The American Bar Association (ABA), founded August 21, 1878, is a voluntary bar association of lawyers and law students, which is not specific to any jurisdiction in the United States. Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D Events 1192 - Minamoto Yoritomo becomes Seii Tai Shōgun and the De facto ruler of Japan. Year 1878 ( MDCCCLXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common A voluntary association or union (also sometimes called a voluntary organization, unincorporated association, or just an association) is a group A bar association is a Professional body of Lawyers Some bar associations are responsible for the regulation of the legal profession in their Jurisdiction A lawyer, according to Black's Law Dictionary, is "a person learned in the law as an attorney, Counsel or Solicitor; a person The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The ABA's most important stated activities are the setting of academic standards for law schools, and the formulation of model ethical codes related to the legal profession. A law school (also known as a school of law or college of law) is an institution specializing in Legal education. The ABA has 410,000 members.
The most important role of the ABA is its creation and maintenance of a code of ethical standards for lawyers. The Model Code of Professional Responsibility (1969) and/or the newer Model Rules of Professional Conduct (1983) have been adopted in 49 state jurisdictions and the District of Columbia. American Bar Association Model Code of Professional Responsibility, created by the American Bar Association (ABA in 1969, was a set of professional standards to guarantee ABA Model Rules of Professional Conduct, created by the American Bar Association (ABA is a set of professional standards to prescribe legal ethics and professional responsibility A US state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of the United States of America that share Sovereignty with the federal government Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D The one exception is California, which has refused to adopt either (see State Bar of California), although a few sections of the California Rules of Professional Responsibility have similarities with sections in the ABA model. California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. The State Bar of California is California 's official Bar association.
According to the ABA, it "provides law school accreditation, continuing legal education, information about the law, programs to assist lawyers and judges in their work, and initiatives to improve the legal system for the public. The Mission of the American Bar Association is to be the national representative of the legal profession, serving the public and the profession by promoting justice, professional excellence and respect for the law. "
ABA accreditation is important not only because it affects the recognition of the law schools involved, but it also affects a graduate's ability to practice law in a particular state. Specifically, in most U. S. jurisdictions, graduation from an ABA-accredited law school is expressly stated as a prerequisite towards being allowed to sit for that state's bar exam, and even for existing lawyers to be admitted to the bar of another state upon motion.  Even states which recognize unaccredited schools within their borders will generally not recognize such schools from other jurisdictions for purposes of bar admission. 
The United States has accused the ABA of violating Section 1 of the Sherman Act in its accreditation proceedings, resulting in a consent decree in 1995. The Sherman Antitrust Act ( Sherman Act, July 2, 1890, ch 647,) was the first United States Federal statute to limit Cartels and 
For law students attending ABA-accredited schools, memberships are available at significantly reduced rates. Students attending unaccredited law schools are only permitted to join the ABA as associate members. 
The Association publishes a general magazine for all members, the ABA Journal. ABA members may also join subject-specific "sections," and each section publishes a variety of newsletters and magazines for its members (such as Law Practice Magazine published by the Law Practice Management Section). Law Practice Magazine (formerly Law Practice Management) is a legal Magazine published eight times per year by the Law Practice Management The sections also hold their own meetings.
Each section will normally have a publication program that includes (1) books, usually oriented toward practitioners; (2) scholarly journals, such as Administrative Law Review (published by the ABA Section of Administrative Law & Regulatory Practice and The American University Washington College of Law) and The International Lawyer (published by the ABA Section of International Law and SMU Dedman School of Law); (3) newsletters, such as The International Law News (published by the ABA Section of International Law); (4) e-publications, such as a monthly message from the section chair, or updates on substantive law developments; and (5) committee publications, such as a committee newsletter published by one of the substantive law committees. The Administrative Law Review (cited to as Admin L Rev) is a law journal officially published by the The American University Washington College of Law (WCL is a private ABA -certified American Law school. The International Lawyer is the official quarterly publication of the American Bar Association 's Section of International Law and Practice Southern Methodist University ("SMU" is a private, Coeducational University in University Park, Texas (an enclave Southern Methodist University Dedman School of Law is a Law school located in Dallas, Texas.
The ABA has a House of Delegates which acts as the organization's primary body for adopting new policies and recommendations as part of the association's official position.
In 1995 Roberta Cooper Ramo became the first woman president of the American Bar Association since its inception in 1878.
For decades, the ABA has participated in the federal judicial nomination process by vetting nominees and giving them a rating ranging from "not qualified" to "well qualified. William Horlick "Bill" Neukom was President of the American Bar Association in 2007-08 " The process has been accused by some (including the Federalist Society) of having a liberal bias. Liberalism in the United States is a broad political and philosophical mindset favoring individual Liberty, and opposing restrictions on liberty whether they come from  For example, the ABA gave Ronald Reagan's judicial nominees Richard Posner and Frank H. Easterbrook low "qualified/not qualified" ratings; later, the ABA gave Bill Clinton judicial nominees with similar resumes "well qualified" ratings. Richard Allen Posner (born January 11 1939 in New York City) is currently a judge on the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit in Chicago Frank Hoover Easterbrook (born 1948 is Chief Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit. William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III, August 19 1946 served as the forty-second President of the United States  Meanwhile, Judges Posner and Easterbrook have gone on to become the two most highly-cited judges in the federal appellate judiciary. 
In 2001, the George W. Bush administration announced that it would cease cooperating with the ABA in advance of judicial nominations. George Walker Bush ( born July 6 1946 is the forty-third and current President of the United States. The ABA continues to rate nominees. In 2005, the ABA gave John Roberts, George W. Bush's nomination for Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, a unanimous "well-qualified" rating. John Glover Roberts Jr (born January 27 1955) is the seventeenth and current Chief Justice of the United States. George Walker Bush ( born July 6 1946 is the forty-third and current President of the United States. It also gave a unanimous "well qualified" rating to appellate court nominee Miguel Estrada, who never took his seat because his nomination was filibustered. Miguel Eduardo Estrada Rijana (born September 25, 1961) is an American Lawyer who became embroiled in controversy following his 2001 A filibuster, or "talking out a bill", is a form of obstruction in a Legislature or other decision-making body However, it gave only a "qualified/not-qualified" rating to nominee Janice Rogers Brown. Janice Rogers Brown (born May 11, 1949 in Greenville Alabama) is a federal judge on the United States Court of Appeals for the District  In 2006, the ABA gave a unanimous "well-qualified" rating to Judge Samuel Alito, Bush's appointee for Sandra Day O'Connor's Associate Justice position. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Samuel Anthony Alito Jr (born April 1, 1950) is an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. Sandra Day O'Connor (born March 26, 1930) is an American Jurist.
In July 2006, an ABA task force under then President Michael S. Greco released a report that concluded that George W. Michael Spencer Greco (b November 22, 1942 Rende, Italy) is a former President of the American Bar Association ( 2006 - 2007 Bush's use of "signing statements" violates the Constitution. These are documents attached by the President to bills he signs, in which he states that he will enforce the new law only to the extent that he feels the law conforms to his interpretation of the Constitution.
The ABA has been criticized for perceived elitism and overrepresentation of white male corporate defense lawyers among its membership; in 1925, African-American lawyers formed the National Bar Association at a time when ABA would not allow them to be members. The National Bar Association was established in 1925 It represents the interests of African-American Attorneys in the United States.
However, since the 1960s, the ABA has made great strides in increasing the diversity of its membership. Its membership has grown from less than 11 percent of all American lawyers to roughly 50 percent today. In recent years, the ABA has also drawn some criticism, mainly from the conservative side of the political spectrum, for taking positions on controversial public policy topics such as abortion, capital punishment and gun control. An Capital punishment of a Felon in the United States, in modern times is employed and in practice only in cases involving murder Gun politics in the United States, incorporating the political aspects of Gun politics, and firearms rights has long been among the most controversial and intractable issues The ABA's official position in favor of abortion rights led to the formation of a (much smaller) alternative organization for lawyers, the National Lawyers Association. The National Lawyers Association is a Voluntary association of Lawyers in the United States, similar in many respects to the American Bar Association The Federalist Society sponsors a twice-a-year publication called "ABA Watch" that reports on the political activities of the ABA. The Federalist Society for Law and Public Policy Studies, most frequently called simply the Federalist Society, is an organization of Conservatives and Libertarians
There are heated debates over requirements placed on law schools by the ABA. Many states and practitioners believe ABA requirements to be unnecessary and costly. Some legal professionals and academics feel these requirements promote the rising cost of tuition. In addition, the ABA has been criticized for requiring law schools to implement affirmative action programs to retain their accreditation. 
Jerome J. Shestack, past president of the ABA, receives 2008 Gruber Prize for Justice; for more information, visit http://www.gruberprizes.org