The definition of alternative fuel varies according to the context of its usage. In the context of petroleum substitutes, the term 'alternative fuel' can imply any available fuel or energy source, and does not necessarily refer to a source of renewable energy. Petroleum ( L petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit Renewable energy is Energy generated from Natural resources mdashsuch as Sunlight, Wind, Rain, tides and geothermal In the context of environmental sustainability, 'alternative fuel' often implies an ecologically benign renewable fuel. Renewable energy is Energy generated from Natural resources mdashsuch as Sunlight, Wind, Rain, tides and geothermal Often, they produce less pollution than gasoline or diesel.
Alternative fuels, also known as non-conventional fuels, are any materials or substances that can be used as a fuel, other than conventional fuels. Fuel is any material that is burned or altered in order to obtain energy Materials are physical Substances used as inputs to production or Manufacturing. A chemical substance is a Material with a definite chemical composition. Fuel is any material that is burned or altered in order to obtain energy Conventional fuels include: fossil fuels (petroleum (oil), coal, propane, and natural gas), and also in some instances nuclear materials such as uranium. Fossil fuels or mineral fuels are fossil source Fuels that is Hydrocarbons found within the top layer of the Earth’s crust. Petroleum ( L petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit Propane is a three- Carbon Alkane, normally a gas but compressible to a liquid that is transportable Natural gas is a Gaseous Fossil fuel consisting primarily of Methane but including significant quantities of Ethane, Propane, Uranium (jʊˈreɪniəm is a silvery-gray Metallic Chemical element in the Some well known alternative fuels include biodiesel, bioalcohol (ethanol, butanol), chemically stored electricity (batteries and fuel cells), hydrogen, non-fossil methane, non-fossil natural gas, vegetable oil and other biomass sources. Fuel is any material that is burned or altered in order to obtain energy Biodiesel refers to a non-petroleum-based Diesel fuel consisting of short chain Alkyl ( Methyl or ethyl) Esters made by Although Fossil fuels have become the dominant Energy resource for the modern world Alcohol has been used as a fuel throughout history Butanol or butyl alcohol (sometimes also called biobutanol when produced biologically is a Primary alcohol with a 4 Carbon structure and the Molecular A fuel cell is an electrochemical conversion device It produces electricity from Fuel (on the Anode side and an oxidant (on the Hydrogen (ˈhaɪdrədʒən is the Chemical element with Atomic number 1 Methane is a Chemical compound with the molecular formula. It is the simplest Alkane, and the principal component of Natural gas. Natural gas is a Gaseous Fossil fuel consisting primarily of Methane but including significant quantities of Ethane, Propane, For engines designed to burn #2 diesel fuel the Viscosity of vegetable oil must be lowered to allow for proper Atomization of fuel otherwise incomplete combustion Biomass refers to living and recently dead Biological material that can be used as fuel or for industrial production
The main purpose of fuel is to store energy in a form that is stable and can be easily transported from the place of production to the end user which helps in many ways such as transportation. In Physics and other Sciences energy (from the Greek grc ἐνέργεια - Energeia, "activity operation" from grc ἐνεργός Almost all fuels are Chemical fuels, that store chemical potential energy. A chemical substance is a Material with a definite chemical composition. Potential energy can be thought of as Energy stored within a physical system The end user is then able to consume the fuel at will, and release energy, usually in the form of heat for a variety of applications, such as powering an engine or heating a building, such as a home. An engine is a mechanical device that produces some form of output from a given input
In the year 2000, there were about 12 million vehicles around the world that ran on alternative fuels, indicating a sustainability.
The major environmental concern, according to an IPCC report, is that "Most of the observed increase in globally averaged temperatures since the mid-20th century is due to the observed increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations" . Anthropogenic effects processes objects or materials are those that are derived from Human activities as opposed to those occurring in Natural environments without Greenhouse gases are gaseous constituents of the atmosphere bothnatural and anthropogenic that absorb and emit radiation at specific wavelengths within the spectrum of thermal infrared Since burning fossil fuels are known to increase greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere, they are a likely contributor to global warming. Fossil fuels or mineral fuels are fossil source Fuels that is Hydrocarbons found within the top layer of the Earth’s crust. Global warming is the increase in the average measured temperature of the
Another concern is the peak oil theory, which predicts a rising cost of oil derived fuels caused by severe shortages of oil during an era of growing energy consumption. According to the 'peak oil' theory, the demand for oil will exceed supply and this gap will continue to grow, which could cause a growing energy crisis starting between 2010 and 2020. An energy crisis is any great bottleneck (or price Rise) in the supply of energy resources to an economy. Lastly, the majority of the known petroleum reserves are located in the middle east. The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. There is general concern that worldwide fuel shortages could intensify the unrest that exists in the region, leading to further conflict and war. (See future energy development for a general discussion)
The production of alternative fuels can have widespread effects. Energy development is the ongoing effort to provide sufficient Primary energy sources and secondary Energy forms to meet civilization's needs For example, the production of corn-based ethanol has created an increased demand for the feed stock, causing rising prices in almost everything made from corn.  However, in a competitive free market, an increased supply of ethanol reduces the demand for conventional fuels, and thus lowers fuel prices. In Neoclassical economics and Microeconomics, perfect competition describes a market in which no buyer or seller has Market power. A free market is a Market in which property rights are voluntarily exchanged at a price arranged completely by the mutual consent of sellers and buyers The ethanol industry enables agricultural surpluses to be used to mitigate fuel shortages. Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture
A possible solution to a potential future energy shortage would be to use some of the world's remaining fossil fuel reserves as an investment in renewable energy infrastructure such as wind power, solar power, tidal power, geothermal power, hydropower, thermal depolymerization, methanol, ethanol and biodiesel, or in an oil lamp; try olive oil, canola oil, safflower oil, algae oil or sunflower oil which do not suffer from finite energy reserves, but do have a finite energy flow. Renewable energy is Energy generated from Natural resources mdashsuch as Sunlight, Wind, Rain, tides and geothermal Renewable energy is Energy generated from Natural resources mdashsuch as Sunlight, Wind, Rain, tides and geothermal Biomass refers to living and recently dead Biological material that can be used as fuel or for industrial production Geothermal power (from the Greek roots geo, meaning earth and therme, meaning heat is energy generated by heat stored in the earth or the collection Hydroelectricity is electricity generated by Hydropower, ie the production of power through use of the gravitational force of falling water Solar energy is the Light and radiant heat from the Sun that powers Earth 's Climate and Weather and sustains Life Tidal power, sometimes called tidal energy, is a form of Hydropower that converts the energy of Tides into electricity or other useful forms of power Wave power refers to the Energy of Ocean surface waves and the capture of that energy to do useful work — including Electricity generation, Wind Power is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form such as electricity using Wind turbines At the end of 2007 worldwide capacity of wind-powered generators was Renewable energy is Energy generated from Natural resources mdashsuch as Sunlight, Wind, Rain, tides and geothermal Wind Power is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form such as electricity using Wind turbines At the end of 2007 worldwide capacity of wind-powered generators was Solar energy is the Light and radiant heat from the Sun that powers Earth 's Climate and Weather and sustains Life Tidal power, sometimes called tidal energy, is a form of Hydropower that converts the energy of Tides into electricity or other useful forms of power Geothermal power (from the Greek roots geo, meaning earth and therme, meaning heat is energy generated by heat stored in the earth or the collection Hydropower, hydraulic power or water power is power that is derived from the Force or Energy of moving water which may Thermal depolymerization ( TDP) is a process using Hydrous pyrolysis for the reduction of complex Organic materials (usually Waste products of Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naphtha or wood spirits, is a Chemical compound Biodiesel refers to a non-petroleum-based Diesel fuel consisting of short chain Alkyl ( Methyl or ethyl) Esters made by An oil lamp is a simple vessel used to produce light continuously for a period of time from a fuel source Olive oil is a fruit oil obtained from the olive ( Olea europaea; family Oleaceae along with Lilacs Jasmine and ash trees Canola is a type of Edible oil derived from plants initially bred in Canada by Keith Downey and Baldur Stefansson in the 1970s Safflower ( Carthamus tinctorius L) is a highly branched Herbaceous, Thistle -like annual usually with many long sharp spines on the leaves See also Algology Algae fuel, also called algal fuel, oilgae, algaeoleum or third generation biofuel, is a Biofuel Sunflower oil is the non-volatile oil expressed from Sunflower ( Helianthus annuus) seeds The construction of sufficiently large renewable energy infrastructure might avoid the economic consequences of an extended period of decline in fossil fuel energy supply per capita.
Most alternative fuels assume a source of renewable energy or at least sustainable energy (such as nuclear power) as a source of the fuel. Alternative fuels, also known as non-conventional Fuels are any Materials or substances that can be used as a Fuel, other than conventional fuels Renewable energy is Energy generated from Natural resources mdashsuch as Sunlight, Wind, Rain, tides and geothermal Sustainable energy is the provision of energy such that it meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs A few alternative fuels (for example, hydrogen) may be made by sustainable or non-sustainable means. If they are made by non-sustainable means, such fuels are offered as alternatives usually because they offer to cause less pollution at the point of use, and perhaps less pollution overall.
Biomass in the energy production industry refers to living and recently dead biological material which can be used as fuel or for industrial production. Biomass refers to living and recently dead Biological material that can be used as fuel or for industrial production Biomass is grown from several plants, including miscanthus, switchgrass, hemp, corn, poplar, willow, sugarcane , oil palm (palm oil), and algae oil. Miscanthus is a Genus of about 15 species of Perennial grasses native to subtropical and tropical regions of Africa and southern Panicum virgatum, commonly known as switchgrass, is a warm season Grass and is one of the dominant Species of the central North American This article is about the cultivation and uses of industrial hemp not its psychoactive cousin Cannabis (drug. Maize (ˈmeɪz ( Zea mays L. ssp mays) known as corn in some countries is a cereal grain domesticated in Mesoamerica Populus is a genus of between 25–35 species of Flowering plants in the family Salicaceae, native to most of the Northern Hemisphere. Willows, sallows and osiers form the Genus Salix, around 400 species of Deciduous Trees and Shrubs found primarily Sugarcane ( Saccharum) is a genus of 6 to 37 species (depending on taxonomic interpretation of tall perennial grasses (family Poaceae tribe Andropogoneae The oil palms ( Elaeis) comprise two species of the Arecaceae, or palm family Palm oil is an edible plant oil derived from the Fruit of the Arecaceae Elaeis Oil palm. See also Algology Algae fuel, also called algal fuel, oilgae, algaeoleum or third generation biofuel, is a Biofuel
Most commonly, biomass refers to plant matter grown for use as biofuel, but it also includes plant or animal matter used for production of fibres, chemicals or heat. A chemical substance is a Material with a definite chemical composition. Biomass may also include biodegradable wastes that can be burnt as fuel. Biodegradable waste is a Type of waste, typically originating from Plant or Animal sources which may be broken down by other living organisms It excludes organic material which has been transformed by geological processes into substances such as coal or petroleum. Organic matter (or organic material) is Matter that has come from a once-living Organism; is capable of Metamorphism can be defined as the solid state recrystallisation of pre-existing rocks due to changes in heat and/or pressure and/or introduction of fluids i Petroleum ( L petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit
Non-conventional oil is a fossil fuel chemically identical and with the same origin as conventional or traditional oil, but existing in a different form. Non-conventional oil is oil produced or extracted using techniques other than the traditional Oil well method They often contain more contaminants and are more energy intensive to produce, thus raising environmental concerns about the sustainability of these fuels. Non-conventional oil sources include tar sands, oil shale and bitumen. Bitumen is a mixture of organic Liquids that are highly Viscous, black sticky entirely soluble in Carbon disulfide, and composed primarily Enormous deposits of non-conventional oil include the Athabasca Oil Sands site in northwestern (Alberta) Canada and the Venezuelan Orinoco tar sands. The Athabasca Oil Sands (also known as the Athabasca Tar Sands) are large deposits of Bitumen, or extremely Heavy crude oil, located in northeastern Alberta (ælˈbɝtə is one of Canada's prairie provinces. It became a province on September 1 1905 Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Venezuela (ˌvɛnəˈzweɪlə) officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Spanish República Bolivariana de Venezuela) is a country on the ORiNOCO is the brand name that was used for a family of wireless networking solutions by Proxim (previously Lucent) Oil companies estimate that the Athabasca and Orinoco sites (both of similar size) have as much as two-thirds of total global oil deposits. However, the ability to 'see' underground is limited, so as with all oil reserves, the quantity of available oil is uncertain, even for so-called 'proven' reserves. Oil reserves are the estimated quantities of Crude oil that are claimed to be recoverable under existing Economic and operating conditions Large mining operations are currently producing oil, and to some people, this proves the viability of the entire process. Others argue that since the technology is still relatively new, it remains unclear whether it is feasible for a significant percentage of world oil production to be extracted from tar sands. One fact that is agreed upon, is that the current extraction process takes a great deal of energy for heat and electrical power, presently coming from local natural gas, which itself is in short supply. Natural gas is a Gaseous Fossil fuel consisting primarily of Methane but including significant quantities of Ethane, Propane, There are some proposals to build a series of nuclear reactors to supply this energy. This article is a subarticle of Nuclear power. A nuclear reactor is a device in which Nuclear chain reactions are initiated controlled Non-conventional oil production is currently less energy-efficient, and has a larger environmental impact than conventional oil production.
It is expected by geologists that natural gas will peak 5-15 years after oil does. Natural gas is a Gaseous Fossil fuel consisting primarily of Methane but including significant quantities of Ethane, Propane, There are large but finite coal reserves which may increasingly be used as a fuel source during oil depletion. The Fischer-Tropsch process converts carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide into heavier hydrocarbons, including synthetic oil. The Fischer-Tropsch process (or Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis is a catalyzed chemical reaction in which synthesis gas ( Syngas) a mixture of Carbon monoxide Carbon dioxide ( Chemical formula:) is a Chemical compound composed of two Oxygen Atoms covalently bonded to a single Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO is a colorless odorless tasteless yet highly toxic Gas. In Organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an Organic compound consisting entirely of Hydrogen and Carbon. It is used today in South Africa to produce most of that country's diesel from coal. The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa Diesel or Diesel fuel (ˈdiːzəl in general is any Fuel used in Diesel engines The most common is a specific fractional distillate of petroleum The Karrick process is an improved methodology for coal liquefaction, with higher efficiency. The Karrick process is a low-temperature Carbonization (LTC of Coal, shale, Lignite or any carbonaceous materials Since there are large but finite coal reserves in the world, this technology could be used as an interim transportation fuel if conventional oil were to become scarce. There are several companies developing the process to enable practical exploitation of so-called stranded gas reserves, those reserves which are impractical to exploit with conventional gas pipelines and LNG technology. A stranded gas reserve is a Natural gas field that has been discovered but remains unusable for either physical or Economic reasons Not to be confused with Natural Gas Liquids (NGL Liquefied natural gas or LNG is Natural gas (primarily Methane, CH4
Methane hydrate is a form of natural gas. Methane clathrate, also called methane hydrate or methane ice, is a solid form of water that contains a large amount of Methane within its Crystal Natural gas is a Gaseous Fossil fuel consisting primarily of Methane but including significant quantities of Ethane, Propane, This substance consists of methane molecules trapped within the crystalline structure of water ice and is found in deposits under ocean sediments or within continental sedimentary rock formations. It is estimated that the global inventory of methane hydrate may equal as much as 10x the amount of natural gas. Natural gas is a Gaseous Fossil fuel consisting primarily of Methane but including significant quantities of Ethane, Propane, With current technology, most gas hydrate deposits are unlikely to be commercially exploited as an energy source. In addition, the combustion of methane results in the formation of carbon dioxide and would thus continue to contribute to global warming. Carbon dioxide ( Chemical formula:) is a Chemical compound composed of two Oxygen Atoms covalently bonded to a single Global warming is the increase in the average measured temperature of the Methane itself is also a greenhouse gas, so if it is "spilled" or released it will contribute to global warming. Global warming is the increase in the average measured temperature of the In other respects methane hydrate has the same problems of fossil fuel. Fossil fuels or mineral fuels are fossil source Fuels that is Hydrocarbons found within the top layer of the Earth’s crust.
Methanol (methanol economy) from any source can be used in internal combustion engines with minor modifications. Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naphtha or wood spirits, is a Chemical compound The methanol economy is a suggested future Economy in which Methanol replaces Fossil fuels as a mean of energy storage fuel and raw material for synthetic The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the Combustion of Fuel and an Oxidizer (typically air occurs in a confined space called a It usually is made from natural gas, sometimes from coal, and could be made from any carbon source including CO2. Flexible fuel vehicles may run with a high percentage of ethanol (ethanol economy) (up to 85% Ethanol plus 15% gasoline for cold-starting vapor pressure). A flexible-fuel vehicle (FFV or dual-fuel vehicle ( Colloquially called a flex-fuel vehicle) is an alternative fuel Automobile or Ethanol fuel is Ethanol (ethyl alcohol the same type of Alcohol found in Alcoholic beverages.
Methanol and ethanol are typically not primary sources of energy; however, they are a convenient way to store the energy for transportation. No type of fuel production is 100% energy-efficient, thus some energy is always lost in the conversion. This energy can be supplied by the original source, or from other sources like fossil fuel reserves, or solar radiation (either through photosynthesis or photovoltaic panels), or hydro, wind or nuclear energy (see below). Photosynthesis is a Metabolic pathway that converts Light Energy into Chemical energy. Photovoltaics ( PV) is the field of technology and research related to the application of Solar cells for Energy by converting Sunlight directly The use of energy to produce alcohol fuels could potentially proceed via production of hydrogen by electrolysis of water, or possibly (in the case of heat from nuclear energy) by the sulfur-iodine cycle; then use of the hydrogen in the Fischer-Tropsch process along with CO2 from another source. The sulfur-iodine cycle (S-I cycle is a series of thermochemical processes used to produce hydrogen. The Fischer-Tropsch process (or Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis is a catalyzed chemical reaction in which synthesis gas ( Syngas) a mixture of Carbon monoxide Such a process might store and use hydrogen more efficiently than attempting to use hydrogen directly as fuel (a gallon of alcohol contains about 50% more hydrogen by weight than a gallon of liquid hydrogen). Since such a process would not liberate net quantities of new CO2 at the point of combustion, it would be greenhouse neutral, similar to alcohols made from biomass.
If nuclear energy were to replace gasoline and fossil fuels used for generation of electricity, then the U.S. would require at least an eightfold increase in nuclear power production, increasing from about 10% of all energy supplied to about 90%. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Nuclear power is any Nuclear technology designed to extract usable Energy from atomic nuclei via controlled Nuclear reactions
Nuclear engineers estimate that the world could derive 400,000 quads (quadrillion, 1015, British thermal units), or about 420,000 EJ (exajoules = 1018 joules), of energy (1000 years at current levels of consumption, assuming new technology) from uranium isotope 235, if reprocessing is not employed. Nuclear engineering is the application of the breakdown of atomic nuclei and/or other sub-atomic physics based on the principles of Nuclear physics. The joule (written in lower case ˈdʒuːl or /ˈdʒaʊl/ (symbol J) is the SI unit of Energy measuring heat, Electricity Uranium (jʊˈreɪniəm is a silvery-gray Metallic Chemical element in the As uranium ore supplies are limited, a majority of this uranium would have to somehow be cost-effectively extracted from seawater. But this technology does not exist. However, at the current technology and consumption, the reserves will last 50 years. . . . . . . . Fast breeder reactors are another possibility. The fast breeder or fast breeder reactor ( FBR) is a Fast neutron reactor designed to breed fuel by producing more Fissile material As opposed to current LWR (light water reactors), which burn the rare isotope of uranium U-235 (producing and burning about an equal amount of plutonium in the process), fast breeder reactors produce much larger amounts of plutonium from common U-238, then fission that to produce electricity and thermal heat. See also Nuclear power "LWR" redirects here See also LWR (disambiguation A light water reactor or LWR is Isotopes (Greek isos = "equal" tópos = "site place" are any of the different types of atoms ( Nuclides Uranium (jʊˈreɪniəm is a silvery-gray Metallic Chemical element in the Because there is about 139 times more U-238 than U-235 on Earth, it has been estimated that there is anywhere from 10,000 to 5,000,000,000 years' worth(sustainable but not renewable, depending on future technology) of U-238 for use in these power plants, and that they can return a high ratio of energy returned on energy invested (EROEI), and avoid some of the problems of current reactors by being automated, passively safe, and reaching economies of scale via mass production. In Physics, Energy economics and ecological energetics, EROEI (Energy Returned on Energy Invested ERoEI, EROI (Energy Return On Passive Nuclear safety describes a safety feature of a Nuclear reactor that does not require operator action or electronic feedback in order to shut down safely in Mass production (also called flow production, repetitive flow production, series production, or serial production) is the production of In addition, wastes produced by these plants are less toxic than those of conventional reactors. There are a few such research projects working on fast breeders. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is currently working on the small, sealed, transportable, autonomous reactor (SSTAR). The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory ( LLNL) in Livermore California is a scientific research laboratory founded by the University of California in 1952 SSTAR is an acronym for the "small sealed transportable autonomous reactor " - being primarily researched and developed in the USA by Lawrence Livermore Problems arise from the higher levels of heat and radiation produced by this reactor. There are other, more exotic nuclear projects (such as pebble bed reactors), each with their own technical problems. The pebble bed reactor ( PBR) is a graphite- moderated, gas-cooled Nuclear reactor.
The long-term radioactive waste storage problems of nuclear power have not been solved, although on-site spent fuel storage in casks has allowed power plants to make room in their spent fuel pools. Radioactive wastes are Waste types containing radioactive Chemical elements that do not have a practical purpose Today, the only industrial solution lies with storage in underground repositories.
Since automobiles and trucks consume a great deal of the total energy budget of developed countries, some means would be required to deliver the energy generated from nuclear power to these vehicles. The most direct solution is to use electric vehicles. The Electric Vehicle was an American Automobile manufactured only in 1899 Mass transit will be an important aspect of this solution, as it is readily electrified. Some think that hydrogen may play a role (see below). If so, it could be produced by electrolysis, either conventionally or at high-temperatures supplied by reactor heat. Another possibility for producing hydrogen by nuclear power is the heat-driven sulfur-iodine cycle. The sulfur-iodine cycle (S-I cycle is a series of thermochemical processes used to produce hydrogen.
Hydrogen need not be used directly in transportation. A hybrid chemical-energy storage process might use such hydrogen to produce methanol from CO2 (see above), which would then feed into the present internal-combustion-engine transportation infrastructure with far less modification than would be needed for hydrogen. See methanol economy. The methanol economy is a suggested future Economy in which Methanol replaces Fossil fuels as a mean of energy storage fuel and raw material for synthetic To reduce the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere, hydrogen can be combined with nitrogen from air to produce ammonia which can then be used as fuel for internal combustion engines. Carbon dioxide ( Chemical formula:) is a Chemical compound composed of two Oxygen Atoms covalently bonded to a single Nitrogen (ˈnaɪtɹəʤɪn is a Chemical element that has the symbol N and Atomic number 7 and Atomic weight 14 Ammonia is a compound with the formula N[[hydrogen H3]] It is normally encountered as a Gas with a characteristic pungent Odor The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the Combustion of Fuel and an Oxidizer (typically air occurs in a confined space called a  
Renewable alternative energies are alternatives to petroleum and nuclear power. Fusion power is power generated by Nuclear fusion reactions In this kind of reaction two light atomic nuclei fuse There are widespread public concerns about the health-risks, security risks and radioactive waste disposal problems of nuclear materials. Radioactive wastes are Waste types containing radioactive Chemical elements that do not have a practical purpose
Proponents of a hydrogen economy think hydrogen could hold the key to ongoing energy demands. The hydrogen economy is a proposed method of deriving the Energy needed for Motive power (cars boats airplanes buildings or portable electronics by reacting The hydrogen economy is a proposed method of deriving the Energy needed for Motive power (cars boats airplanes buildings or portable electronics by reacting Relatively new technologies (such as fuel cells) can be used to efficiently harness the chemical energy stored in diatomic hydrogen (H2). A fuel cell is an electrochemical conversion device It produces electricity from Fuel (on the Anode side and an oxidant (on the However, there is no accessible natural reserve of uncombined hydrogen, since what little there is resides in Earth's outer atmosphere (exosphere). The exosphere is the uppermost layer of the atmosphere. On Earth, its lower boundary at the edge of the Thermosphere is estimated to be 500 km to Hydrogen for use as fuel must first be produced using another energy source; hydrogen would thus actually be a means to transport energy, rather than an energy source, just as common rechargeable batteries are. One existing method of hydrogen production is steam methane reformation; however, the most common source of methane is natural gas, which is in short supply. Another method of hydrogen production is through electrolysis of water which uses electricity generated from any source, or a combination of fossil fuels, nuclear, and/or renewable energy sources. In chemistry and manufacturing electrolysis is a method of separating chemically bonded elements and compounds by passing an Electric current Biomass or coal gasification, photoelectrolysis, and genetically modified organisms have also been proposed as means to produce hydrogen. Gasification is a process that converts carbonaceous materials such as Coal, Petroleum, or Biomass, into Carbon monoxide and Hydrogen Photoelectrolysis occurs in a Photoelectrochemical cell when Light is used for Electrolysis. This article is about organisms which have been genetically modified
According to the majority of energy experts and researchers, hydrogen is currently impractical as an alternative to fossil-based liquid fuels. It is inefficient to produce, has low energy density (hydrogen gas tanks would need to be 2-3 times as large as conventional gasoline tanks), and is expensive to transport and convert back to electricity. Also hydrogen fuel cells are still prohibitively expensive as a prime mover of transportation. However, theoretically it is more efficient to burn fossil fuels to produce hydrogen than burning oil directly in car engines (due to efficiencies of scale). Unfortunately, this does not take into consideration the significant energy cost of having to build hundreds of millions of new hydrogen powered vehicles plus hydrogen fuel distribution infrastructure. Research on the feasibility of hydrogen as a fuel is still underway, and the outcome is uncertain.
A far more practical way to utilize hydrogen is to bond it with the nitrogen in the air to produce ammonia which can then be easily liquefied, transported and used (directly or indirectly) as a clean and renewable fuel. Nitrogen (ˈnaɪtɹəʤɪn is a Chemical element that has the symbol N and Atomic number 7 and Atomic weight 14 Ammonia is a compound with the formula N[[hydrogen H3]] It is normally encountered as a Gas with a characteristic pungent Odor  
The Air engine is an emission-free piston engine using compressed air as fuel. A Compressed air engine is a Pneumatic actuator that creates useful work by expanding Compressed air. Unlike hydrogen, compressed air is about 10x cheaper than fossil oil, making it an economically attractive alternative (hydrogen is about 10x more expensive than oil or 100x more expensive than compressed air). The air engine has also broken most barriers (storage of the energy, range, . . . )
A liquid nitrogen would extract energy from the temperature difference between air and liquid nitrogen. Liquid nitrogen (liquid density at the Triple point is 0707 g/mL is the liquid produced industrially in large quantities by Fractional distillation of The Stirling engine or cryogenic heat engine offers a way to power such vehicles. A Stirling engine is a closed-cycle regenerative Heat engine with a Gaseous working fluid A means to generate liquid nitrogen, which is only an energy storage medium, is needed.
The Stirling piston engine has been superseded by a recycling hydro turbine using recycled gas supplying pressure at a higher temperature than when cooled by any medium. Such cooling is commonly found in absorption chillers and heat pumps.