uses see Avalanche (disambiguation An avalanche is an abrupt and rapid flow of snow often Fortuitously, Moro had somehow stayed near the top of the avalanche debris and managed to dig himself out after a few minutes. Unable to see or hear any signs of Boukreev or Sobolev, Moro descended to Annapurna base camp where he was flown by helicopter back to Kathmandu for surgery on his hands, which had been ripped down to the tendons during the fall. Kathmandu (काठमांडौ येँ is the Capital and the largest city of Nepal. A tendon (or sinew) is a tough band of Fibrous connective tissue that usually connects Muscle to Bone and is capable of withstanding tension
News of the accident reached New Mexico on December 26. New Mexico ( is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States of America. Events 1481 - Battle of Westbrook - Holland defeats troops of Utrecht. Linda Wylie, Boukreev's girlfriend, left for Nepal on December 28. Nepal (नेपाल) is a Landlocked country in South Asia. Several attempts were made to reach the avalanche site by helicopter but inclement weather in late December prevented search teams from reaching Camp I. There was some hope that perhaps Boukreev and Sobolev had managed to reach Camp I. However, on January 3, 1998, searchers were finally able to reach Camp I and an empty tent. Events 1431 - Joan of Arc is handed over to the Bishop Pierre Cauchon. Year 1998 ( MCMXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar) Linda Wylie subsequently issued a somber statement from Kathmandu:
|“||This is the end. . . there are no hopes of finding him alive.||”|
|“||Mountains are not Stadiums where I satisfy my ambition to achieve, they are the cathedrals where I practice my religion. Annapurna ( Sanskrit, Nepali, Nepal Bhasa: अन्नपूर्णा is a series of peaks in the Himalaya, a -long Massif A stupa (from Sanskrit and Pāli: m स्तूप stūpa, literally meaning "heap" is a mound-like structure containing Buddhist . . I go to them as humans go to worship. From their lofty summits I view my past, dream of the future and, with an unusual acuity, am allowed to experience the present moment. . . my vision cleared, my strength renewed. In the mountains I celebrate creation. On each journey I am reborn.||”|