|Processor||Zilog Z80A @ 4 MHz|
|Memory||64 to 576 KB (KiB)|
|Operating system||Locomotive BASIC 1. A personal computer ( PC) is any Computer whose original sales price size and capabilities make it useful for individuals and which is intended to be operated A kilobyte (derived from the SI prefix Kilo -, meaning 1000 is a unit of Information or Computer storage equal to either 1024 A kibibyte (a contraction of ki lo bi nary byte) is a unit of Information or Computer storage, established by the International 0, 1. 1 and CP/M|
The Amstrad CPC was a series of 8-bit home computers produced by Amstrad Plc during the 1980s and early 1990s. CP/M (Control Program for Microcomputers is an Operating system originally created for Intel 8080 / 85 based Microcomputers by Gary Kildall Eight-bit CPUs normally use an 8-bit data bus and a 16-bit address bus which means that their Address space is limited to 64 KBs This is not a "natural A home computer was a class of Personal computer entering the market in 1977 and becoming common during the 1980s Amstrad is an electronics firm based in Brentwood in Essex, England and founded in 1968 by Sir Alan Michael Sugar in the CPC stood for 'Colour Personal Computer', although it was possible to purchase a CPC with a green screen (GT65/66) as well as with the standard colour screen (CTM640).
The first machine, the CPC 464, introduced in 1984, was designed as a direct competitor to the Commodore 64 and Sinclair ZX Spectrum systems. Sinclair Research Ltd is a consumer electronics company founded by Sir Clive Sinclair in Cambridge, England (originally as Sinclair Radionics in 1961 to The Sinclair ZX Spectrum is an 8-bit personal Home computer released in the United Kingdom in 1982 by Sinclair Research Ltd Packaged as a "complete system" the CPC 464 came with its own monitor and built-in cassette tape deck. The Compact Cassette, often referred to as audio cassette, cassette tape, cassette, or simply tape, is a Magnetic tape sound The CPC 664, with its own built-in floppy disk drive, arrived early in 1985, to be replaced itself later that same year by the CPC 6128. A floppy disk is an increasingly Obsolete data storage medium that is composed of a disk of thin flexible ("floppy" Magnetic storage medium encased In 1990, Amstrad launched the CPC 464 and 6128 Plus range featuring tweaked hardware from the old CPC range.
The original CPC range was successful, especially in Europe, with over three million units sold. Following this success, Amstrad launched the Amstrad PCW word-processor range, which was a bigger success, with eight million units sold. The Amstrad PCW series ( '''P'''ersonal '''C'''omputer '''W'''ord processor) was British company Amstrad 's versatile line of home/personal Variations and clones of the CPC range were also released in Germany. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. However, the Plus range failed to find a market amongst the higher spec 16-bit computers of the competing Atari ST and Commodore Amiga systems. The Atari ST is a home / Personal computer that was commercially available from 1985 to the early 1990s The Amiga is a family of Personal computers originally developed by Amiga Corporation.
The CPC 464 was introduced in 1984 and was designed to be a direct competitor to the Commodore 64 and Sinclair ZX Spectrum systems. Sinclair Research Ltd is a consumer electronics company founded by Sir Clive Sinclair in Cambridge, England (originally as Sinclair Radionics in 1961 to The Sinclair ZX Spectrum is an 8-bit personal Home computer released in the United Kingdom in 1982 by Sinclair Research Ltd   Amstrad promoted the CPC as being a "complete system" - including everything required to use the machine in one box.  Compared to a C64 or a ZX Spectrum, the Amstrad CPCs shipped with their own monitor, had a built in tape recorder or floppy disk drive and a small loudspeaker.  This marketing gave a "professional" appeal to the Amstrad CPC by marketing it in the same way as business-oriented systems, rather than gaming or home oriented ones.
In early 1985 Amstrad launched the CPC 664 model.  This was similar to the 464, but with the addition of a built-in floppy disk drive instead of a tape deck. A floppy disk is an increasingly Obsolete data storage medium that is composed of a disk of thin flexible ("floppy" Magnetic storage medium encased  However, production on the CPC 664 quickly stopped when its replacement the CPC 6128 was launched later in 1985.   This new model not only contained the built-in floppy disk drive but had 128KB of memory. 
Outwardly, the most distinguishing features of Amstrad's offering were the matte black console case with sharp corners and narrowly rectangular form factor (the latter due to the built-in cassette tape deck (CPC 464) or floppy disk drive (CPC 664 and CPC 6128), the keyboard's distinctly coloured special keys (all the non-typewriter-standard keys on the 464 and 664), and the unique power supply hookup with one lead going from the monitor to the computer (or RF modulator) and, on disc-based machines, one lead going the other way. The Compact Cassette, often referred to as audio cassette, cassette tape, cassette, or simply tape, is a Magnetic tape sound A television could be used with an optional adapter, and an optional tuner was available to turn the monitor into a TV.
An external disk drive (DDI-1) was available for the 464, incorporating the DOS in an interface unit. A second drive (FD-1) could be added to both this and 664/6128 machines. Cassette recorders could also be connected to the 664 and 6128. By and large, the later versions were compatible with earlier machines, though there were incompatibilities in undocumented features. Third-party hardware add-ons such as Romantic Robot's popular Multiface allowed DIY backup of most tape software to disk. This article is about the Romantic Robot hardware peripheral For the audio recording device developed by RME, see Multiface (RME.
As a late entrant to the European 8-bit market, the CPC range never achieved the total sales volume of either the ZX Spectrum or the C64, but the advantages of a typewriter-style keyboard and integrated tape or floppy drive saw it obtain considerable market share in the late 80s. It became the best-selling computer in France at this time and was popular in Spain. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Many of the best software titles for the CPC were created on the continent, but only a limited number saw commercial release in the UK.
Amstrad's German partner company Schneider produced its own models of the CPC 464, 664 and 6128. These machines had grey keys in place of the Amstrad coloured alternatives, and industry-standard D-connector Centronics ports in place of the edge connectors. The micro ribbon connector is a common type of Electrical connector used particularly in Computer and Telecommunications applications They were otherwise identical at the hardware level, with a link on the PCB being set to configure the sign-on message as Schneider rather than Amstrad. Documentation and case labels were translated into German.
Like most other computers of the era, the CPC inspired a clone in the Eastern bloc - the KC compact, made in East Germany using Soviet and East German components. During the Cold War, the term Communist Bloc (or Soviet Bloc) was used to refer to the Soviet Union and countries it either controlled or that were The German Democratic Republic ( GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik DDR; commonly known in English as East Germany) was a Socialist state The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991
The machine differed from a CPC visually with a different style of case, external power supply and (optional and even more scarce than the main device) external 5. 25" Robotron disc drive. This article is about the East German company For the Australian company see Robotron Group. Unlike the Amstrad models it could be used with a television screen out of the box. It ran BASIC 1. 1 and a CP/M clone, the German-language MicroDOS. It had 64 KB RAM built in and an additional 64 KB RAM was provided with the external disc/tape drive adapter.
The Z80 processor was replaced with a U 880 (which is 100% bug-compatible), and some proprietary Amstrad I/O chips replaced with clones based on the Z8536. Computer hardware and software is said to be bug compatible if it exactly replicates even an undesirable feature of a previous version This clone machine was around 95% compatible with the original.
In 1990 Amstrad introduced the "Plus" series, 464 and 6128 Plus, which tweaked the hardware and added a cartridge slot to the system. In various types of electronic equipment a cartridge can refer one method of adding different functionality or content (e  Improvements were made to the video display which saw an increase in palette to 4096 colours and gained a capacity for hardware sprites. In Computer graphics, a sprite (also known by other names see Synonyms below is a two-dimensional/three-dimensional Image or Animation that  Splitting the display into separate modes and pixel scrolling both became fully supported hardware features, although the former was easy, and the latter possible to some degree, on the non-"Plus" hardware using clever programming of the existing Motorola 6845. In Digital imaging, a pixel ( pict ure el ement is the smallest piece of information in an image Motorola 6845 (commonly MC6845) is a video address generator first introduced by Motorola and used in the MDA, CGA and EGA video adapters
An automatic DMA transfer system for feeding the sound chip was also added, enabling high-quality samples to be replayed with minimal processor overhead; the sound chip itself, however, remained unchanged.  Additionally, the BASIC command set for disc access was improved.
A cut down CPC Plus, without the keyboard, nor support for non-cartridge media, was also released as the GX4000 video game console. The GX4000 was Amstrad 's short-lived attempt to enter the games console market  These models did not do well in the marketplace, failing to attract any substantial third party support.  The 8-bit technology behind the CPC was starting to look out-of-date by 1990 and Amstrad's marketing failed to promote any significant advantage over the competing Atari ST and Commodore Amiga systems. The Atari ST is a home / Personal computer that was commercially available from 1985 to the early 1990s The Amiga is a family of Personal computers originally developed by Amiga Corporation.  The new models were not helped by the substantial price hike for cartridge games compared to their tape and disc counterparts, exacerbated by the tendency to rerelease old CPC games on cartridge without taking advantage of the enhanced Plus hardware.
CPC models were based on a Zilog Z80 processor clocked at 4 MHz. The Zilog Z80 is an 8-bit Microprocessor designed and sold by Zilog from July 1976 onwards  Because a common pool of RAM is shared with the video circuits, the Z80 may only make a memory accesses every four cycles - which has the effect of rounding instruction cycle lengths up to the next multiple of four. The speed is therefore roughly equivalent to a 3. 3 MHz machine.
The system came with 64 KB or 128 KB of RAM depending on the model (capable of being expanded to 512k within the Amstrad-standard address space). A kilobyte (derived from the SI prefix Kilo -, meaning 1000 is a unit of Information or Computer storage equal to either 1024   The machines also featured an (almost) standard 9-pin Atari-style joystick socket which was able to take two joysticks via a splitter. Atari is a corporate and brand name owned by several entities since its inception in 1972. A joystick is an input device consisting of a stick that pivots on a base and reports its angle or direction to the device it is controlling 
The hardware and firmware was designed so that it could access external ROMs with software in them. Each ROM had to be a 16k block and was switched in and out of the memory space shared with the video RAM. The Amstrad firmware was deliberately designed so that new software could be easily accessed from these ROMs with minimum of fuss. Popular applications were marketed on ROM, particularly word processing and programming utility software (examples are PROTEXT and BRUNWORD of the former, and MAXAM Assembler of the latter type)
Such extra ROM chips did not plug directly into the CPC itself, but into extra plug-in "rom-boxes" which contained sockets for the ROM chips and a minimal amount of decoding circuitry for the main machine to be able to switch between them. These boxes were either marketed commercially or could be built by competent hobbyists and they attached to the main expansion port at the back of the machine. Software loaded from ROM this way was accessible much more quickly than if it had to be loaded from a disc or tape and the machine's boot-up sequence was cleverly designed to evaluate ROMs it found and if they wished, hand over control of the machine to them. This allowed complete customisation of the function of the machine, something that research labs and garage techies were happy to exploit for all manner of purposes. However, the typical user was normally unaware of this added ROM functionality as it was not described in the user manual and was hardly ever mentioned in marketing literature. It was, however, documented in the Firmware manual published by Amstrad.
Underlying the CPC's video output was the Motorola 6845 address generator. A Video Display Controller or VDC is an Integrated circuit which is the main component in a Video signal generator, a device responsible for the production This chip was connected to a pixel generator that supported 4 bpp, 2 bpp and 1 bpp output (bpp = bits per pixel). Color depth. or bit depth, is a Computer graphics term describing the number of Bits used to represent the Color of a single Pixel The address generator was clocked at a constant rate so the 4 bpp display generated half as many pixels as the 2 bpp and a quarter as many as the 1 bpp. Three built-in display resolutions were available, though increased screen size could be achieved by reprogramming the 6845.
The standard video modes were:
A colour palette of 27 colors was supported, derived from RGB colour space with each component assigned as either off, half on or on. Color depth. or bit depth, is a Computer graphics term describing the number of Bits used to represent the Color of a single Pixel In Computer graphics, a palette is either a given finite set of Colors for the management of Digital images (that is a color palette) or The later Plus models extended this to 4096 colours and added support for hardware sprites. 
The machine lacked an RF TV or composite video output and instead shipped with a proprietary 6-pin DIN connector intended for use solely with the supplied Amstrad monitor. An RF modulator (for Radio frequency Modulator) is a device that takes a Baseband input signal and outputs a Radio frequency -modulated signal Composite video is the format of an Analog television (picture only signal before it is combined with a sound signal and modulated onto an RF A DIN connector is a connector that was originally standardized by the Deutsches Institut für Normung (DIN the German national standards organization  An external adapter for RF TV was available to buy separately. The 6-pin DIN connector is capable of driving a SCART television with a correctly wired lead. SCART (from Syndicat des Constructeurs d'Appareils Radiorécepteurs et Téléviseurs) The video signals are PAL frequency 1v p-p analogue RGB with composite sync. PAL, short for Phase Alternating Line, is a colour -encoding system used in Broadcast television systems in large parts of the world
The CPC used the General Instrument AY-3-8912 sound chip, providing three channels, each configurable to generate square waves, white noise or both. AY-3-8910 is a 3-voice Programmable Sound Generator (PSG designed by General Instrument, initially for use with their 16-bit CP1610 or one of the PIC1650 series A sound chip is an Integrated circuit (ie "chip" designed to produce Sound (see Chiptune) A small array of hardware volume envelopes are available.
Output was provided in mono by a small (4 cm) built-in loudspeaker with volume control, driven by an internal amplifier. The metre or meter is a unit of Length. It is the basic unit of Length in the Metric system and in the International Generally an amplifier or simply amp, is any device that changes usually increases the amplitude of a signal. Stereo output was provided through a 3. Stereophonic sound, commonly called stereo, is the reproduction of Sound, using two or more independent audio channels through a Symmetrical 5 mm headphones jack. Headphones (also known as earphones, earbuds, stereophones, headsets) are a pair of small Loudspeakers or less commonly a single
Playback of digital sound samples at a resolution of approximately 5-bit, as heard on the title screen of the game RoboCop, was possible by sending a stream of values to the sound chip. In Signal processing, sampling is the reduction of a Continuous signal to a Discrete signal. RoboCop is a 1987 Action movie set in a crime-ridden Detroit Michigan in the near future This trick was very processor-intensive and hard to combine with any other processing.
Amstrad's choice of Hitachi's 3" floppy disk drive, when the rest of the PC industry was moving to Sony's 3. () is a Multinational corporation specializing in high-technology and services headquartered in Marunouchi Itchome Chiyoda, Tokyo, Japan. is a multinational conglomerate corporation headquartered in Minato Tokyo, Japan, and one of the world's largest Media conglomerates with 5" format, is often claimed to be due to Amstrad bulk-buying a large consignment of 3" drive units in Asia. The chosen drive (built-in for later models) was a single-sided 40-track unit that required the user to physically remove and flip the disk to access the other side.  Each side had its own independent write-protect switch.  The sides were termed "A" and "B", with each one commonly formatted to 180 kB (in AMSDOS format, comprising 2 kB directory and 178 kB storage) for a total of 360 kB per disc. AMSDOS is a Disk operating system for the 8-bit Amstrad CPC Computer (and various clones
The interface with the drives was a NEC 765 FDC, used for the same purpose in the IBM PC/XT, PC/AT and PS/2 machines. A floppy disk controller (FDC is a special-purpose chip and associated circuitry that directs and controls reading from and writing to a computer's floppy disk drive The IBM Personal Computer XT, often shortened to the IBM XT or simply XT, was IBM's successor to the original IBM PC. The IBM Personal Computer/AT, more commonly known as the IBM AT and also sometimes called the PC AT or PC/AT, was IBM 's second-generation The Personal System/2 or PS/2 was IBM 's third generation of Personal computers The PS/2 line released to the public in 1987 was created by IBM in an Its features were not fully used, in order to cut costs, namely DMA transfers and support for single density disks; they were formatted as double density using Modified frequency modulation. Direct memory access ( DMA) is a feature of modern Computers and Microprocessors that allows certain hardware subsystems within the computer to access system Single density, often shortened SD is a capacity designation on Magnetic storage, usually Floppy disks It describes the use of an encoding (or Modulation Double density, often shortened DD is a capacity designation on Magnetic storage, usually Floppy disks It describes the use of an encoding (or Modulation This article is about Modified Frequency Modulation For other uses of MFM see the MFM (disambiguation
Disks were shipped in a paper sleeve or a hard plastic case resembling a compact disc "jewel" case. A Compact Disc (also known as a CD) is an Optical disc used to store digital data, originally developed for storing digital audio The casing is thicker and more rigid than that of 3. 5" diskettes. A sliding metal cover to protect the media surface is internal to the casing and latched, unlike the simple external sliding cover of Sony's version. Because of this they were significantly more expensive than both 5. 25" and 3. 5" alternatives. This, combined with their low nominal capacities and their essentially proprietary nature, led to the format being discontinued shortly after the CPC itself was discontinued.
Apart from Amstrad's other 3" machines (the PCW and the ZX Spectrum +3), the few other computer systems to use them included the Sega SF-7000 and CP/M systems such as the Tatung Einstein and Osborne machines. The Amstrad PCW series ( '''P'''ersonal '''C'''omputer '''W'''ord processor) was British company Amstrad 's versatile line of home/personal The Sinclair ZX Spectrum is an 8-bit personal Home computer released in the United Kingdom in 1982 by Sinclair Research Ltd The Tatung Einstein was an eight-bit home / Personal computer produced by Taiwanese corporation Tatung, designed and assembled in The Osborne Computer Corporation (OCC was founded by Adam Osborne in 1980 based on a product of not just Personal computers but Portable They also found use on embedded systems.
The Shugart-standard interface meant that Amstrad CPC machines were able to use standard 3", 3½" or 5¼" drives as their second drive. Shugart is the de facto standard for Floppy disk drive interfaces created by Shugart Associates. Programs such as ROMDOS and ParaDOS extended the standard AMSDOS system to provide support for double-sided, 80-track formats, enabling up to 800k to be stored on a single disk. AMSDOS is a Disk operating system for the 8-bit Amstrad CPC Computer (and various clones
Amstrad issued two RS-232-C D25 serial interfaces, attached to the expansion connector at the rear of the machine, with a through-connector for the CPC464 disk drive or other peripherals. In Telecommunications, RS-232 (Recommended Standard 232 is a standard for serial binary data signals connecting between a DTE ( Data Terminal Equipment The D-subminiature or D-sub is a common type of Electrical connector used particularly in Computers Calling them "subminiature" was appropriate The original interface came with a "Book of Spells" for facilitating data transfer between other systems using a proprietary protocol in the device's own ROM, as well as terminal software to connect to British Telecom's Prestel service. In computing, a protocol is a convention or standard that controls or enables the connection Communication, and Data transfer between two computing A computer terminal is an electronic or electromechanical hardware device that is used for entering data into and displaying data from a Computer or a Computing Prestel (abbrev from press telephone) the brand name for the UK Post Office 's Viewdata technology was an interactive Videotex system developed A separate version of the ROM was created for the U. S. market due to the use of the commands "SUCK" and "BLOW", which were considered unacceptable there.
Software and hardware limitations in this interface led to its replacement with an Amstrad-branded version of a compatible alternative by Pace. Other serial interfaces were available from third-party vendors such as KDS Electronics and Cirkit.
Like most home computers at the time, the CPC had its OS and a BASIC interpreter built in as ROM. An operating system (commonly abbreviated OS and O/S) is the software component of a Computer system that is responsible for the management and coordination In Computer programming, BASIC (an Acronym for Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) is a family of High-level programming languages In Computer science, an interpreter normally means a Computer program that executes, i It used Locomotive BASIC - an improved version of Locomotive Software's Z80 BASIC for the BBC Microcomputer co-processor board. Locomotive Basic is a proprietary dialect of the BASIC programming language written by Locomotive Software used only on the Amstrad CPC (where it was built-in This was faster, more comfortable and more powerful than the generic but common Microsoft BASIC used by the Commodore 64 and MSX amongst others. Microsoft BASIC was the foundation product of the Microsoft company MSX was the name of a standardized Home computer architecture in the 1980s It was particularly notable for providing easy access to the machine's video and audio resources in contrast to the arcane POKE commands required on generic Microsoft implementations. This article is about BASIC statements Peek & Poke is also the title of an album by White Town In Computing, PEEK is a BASIC
Although it was possible to obtain compilers for Locomotive BASIC, C and Pascal, the majority of the CPC's software was written in native Z80a assembly language. tags please moot on the talk page first! --> In Computing, C is a general-purpose cross-platform block structured Pascal is an influential imperative and procedural Programming language, designed in 1968/9 and published in 1970 by Niklaus Wirth as a small Popular assemblers were Hisoft's Devpac, Arnor's Maxam, and (in France) DAMS. Disk-based CPC (not Plus) systems shipped with an interpreter for the educational language LOGO, booted from CP/M 2. Logo is a Computer programming language used for Functional programming. 2 but largely CPC-specific with much code resident in the AMSDOS ROM.
At launch, Amsoft had lined up a range of 50 games. A number of these (as well as several subsequent releases) were tagged with the Roland name, in an attempt to give the CPC a recognisable mascot. However, since the games had not been designed around the Roland character and only had the branding added later there was initially no consensus on what kind of games Roland should star in or even what he looked like. Roland's appearance varied immensely, from a spiky-haired blonde teenager (Roland Goes Digging) to a mutant flea (Roland In The Caves) to a white cube with legs (Roland Goes Square Bashing) to something resembling Luigi from the Mario games (Roland On The Ropes). is a Fictional character created by game designer Shigeru Miyamoto. Eventually it was decided that Roland should be a squat man in a blue hat, red jumper and yellow trousers. The character was named after Roland Perry, a technical manager at Amstrad.
The Amstrad CPC enjoyed a strong and long lifetime, mainly due to the machines use for businesses as well as gaming. Dedicated programmers continued working on the CPC range, even producing Graphical User Interface (GUI) operating systems such as FutureOS and SymbOS. SymbOS is a free Multitasking Operating system for Z80 -based 8-bit Computer systems Internet sites devoted to the CPC have appeared from around the world featuring forums, news, hardware, software, programming and games. CPC Magazines appeared during the 1980s including publications in countries such as Britain, France, Spain, Germany, Denmark, Australia and Greece. This is a list of Magazines marketed primarily for Computer and Technology Enthusiasts or users The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία Titles included the official Amstrad Computer User publication, as well as independent titles like Amstrad Action, Amtix!, Computing with the Amstrad CPC, CPC Attack, Australia's The Amstrad User, France's Amstrad Cent Pour Cent and Amstar. Amstrad Computer User was the official magazine for the Amstrad CPC series of 8-bit home Computers This monthly publication usually referred Amstrad Action was a monthly magazine published in the United Kingdom which catered to owners of home computers from the Amstrad CPC range and later the GX4000 Amtix! magazine was as its subtitle stated a "monthly software review for the Amstrad computers" Computing with the Amstrad CPC) was one of the first magazines for the Amstrad CPC computers CPC Attack! was a short-lived magazine dedicated to Amstrad CPC gaming Following the CPCs end of production, Amstrad gave permission for the CPC ROMs to be distributed freely as long as the copyright is not changed and that the program acknowledges that Amstrad still holds copyright. This has given people the chance to write programs that emulate the CPC on other machines including the PC, Amiga and Unix systems. An emulator duplicates (provides an emulation of the functions of one System using a different system so that the second system behaves like (and appears to Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX, sometimes also written as Unix with Small caps) is a computer 
Amstrad followed their success with the CPC 464 by launching the Amstrad PCW word-processor range, another Z80-based machine with a 3" disk drive and software by Locomotive Software. The Amstrad PCW series ( '''P'''ersonal '''C'''omputer '''W'''ord processor) was British company Amstrad 's versatile line of home/personal Locomotive Software was a small British software house which did most of its development for Amstrad 's home and small business computers of the 1980s The PCW was originally developed to be compatible with an improved version of the CPC ('ANT', or Arnold Number Two - the CPC's development codename was Arnold). However, Amstrad decided to focus on the PCW, which in due course became vastly successful, and the ANT project never came to market.
On 7 April 1986 Amstrad announced it had bought from Sinclair Research ". Events 529 - First draft of Corpus Juris Civilis (a fundamental work in Jurisprudence) is issued by Eastern Roman Emperor Year 1986 ( MCMLXXXVI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar) . . the worldwide rights to sell and manufacture all existing and future Sinclair computers and computer products, together with the Sinclair brand name and those intellectual property rights where they relate to computers and computer related products. " which included the ZX Spectrum, for £5 million. This included Sinclair's unsold stock of Sinclair QLs and Spectrums. The Sinclair QL (for Quantum Leap) was a Personal computer launched by Sinclair Research in 1984 as the successor to the ZX Spectrum Amstrad made more than £5 million on selling these surplus machines alone. Amstrad launched two new variants of the Spectrum: the ZX Spectrum +2, based on the ZX Spectrum 128, with a built-in tape drive (like the CPC 464) and, the following year, the ZX Spectrum +3, with a built-in floppy disk drive (similar to the CPC 664 and 6128), taking the 3" disks that Amstrad CPC machines used. The Compact Cassette, often referred to as audio cassette, cassette tape, cassette, or simply tape, is a Magnetic tape sound A floppy disk is an increasingly Obsolete data storage medium that is composed of a disk of thin flexible ("floppy" Magnetic storage medium encased