Ambrosius Aurelianus, called Aurelius Ambrosius in the Historia Regum Britanniae and elsewhere, was a war leader of the Romano-British who won an important battle against the Anglo-Saxons in the 5th century, according to Gildas. The Historia Regum Britanniae ( English: The History of the Kings of Britain) is a pseudohistorical account of British history The Britons or Brythons were the indigenous Celtic speaking people of what is now England, Wales and southern Scotland, whose Romano-British culture is that of the Romanized Britons under the Roman Empire and later the Western Roman Empire, and of those exposed to Roman culture in the years For their language see Anglo-Saxon language. Anglo-Saxon is the term usually used to describe the invading Tribes in the south The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in Anno Domini / Common Era. Saint Gildas (c 494 or 516 – c 570 was one of the best-documented figures of the Christian church in the British Isles during the sixth century Some scholars have speculated that he was also the leader of the Romano-British at the Battle of Mons Badonicus and as such may have been a historical basis for King Arthur. In the Battle of Mons Badonicus ( English Mount Badon, Welsh Mynydd Baddon) Romano-British Celts defeated The historical basis of King Arthur is a source of considerable debate among Historians. He also appeared independently in the legends of the Brythons, beginning with the Historia Britonum. The Historia Brittonum, or The History of the Britons, is a historical work that was first written sometime shortly after AD 833 and exists in several
Ambrosius Aurelianus is one of the few people Gildas identifies by the name in his sermon De Excidio Britanniae, and the only one named from the fifth century. Saint Gildas (c 494 or 516 – c 570 was one of the best-documented figures of the Christian church in the British Isles during the sixth century Saint Gildas (c 494 or 516 – c 570 was one of the best-documented figures of the Christian church in the British Isles during the sixth century  Following the destructive assault of the Saxons, the survivors gather together under the leadership of Ambrosius, who is described as "a gentleman who, perhaps alone of the Romans, had survived the shock of this notable storm. Certainly his parents, who had worn the purple, were slain in it. His descendants in our day have become greatly inferior to their grandfather's [avita] excellence. " We know from Gildas that he was of high birth, and had Roman ancestry; he was presumably a Romano-Briton, rather than a Roman from elsewhere in the empire, though it is impossible to be sure.  It also appears that Ambrosius was a Christian: Gildas says that he won his battles "with God's help". According to Gildas, Ambrosius organised the survivors into an armed force and achieved the first military victory over the Saxon invaders. However, this victory was not decisive: "Sometimes the Saxons and sometimes the citizens [meaning the Romano-British inhabitants] were victorious. "
Two points in this brief description have attracted much scholarly commentary. The first is what Gildas meant by saying Ambrosius' family "had worn the purple": does this mean that Ambrosius was related to one of the Roman Emperors, perhaps the House of Theodosius or an usurper like Constantine III? This seems unlikely. The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman State during the imperial period (starting at about 27 BC The Theodosian dynasty was a Roman family that rose to eminence in the waning days of the Roman Empire. Constantine III (died 411 by September 18) was a Roman general who declared himself Western Roman Emperor in 407 abdicating in 411 (and being killed Roman males of the senatorial class wore clothes with a purple band to denote their class, so the reference to purple may be to his aristocratic heritage. The term " patrician " originally referred to a group of elite families in Ancient Rome, including both their natural and In addition, Roman military tribunes (tribuni militum), senior officers in Roman legions, wore a similar purple band, so the purple may refer to military leadership background in his family. Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Byzantine Greek form τριβούνος) was a title shared by 2–3 elected magistracies in the It has also been suggested that "the purple" is a euphemism for blood, and therefore "wearing the purple" may be a reference to martyrdom. 
The second question is the meaning of the word avita: does it mean "ancestors", or did Gildas intend it to mean more specifically "grandfather"—thus indicating Ambrosius lived about a generation before the Battle of Mons Badonicus? The lack of information for this period inhibits accurate answers to these questions. In the Battle of Mons Badonicus ( English Mount Badon, Welsh Mynydd Baddon) Romano-British Celts defeated
Bede follows Gildas' account of Ambrosius in his Ecclesiastical History of the English People, but in his Chronica Majora he dates Ambrosius' victory to the reign of the Emperor Zeno (474-91). Bede (ˈbiːd (also Saint Bede, the Venerable Bede, or (from Latin Beda (beda (c The Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum (in English: Ecclesiastical History of the English People) is a work in Latin by the Flavius Zeno, original name Tarasicodissa or Trascalissaeus, Byzantine Emperor ( Circa
The Historia Britonum preserves several snippets of lore about Ambrosius. The most significant of these is the story about Ambrosius, Vortigern, and the two dragons beneath Dinas Emrys, "Fortress of Ambrosius" in Chapters 40 – 42. Vortigern (ˈvɔrtɨɡɝːn also spelled Vortiger and Vortigen and in Welsh Gwrtheyrn was a 5th century warlord in Britain, a leading ruler among Dinas Emrys ( Welsh for "fortress of Ambrosius" is a rocky and wooded hillock near Beddgelert in North Wales. This story was later retold with more detail by Geoffrey of Monmouth in his fictionalized Historia Regum Britanniae, conflating the personage of Ambrosius with the Welsh tradition of Merlin the visonary, known for oracular utterances that foretold the coming victories of the native Celtic inhabitants of Britain over the Saxons and the Normans. Geoffrey of Monmouth ( Gruffudd ap Arthur or Sieffre o Fynwy) (c The Multi-Element Radio Linked Interferometer Network ( MERLIN) is an Interferometer array of Radio telescopes spread across England and the Celts (ˈkɛlts or /ˈsɛlts/, see Names of the Celts The Saxons or Saxon people were a Confederation of Old Germanic tribes. The Normans were the people who gave their names to Normandy, a region in northern France. Geoffrey also names him as one of three sons of Constantine III,along with Constans II and Uther Pendragon. Constantine III (died 411 by September 18) was a Roman general who declared himself Western Roman Emperor in 407 abdicating in 411 (and being killed Constans was the eldest son of the Roman usurper Constantine III and was appointed co-emperor by him from 409 to 411
But there are smaller snippets of tradition preserved in Historia Brittonum: in Chapter 31, we are told that Vortigern ruled in fear of Ambrosius; later, in Chapter 66, various events are dated from a battle of Guoloph (often identified with Wallop, 15 km ESE of Amesbury near Salisbury), which is said to have been between Ambrosius and Vitolinus; lastly, in Chapter 48, it is said that Pascent, the son of Vortigern, was granted rule over the kingdoms of Buellt and Gwrtheyrion by Ambrosius. Amesbury is a Town and Civil parish in the English county of Wiltshire, eight miles north of Salisbury. Salisbury (ˈsɒlzbri ˈsɔːlzbri ('Solzbry' or ˈzɔːwzbri ('Zawzbry' — moving from RP to local dialect) is a cathedral city in the Builth Wells (Llanfair ym Muallt is a Town in the modern day Welsh county of Powys, in what was the historic county of Brecknockshire It is not clear how these various traditions relate to each other or that they come from the same tradition, and it is very possible that these references are to a different Ambrosius. The Historia Brittonum dates the battle of Guoloph to "the twelfth year of Vortigern", by which 437 seems to be meant. This is perhaps a generation before the battle that Gildas says were commanded by Ambrosius Aurelianus.
At the end of the story in Chapters 40 - 42, Vortigern hands over to Ambrosius "the fortress, with all of the kingdoms of the western part of Britain. Vortigern (ˈvɔrtɨɡɝːn also spelled Vortiger and Vortigen and in Welsh Gwrtheyrn was a 5th century warlord in Britain, a leading ruler among " In Chapter 48 Ambrosius Aurelianus is described as "king among all the kings of the British nation. The Britons or Brythons were the indigenous Celtic speaking people of what is now England, Wales and southern Scotland, whose " It is impossible to know to what degree he actually wielded political power, and over what area, but it is certainly possible that he ruled some part of England. 
Because Ambrosius and Vortigern are shown in the Historia Brittonum as being in conflict, some historians have suspected that this preserves a historical core of the existence of two parties in opposition to one another, one headed by Ambrosius and the other by Vortigern. J. N. L. Myres built upon this suspicion and put forth the hypothesis that belief in Pelagianism reflected an actively provincial outlook in Britain and that Vortigern represented the Pelagian party, while Ambrosius led the Catholic one. John Nowell Linton Myres CBE ( 27 December 1902 - 25 September[[ 989]] was a British archaeologist and Bodley's Librarian at the Bodleian Pelagianism is a theological theory named after Pelagius (ad 354 – ad Some later historians accepted this hypothesis as fact and have created a narrative of events in fifth-century Britain with various degrees of elaborate detail. Yet a simpler alternative interpretation of the conflict between these two figures is that the Historia Brittonum is preserving traditions hostile to the purported descendants of Vortigern, who at this time were a ruling house in Powys. This interpretation is supported by the negative character of all of the stories retold about Vortigern in the Historia Brittonum, which include his alleged practice of incest. Incest refers to any sexual activity between closely related persons (often within the immediate family that is illegal or socially Taboo.
Ambrosius Aurelianus appears in later pseudo-chronicle tradition beginning with Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historiae Regum Britanniae with the slightly garbled name Aurelius Ambrosius, now presented as son of a King Constantine. When King Constantine's eldest son Constans is murdered at Vortigern's instigation, the two remaining sons, Ambrosius and Uther, still very young, are quickly hustled into exile in Brittany. Brittany (Breizh bʁejs Bretagne; Gallo: Bertaèyn) is a former independent Celtic kingdom and Duchy, now incorporated into (This does not fit with Gildas' account in which Ambrosius' family perished in the turmoil of the Saxon uprisings. ) Later, when Vortigern's power has faded, the two brothers return from exile with a large army, destroy Vortigern and become friends with Merlin.
In Welsh, Ambrosius appears as Emrys Wledig. In Robert de Boron's Merlin he is called simply Pendragon and his younger brother is named Uter, which he changes to Uterpendragon after the death of the elder sibling. Robert de Boron (also spelled in the manuscripts "Bouron" "Beron" was a French poet of the late 12th and early 13th centuries originally from the village This is probably a confusion that entered oral tradition from Wace's Roman de Brut. WACE (730 AM) is a Radio station broadcasting a Christian radio format Roman de Brut or Brut is a verse literary history of Britain by the poet Wace. Wace usually only refers to li roi 'the king' without naming him, and someone has taken an early mention of Uther's epithet Pendragon as the name of his brother.
S. Appelbaum has suggested that Amesbury in Wiltshire might preserve in it the name of Ambrosius, and perhaps Amesbury was the seat of his power base in the later fifth century. Etymology The county formerly 'Wiltonshire' or 'Wiltunscir' (9th century is named after the former county town of Wilton (itself named after the River Wylye Place name scholars have found a number of place names through the Midland dialect regions of Britain that incorporate the ambre- element: Ombersley in Worcestershire, Ambrosden in Oxfordshire, Amberley in Herefordshire, and Amberley in Gloucestershire. Toponymy refers to the scientific study of place-names ( toponyms) their origins meanings use and Typology. The Village of Ombersley is in the Wychavon District Council area of Worcestershire about 5 miles north of Worcester Worcestershire (ˈwʊstəʃə abbreviated Worcs) is a county located in the West Midlands region of central England. Ambrosden is a village in the east of the county of Oxfordshire, south-east of the town of Bicester. History See also History of Oxfordshire The county of Oxfordshire was formed in the early years of the 10th century and is broadly situated in the Constitution Herefordshire was reconstituted both as a new Non-metropolitan district (effective 19th July 1996 and as a new County comprising the area of the History See also History of Gloucestershire Gloucestershire is a historic county mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in the 10th century These scholars have claimed this element represents an Old English word amor, the name of a woodland bird. However, Amesbury in Wiltshire is in a different dialect region and does not easily fit into the pattern of the Midland dialect place names. If we combine this etymology with the tradition reported by Geoffrey of Monmouth stating Ambrosius Aurelianus ordered the building of Stonehenge—which is located within the parish of Amesbury (and where Ambrosius was supposedly buried)—and with the presence of an Iron age hill fort also in that parish, then it is extremely tempting to connect this shadowy figure with Amesbury. Stonehenge is a Prehistoric Monument located in the English county of Wiltshire, about west of Amesbury and north of Salisbury This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age for the mythological Iron Age see Ages of Man. A hill fort is a fortified refuge or defended settlement
In Marion Zimmer Bradley's The Mists of Avalon, Aurelianus is depicted as the aging High King of Britain, a "too-ambitious" son of a Western Roman Emperor. Marion Eleanor Zimmer Bradley ( June 3, 1930 – September 25, 1999) was an American author of Fantasy novels such The Mists of Avalon is a 1982 novel by Marion Zimmer Bradley, in which she relates the Arthurian legends from the perspective of the female characters His sister's son is Uther Pendragon, but Uther is described as not having any Roman blood. Aurelianus is unable to gather the leadership of the native Celts, who refuse to follow any but their own race.
In Alfred Duggan's Conscience of the King, a historical novel about Cerdic, founder of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Wessex, Ambrosius Aurelianus is a Romano-British general who rose independently to military power, forming alliances with various British kings and setting out to drive the invading Saxons from Britain. Alfred Duggan (1903 - 1964 was an English Historian, Archeologist and best-selling Historical novelist during the 1950s Conscience of the King ( 1951) is a Historical novel by the English author Alfred Duggan. An historical novel is a Novel in which the story is set among historical events or more generally in which the time of the action predates the lifetime of the Author See also Ceretic for two kings with a similar name Cerdic of Wessex (died 534 was the King of Wessex (519&ndash534 and is regarded West Saxon redirects here For other meanings of Wessex or West Saxon see Wessex (disambiguation. Roman Britain refers to those parts of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire between AD 43 and 410 Cerdic, who is of both Germanic and British descent and raised as a Roman citizen, served in his army as a young man. The Germanic peoples are a historical group of Indo-European -speaking peoples originating in Northern Europe and identified by their use of the Germanic Citizenship in the time of Ancient Rome was a privileged status afforded to certain individuals with respect to laws property and governance In the novel Ambrosius is a separate character from Arthur, or Artorius, who appears much later as a foe of Cerdic.
In Stephen R. Lawhead's Pendragon Cycle, Aurelianus (most often referred to as "Aurelius") figures prominently, along with his brother Uther, in the second book of the series, Merlin. Stephen R Lawhead (born July 2, 1950) is a best-selling American Writer known for his works of Fantasy, Science fiction The Pendragon Cycle is a series of Fantasy or semi- Historical books based on the Arthurian legend, written by Stephen R He is poisoned soon after becoming High King of Britain, and Uther succeeds him. A high king is a king who holds a position of seniority over a group of other kings without the title of Emperor; compare King of Kings. Lawhead alters the standard Arthurian story somewhat, in that he has Aurelius marry Igraine and become the true father of King Arthur (Uther does marry his brother's widow, though). In Arthurian legend, Igraine is the mother of King Arthur. (She is also known in Latin as Igerna, in Welsh as Eigyr, in French as Igerne King Arthur is a legendary British leader who according to medieval histories and romances, led the defence of Britain against the Saxon invaders
In Valerio Massimo Manfredi's The Last Legion, Aurelianus (here called "Aurelianus Ambrosius Ventidius") is a major character and is shown as one of the last loyal Romans, going to enormous lengths for his boy emperor Romulus Augustus, whose power has been wrested by the barbarian Odoacer. Valerio Massimo Manfredi (born 1946 is an Italian Historian, Archaeologist and Journalist. The Last Legion is a 2007 movie directed by Doug Lefler. Produced by Dino De Laurentiis and others it is based on a 2003 Italian Romulus Augustus (c 461/463 &ndash after 476 sometimes known as Romulus Augustulus ( Little Augustus) was the last Western Roman Emperor reigning from Odoacer (435–493 also known as Odovacar (from the Germanic Audawakrs, meaning "watchful of wealth" was a Roman general and the In this story, Romulus Augustus marries Igraine, and King Arthur is their son, and the sword of Julius Caesar becomes the legendary Excalibur in Britain. In Arthurian legend, Igraine is the mother of King Arthur. (She is also known in Latin as Igerna, in Welsh as Eigyr, in French as Igerne King Arthur is a legendary British leader who according to medieval histories and romances, led the defence of Britain against the Saxon invaders Excalibur is the legendary Sword of King Arthur sometimes attributed with magical powers or associated with the rightful Sovereignty of Great In the 2007 film version of the novel, he is played by Colin Firth and his name becomes "Aurelianus Caius Antonius", though he is called "Aurelius" for short. Colin Andrew Firth (born 10 September, 1960) is an English film television and stage Actor.
Mary Stewart's The Crystal Cave follows Geoffrey of Monmouth in calling him Aurelius Ambrosius and portrays him as the father of Merlin, the elder brother of Uther (hence uncle of Arthur), an initiate of Mithras, and generally admired by everyone except the Saxons. Mary Florence Elinor Stewart ( née Rainbow; born 17 September 1916) is a popular English Novelist, best known for her series The Crystal Cave is a 1970 Fantasy Novel by Mary Stewart. The first in a quintet of novels covering the Arthurian legend, it The Mithraic Mysteries or Mysteries of Mithras (also Mithraism) was a Roman mystery religion which became popular among the military in the late Much of the book is set at his court in Brittany or during the campaign to retake his throne from Vortigern. Later books in the series show that Merlin's attitude toward Arthur is influenced by his belief that Arthur is a reincarnation of Ambrosius, who is seen through Merlin's eyes as a model of good kingship.
In Rosemary Sutcliff's The Lantern Bearers Prince Ambrosius Aurelianus of Arfon drives out the Saxons by training his British army with Roman techniques and making effective use of cavalry. Rosemary Sutcliff CBE ( December 14, 1920 - July 23, 1992) was a British Novelist, best known as a writer of highly acclaimed The Lantern Bearers is a historical adventure novel for children written by Rosemary Sutcliff and published in 1959, with illustrations by Charles By the end of the novel, the elite cavalry wing is led by a dashing young warrior prince named Artos, whom Sutcliff postulates to be the real Arthur.
In Jack Whyte's Camulod Chronicles, Ambrosius Aurelianus is the half-brother of Caius Merlyn Britannicus (Merlin) and helps him lead the people of Camulod (Camelot). Jack Whyte ( Johnstone, Renfrewshire, Scotland, 1940) is an author and Writer born and raised in Scotland, but living in A Dream of Eagles is a Historical novel series written by the Canadian author Jack Whyte. Camelot is the most famous Castle and court associated with the legendary King Arthur.
In Stargate SG-1, Ambrosius and Arthur are one and the same. Merlin was an Ancient, fleeing from Atlantis and later Ascends, then comes back in order build the Sangraal, or Holy Grail, to defeat the Ori. In the Stargate Fictional universe, the Ancients, also known as the Alterans and Lanteans are the most advanced race known to have existed having evolved The Ancients are a Humanoid race in the fictional Stargate universe In the Science fiction Television series Stargate Atlantis, the spin-off of Stargate SG-1, Atlantis isa city-sized The Ancients —also known as the "Alterans" and Lanteans —are an advanced race discovered by the SGC. The Ori (ɒrаɪ The Ori fabricated a religion called Origin which they use to control non-ascended beings attempting to destroy anyone who rejects it Daniel Jackson also comments that it would mean that Ambrosius was 74 at the Battle of Mount Badon. Daniel Jackson is a Fictional character in both the Science fiction feature film Stargate and the subsequent television series Stargate In the Battle of Mons Badonicus ( English Mount Badon, Welsh Mynydd Baddon) Romano-British Celts defeated