|Born||November 3, 1933 |
|Institutions||Harvard University (2004 - )|
Cambridge University (1998-2004)
Harvard University (1988-1998)
Oxford University (1977-88)
London School of Economics (1971-77)
Delhi School of Economics (1963-71)
Cambridge University (1957-63)
Jadavpur University (1956-58)
|Alma mater||Trinity College, Cambridge (Ph. Events 644 - Umar ibn al-Khattab, the second Muslim Caliph, is killed by a Persian slave in Medina. Year 1933 ( MCMXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Santiniketan ( Bangla: শান্তিনিকেতন Shantiniketôn) is a small town India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country The United States of America —commonly referred to as the India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Economics is the social science that studies the production distribution, and consumption of goods and services. The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University) located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the The University of Oxford (informally "Oxford University" or simply "Oxford" located in the city of Oxford, Oxfordshire, England is the The London School of Economics and Political Science, more commonly referred to as The London School of Economics or LSE, is a specialist college of the Delhi School of Economics, started in 1949, is a conglomerate of three departments under the Faculty of Social Sciences at the University of Delhi. The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University) located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the Jadavpur University (যাদবপুর বিশ্ববিদ্যালয় (JU is a premier educational and research institution in India. Alma mater is Latin for "nourishing mother" It was used in Ancient Rome as a title for the mother Goddess, and in Medieval Trinity College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in Cambridge, England. D. )(B. A. )|
Presidency College, Kolkata (B. Presidency College Kolkata is one of the affiliated colleges and a co-founding college of the University of Calcutta. A. )
|Known for||Welfare Economics|
Human development theory
|Notable awards|| Nobel Prize in Economics (1998)|
Bharat Ratna (1999)
Amartya Kumar Sen CH (Hon) (Bengali: অমর্ত্য কুমার সেন Ômorto Kumar Shen) (born 3 November 1933), is an Indian economist, philosopher, and a winner of the Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences (Nobel Prize for Economics) in 1998, "for his contributions to welfare economics" for his work on famine, human development theory, welfare economics, the underlying mechanisms of poverty, and political liberalism. Welfare economics is a branch of Economics that uses microeconomic techniques to simultaneously determine Allocative efficiency within an economy and the Human development theory is a theory that merges older ideas from Ecological economics, Sustainable development, Welfare economics, and Feminist The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, officially named The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel (Sveriges riksbanks pris i ekonomisk Bharat Ratna (translates to Jewel of India or Gem of India in English) is India 's highest Civilian award, awarded for the The Order of the Companions of Honour is a British and Commonwealth Order. Events 644 - Umar ibn al-Khattab, the second Muslim Caliph, is killed by a Persian slave in Medina. Year 1933 ( MCMXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country An economist is an expert in the Social science of Economics. Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, officially named The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel (Sveriges riksbanks pris i ekonomisk The Nobel Prize (Nobelpriset (Nobelprisen is a Swedish prize established in the 1895 will of Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel; it was first awarded in Peace, Literature A famine is a widespread shortage of food that may apply to any Faunal species which phenomenon is usually accompanied by regional Malnutrition, Starvation Human development theory is a theory that merges older ideas from Ecological economics, Sustainable development, Welfare economics, and Feminist Welfare economics is a branch of Economics that uses microeconomic techniques to simultaneously determine Allocative efficiency within an economy and the Poverty (also called penury) is deprivation of common necessities that determine the quality of life including food clothing shelter and safe Drinking water, and This is a partial list of individual contributions to liberal political theory on a worldwide scale
From 1998 to 2004 he was Master of Trinity College at Cambridge University, becoming the first Asian academic to head an Oxbridge college. Trinity College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in Cambridge, England. The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University) located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the Oxbridge was originally a fictional composite of the University of '''Ox'''ford and the University of Cam'''bridge''' in England, and the term is now Amartya Sen is interested in the debate over globalization. Globalization (or globalisation) in its literal sense is the process of transformation of local or regional phenomena into global ones He has given lectures to senior executives of the World Bank and is a former honorary president of Oxfam. The World Bank is an internationally supported Bank that provides financial and technical assistance to developing countries for development programs (e Oxfam International is a confederation of 13 organizations working with over 3000 partners in more than 100 countries to find lasting solutions to poverty and injustice
Among his many contributions to development economics, Sen has produced work on gender inequality. Development economics is a branch of Economics which deals with economic aspects of the development process in low-income countries. Gender inequality refers to the obvious or hidden disparities among individuals based on performance of gender (gender can separate from biological sex see Sex/gender distinction He is currently the Lamont University Professor at Harvard University. Amartya Sen's books have been translated into more than thirty languages. He is a trustee of Economists for Peace and Security.
Sen was born in Santiniketan, West Bengal, the University town established by the poet Rabindranath Tagore, another Indian Nobel Prize winner. WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Santiniketan ( Bangla: শান্তিনিকেতন Shantiniketôn) is a small town West Bengal ( Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchim Bônggo poʃtʃim bɔŋgo is a state in eastern India. The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur is awarded annually since 1901 to an author from any country who has in the words from the will of Alfred His ancestral home was in Wari, Dhaka in modern-day Bangladesh. The Ancestral Home ( Dom Ojczysty) is a Political party in Poland, founded after the elections Dhaka (also known as Dacca ( Bangla: ঢাকা ɖʱaka is the Capital of Bangladesh and the principal city of Dhaka District. ( Bengali: বাংলাদেশ inc-Latn Bangladesh) officially Rabindranath Tagore is said to have given Amartya Sen his name ("Amartya" meaning "immortal").
Sen began his high-school education at St Gregory's School in Dhaka in 1941, in modern-day Bangladesh. St Gregory's High School is a Catholic High School founded in 1882 by the Congregation of Holy Cross in the City of Dhaka in the former region of Bengal His family migrated to India following partition in 1947. Sen studied in India at the school system of Visva-Bharati University and Presidency College, Kolkata before moving to Trinity College, Cambridge, where he earned a First Class BA in 1956 and then a Ph.D. in 1959. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Visva Bharati University, Santiniketan is a Central University in India and is located in the Indian state of West Bengal Presidency College Kolkata is one of the affiliated colleges and a co-founding college of the University of Calcutta. Trinity College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in Cambridge, England. "PhD" redirects here for other uses see PhD (disambiguation. Between 1960-1961, He taught at MIT as a visiting professor . He was also allowed four years to immerse himself in philosophical issues during his stay at Trinity College.
He has taught economics at University of Calcutta, Jadavpur University, Delhi, Oxford (where he was first a Professor of Economics at Nuffield College and then the Drummond Professor of Political Economy and a Fellow of All Souls College), London School of Economics, Harvard and was Master of Trinity College, Cambridge, between 1998 and 2004. Economics is the social science that studies the production distribution, and consumption of goods and services. Formally established on the 24 January 1857, the University of Calcutta (also known as Calcutta University) (কলকাতা বিশ্ববিদ্যালয় Jadavpur University (যাদবপুর বিশ্ববিদ্যালয় (JU is a premier educational and research institution in India. Delhi (दिल्ली ਦਿੱਲੀ دلی d̪ɪlːiː sometimes referred to as Dilli) is the second largest metropolis of India, with a population The University of Oxford (informally "Oxford University" or simply "Oxford" located in the city of Oxford, Oxfordshire, England is the Nuffield College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England. All Souls College (in full The Warden and College of the Souls of all Faithful People deceased in the University of Oxford) is one of the constituent colleges The London School of Economics and Political Science, more commonly referred to as The London School of Economics or LSE, is a specialist college of the Trinity College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in Cambridge, England. The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University) located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the  In January 2004 Sen returned to Harvard. He is also a contributor to the Eva Colorni Trust at the former London Guildhall University. London Guildhall University was previously called the City of London Polytechnic before the Further and Higher Education Act 1992 changed its
In May 2007, he was appointed as chairman of Nalanda Mentor Group to steer the execution of Nalanda University Project, which seeks to revive the ancient seat of learning at Nalanda, Bihar, India into an international university. Nālandā is the name of an ancient University in Bihar, India. Nālandā is the name of an ancient University in Bihar, India.
Sen's papers in the late 1960s and early 1970s helped develop the theory of social choice, which first came to prominence in the work by the American economist Kenneth Arrow, who, while working at the RAND Corporation, famously proved that all voting rules, be they majority voting or two thirds-majority or status quo, must inevitably conflict with some basic democratic norm. The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969 This article is about the Decade 1970-1979 For the Year 1970 see 1970. Social choice theory studies voting rules that govern and describe how individual preferences are aggregated to form a collective preference Kenneth Joseph Arrow (born August 23, 1921) is an American Economist and joint winner of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics The RAND Corporation ( R esearch AN d D evelopment is a Nonprofit global policy Think tank first formed to offer research and analysis Simple majority voting is a form of Voting where given two options the option receiving more votes than the other wins A supermajority or a qualified majority is a requirement for a proposal to gain a specified level or type of support which exceeds a simple Majority in order to have Status quo is a Latin term meaning the present existing state of affairs or "the state in which" Democracy is a form of government in which the supreme power is held completely by the people under a free electoral system Sen's contribution to the literature was to show under what conditions Arrow's Impossibility Theorem would indeed come to pass as well as to extend and enrich the theory of social choice, informed by his interests in history of economic thought and philosophy. In Social choice theory, Arrow’s impossibility theorem, or Arrow’s paradox, demonstrates that no voting system can convert the ranked preferences of individuals Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language
In 1981, Sen published Poverty and Famines: An Essay on Entitlement and Deprivation (1981), a book in which he demonstrated that famine occurs not only from a lack of food, but from inequalities built into mechanisms for distributing food. Year 1981 ( MCMLXXXI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Food is any substance usually composed primarily of Carbohydrates Fats water and/or Proteins that can be eaten or drunk by an Sen's interest in famine stemmed from personal experience. As a nine-year-old boy, he witnessed the Bengal famine of 1943, in which three million people perished. The Bengal famine of 1943 is one amongst the several Famines that occurred in British administered Bengal. This staggering loss of life was unnecessary, Sen later concluded. He presents data that there was an adequate food supply in Bengal at the time, but particular groups of people including rural landless labourers and urban service providers like haircutters did not have the monetary means to acquire food as its price rose rapidly due to factors that include British military acquisition, panic buying, hoarding, and price gouging, all connected to the war in the region. In Poverty and Famines, Sen revealed that in many cases of famine, food supplies were not significantly reduced. In Bengal, for example, food production, while down on the previous year, was higher than in previous non-famine years. Thus, Sen points to a number of social and economic factors, such as declining wages, unemployment, rising food prices, and poor food-distribution systems. These issues led to starvation among certain groups in society. His capabilities approach focuses on positive freedom, a person's actual ability to be or do something, rather than on negative freedom approaches, which are common in economics and simply focuses on non-interference. The Capabilities Approach - Philosophical and Policy Context The Capability Approach is a Conceptual framework developed by Amartya Sen and Martha ||-||} Positive liberty refers to the opportunity and ability to act to fulfill one's own potential as opposed to Negative liberty, which refers to freedom from The concept of negative liberty refers to freedom from interference by other people In the Bengal famine, rural laborers' negative freedom to buy food was not affected. However, they still starved because they were not positively free to do anything, they did not have the functioning of nourishment, nor the capability to escape morbidity.
In addition to his important work on the causes of famines, Sen's work in the field of development economics has had considerable influence in the formulation of the Human Development Report, published by the United Nations Development Programme. The Human Development Report (HDR is an annual milestone publication by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP This annual publication that ranks countries on a variety of economic and social indicators owes much to the contributions by Sen among other social choice theorists in the area of economic measurement of poverty and inequality.
Sen's revolutionary contribution to development economics and social indicators is the concept of 'capability' developed in his article "Equality of What. The Capabilities Approach - Philosophical and Policy Context The Capability Approach is a Conceptual framework developed by Amartya Sen and Martha " He argues that governments should be measured against the concrete capabilities of their citizens. For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. This is because top-down development will always trump human rights as long as the definition of terms remains in doubt (is a 'right' something that must be provided or something that simply cannot be taken away?). Human rights refers to the "basic Rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled For instance, in the United States citizens have a hypothetical "right" to vote. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the To Sen, this concept is fairly empty. In order for citizens to have a capacity to vote, they first must have "functionings. " These "functionings" can range from the very broad, such as the availability of education, to the very specific, such as transportation to the polls. Education encompasses both the Teaching and Learning of Knowledge, proper conduct, and technical competency Only when such barriers are removed can the citizen truly be said to act out of personal choice. It is up to the individual society to make the list of minimum capabilities guaranteed by that society. For an example of the "capabilities approach" in practice, see Martha Nussbaum's Women and Human Development. Martha Nussbaum (born Martha Craven on May 6, 1947) is an American philosopher with a particular interest in ancient Greek and
He wrote a controversial article in the New York Review of Books entitled "More Than 100 Million Women Are Missing", analyzing the mortality impact of unequal rights between the genders in the developing world, particularly Asia. The New York Review of Books (or NYREV or NYRB) is a semimonthly Magazine on Literature, Culture, and current Other studies, such as one by Emily Oster, have argued that this is an overestimation, though Oster has recanted some of her conclusions. Emily Fair Oster is an American economist After receiving an B
Sen was seen as a ground-breaker among late twentieth-century economists for his insistence on discussing issues seen as marginal by most economists. The twentieth century of the Common Era began on He mounted one of the few major challenges to the economic model that posited self-interest as the prime motivating factor of human activity. While his line of thinking remains peripheral, there is no question that his work helped to re-prioritize a significant sector of economists and development workers, even the policies of the United Nations. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security
Welfare economics seeks to evaluate economic policies in terms of their effects on the well-being of the community. Sen, who devoted his career to such issues, was called the "conscience of his profession. " His influential monograph Collective Choice and Social Welfare (1970), which addressed problems related to individual rights (including formulation of the liberal paradox), justice and equity, majority rule, and the availability of information about individual conditions, inspired researchers to turn their attention to issues of basic welfare. The liberal paradox is a logical Paradox advanced by Amartya Sen, building on the work of Kenneth Arrow and his impossibility theorem, which Sen devised methods of measuring poverty that yielded useful information for improving economic conditions for the poor. For instance, his theoretical work on inequality provided an explanation for why there are fewer women than men in India and China despite the fact that in the West and in poor but medically unbiased countries, women have lower mortality rates at all ages, live longer, and make a slight majority of the population. Sen claimed that this skewed ratio results from the better health treatment and childhood opportunities afforded boys in those countries, as well as sex-specific abortion.
Governments and international organizations handling food crises were influenced by Sen's work. His views encouraged policy makers to pay attention not only to alleviating immediate suffering but also to finding ways to replace the lost income of the poor, as, for example, through public-works projects, and to maintain stable prices for food. A vigorous defender of political freedom, Sen believed that famines do not occur in functioning democracies because their leaders must be more responsive to the demands of the citizens. In order for economic growth to be achieved, he argued, social reforms, such as improvements in education and public health, must precede economic reform.
Sen's maternal grandfather Kshitimohan Sen was a renowned scholar of medieval Indian literature, an authority on the philosophy of Hinduism and a close associate of Rabindranath Tagore in Santiniketan. Hinduism is a religious tradition that originated in the Indian subcontinent. Sen's father was Ashutosh Sen and mother Amita Sen who were born at Manikganj, Dhaka. Manikganj is a district in central Bangladesh. It is a part of the Dhaka Division. Dhaka (also known as Dacca ( Bangla: ঢাকা ɖʱaka is the Capital of Bangladesh and the principal city of Dhaka District. His father taught chemistry at Dhaka University (now in Bangladesh). The University of Dhaka (commonly referred to as Dhaka University or just DU) ( Bengali: ঢাকা বিশ্ববিদ্যালয় Đhaka ( Bengali: বাংলাদেশ inc-Latn Bangladesh) officially Sen's first wife was Nabaneeta Dev Sen, a much loved Indian writer and scholar, with whom he had two children: Antara and Nandana. Nabaneeta Dev Sen (Nôbonita Deb Shen (b1938 is a Bengali Writer from India. Antara Dev Sen is a renowned Indian journalist and the elder daughter of Nobel laureate Amartya Sen and his first wife Nabanita Dev Sen. Nandana Sen (নন্দনা সেন (or Nandana Dev Sen) is a Bollywood actress Their marriage broke up shortly after they moved to London in 1971. In 1973, he married his second wife, Eva Colorni. However, she died from stomach cancer quite suddenly in 1985. Stomach or gastric cancer can develop in any part of the Stomach and may spread throughout the stomach and to other organs particularly the Esophagus and They had two children, Indrani and Kabir. His present wife is The Hon. Emma Georgina Rothschild, an economic historian, and an expert on Adam Smith and Fellow of King's College, Cambridge. The Hon Emma Georgina Rothschild CMG (born May 16, 1948) is a British economic historian and Professor at Harvard Adam Smith ( baptised 16 June 1723 – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish moral philosopher and a pioneer of Political economy. King's College Cambridge is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge.
Sen brought up his youngest children on his own. Indrani is a journalist in New York, and Kabir teaches music at Shady Hill School in Cambridge, and has produced 3 of his own Hip-Hop Albums. His eldest daughter Antara Dev Sen is a notable Indian journalist who, along with her husband Pratik Kanjilal, publishes "The Little Magazine". Antara Dev Sen is a renowned Indian journalist and the elder daughter of Nobel laureate Amartya Sen and his first wife Nabanita Dev Sen. Nandana Sen is a noted Bollywood actress. Nandana Sen (নন্দনা সেন (or Nandana Dev Sen) is a Bollywood actress
Sen usually spends winter holidays at his home in India, where he likes to go on long bike rides, and maintains a house in Cambridge, Massachusetts, where he and Emma spend the spring and long vacations. Asked how he relaxes, he replies: "I read a lot and like arguing with people. "
Amartya Sen has been criticized for his writings outside of economics, especially for his views on the history of Islam and Jihad, by Fouad Ajami in The Washington Post. Muslim history began in Arabia with the Muhammad 's first recitations of the Qur'an in the 7th century Jihad (جهاد ʤɪhæːd an Islamic term, is a religious duty of Muslims. Personal Ajami was born on September 19 1945 in Arnoun a rocky hamlet in the south of Lebanon The Washington Post is the largest and most circulated Newspaper in Washington D 
Economist Peter Bowbrick has accused Sen of misrepresenting historical data and being wrong on his theory of famines. In fact Bowbrick argues that Sen's views coincide with that of the Bengal government at the time of the Bengal famine and the policies Sen advocates failed to relieve the famine. Bowbrick accused Sen's theory of being the cause of famines. 
Historian Mark Tauger disagrees with Sen that food availability wasn't a problem in 1940s Bengal and argues that the famine was mainly the result of a natural disaster. 
Sir Michael Atiyah
|Master of Trinity College, Cambridge|
Sir Martin Rees
|NAME||Sen, Amartya Kumar|
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||অমর্ত্য কুমার সেন (Bengali); Ômorto Kumar Shen (alternate transliteration)|
|DATE OF BIRTH||3 November 1933|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Santiniketan, West Bengal, India|
|DATE OF DEATH||living|
|PLACE OF DEATH|