Allotment gardens are characterized by a concentration in one place of a few or up to several hundreds of land parcels that are assigned to individual families. Prague (ˈprɑːg Praha (ˈpraɦa see also other names) is the Capital and Largest city of the Czech Republic. The Czech Republic ( ˈt͡ʃɛskaː ˈrɛpuˌblɪka short form in Česko ˈt͡ʃɛskɔ also called Czechia, Essex is a county in the East of England. The County town is Chelmsford, and the highest point of the county is Chrishall Common England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland In allotment gardens, the parcels are cultivated individually, contrary to other community garden types where the entire area is tended collectively by a group of people. A community garden is a piece of land gardened by a group of people  The individual size of a parcel ranges between 200 and 400 square meters, and often the plots include a shed for tools and shelter. The individual gardeners are organized in an allotment association which leases the land from the owner who may be a public, private or ecclesiastical entity, provided that it is only used for gardening (i. e. growing vegetables, fruits and flowers), but not for residential purposes. The gardeners have to pay a small membership fee to the association, and have to abide with the corresponding constitution and by-laws. On the other hand, the membership entitles them to certain democratic rights. 
The Office International du Coin de Terre et des Jardins Familiaux, a Luxembourg-based organization representing three million European allotment gardeners since 1926, describes the socio-cultural and economic functions of allotment gardens as follows:
An allotment is a small area of land, let out at a nominal yearly rent by local government or independent allotment associations, for individuals to grow their own food. Lease Renting is an agreement where a payment is made for the temporary Local governments are administrative offices that are smaller than a State. This could be considered as an example of a community garden system for urban and to some extent rural folk. A community garden is a piece of land gardened by a group of people Rural areas can be large and isolated (also referred to as "the country" and/or "the countryside over the course of time
The allotment system began in the 18th century: for example, a 1732 engraving of Birmingham, England shows the town encircled by allotments, some of which still exist to this day. Birmingham ( ˈbɜːmɪŋəm Ber -ming-um England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Following the Inclosure Acts and the Commons Act 1876 the land available for personal cultivation by the poor was greatly diminished. The Inclosure Acts were a series of United Kingdom Acts of Parliament which enclosed open fields and Common land in the country To fulfil the need for land allotment legislation was included. The law was first fully codified in the Small Holdings and Allotments Act 1908, it was modified by the Allotments Act 1922 and subsequent Allotments Acts up until 1950.
Under the acts a local authority is required to maintain an "adequate provision" of land, usually a large allotment field which can then be subdivided into allotment gardens for individual residents at a low rent. The rent is set at what a person "may reasonably be expected to pay" (1950), in 1997 the average rent for a 10 square rods (250 m²) plot was £22 a year. The rod is a unit of Length equal to 55 Yards 11 Cubits 50292 Meters 16 Each plot cannot exceed 40 square rods (1000 m²) and must be used for the production of fruit or vegetables for consumption by the plotholder and their family (1922), or of flowers for use by the plotholder and their family. The term fruit has different meanings dependent on context and the term is not synonymous in Food preparation and Biology. The term " vegetable " generally means the edible parts of Plants The definition of the word is traditional rather than Scientific, however The exact size and quality of the plots is not defined. The council has a duty to provide sufficient allotments to meet demand. The total income from allotments was £2. 61 million and total expenditure was £8. 44 million in 1997. In 2000 metrication legislation made it illegal to use square rods as a unit of pricing and allotments must now be priced in square metres. Metrication (or metrification refers to the introduction of the SI metric system as the International standard for physical measurements—a long-term series
The total number of plots has varied greatly over time. The Prescott Channel was built in 1930&ndash35 as part of a flood relief scheme for the River Lee Navigation in the East End of London, and was named after Sir Jordans is a Village located in Chalfont St Giles Parish in Buckinghamshire, England. In the 19th and early 20th century, the allotment system supplied much of the fresh vegetables eaten by the poor. In 1873 there were 244,268 plots and by 1918 there were around 1,500,000 plots. While numbers fell in the 1920s and 1930s, following an increase to 1,400,000 during World War II there were still around 1,117,000 plots in 1948. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including This number has been in decline since then, falling to 600,000 by the late 1960s. The Thorpe Inquiry of 1969 investigated the decline and put the causes as the decline in available land, increasing prosperity and the growth of other leisure activities.
Increased interest in "green" issues from the 1970s revived interest in allotment gardening, whilst the National Society of Allotment and Leisure Gardeners (NSALG), and the Scottish Allotments and Gardens Society (SAGS) in Scotland, continued to campaign on the behalf of allotment users. However, the rate of decline was only slowed, falling from 530,000 plots in 1970 to 497,000 in 1977, although there was a substantial waiting list. By 1980 the surge in interest was over, and by 1997 the number of plots had fallen to around 265,000, with waiting lists of 13,000 and 44,000 vacant plots. In 2008 The Guardian reported that 330 000 people held an allotment, whilst 100,000 were on waiting lists. The Guardian (until 1959 The Manchester Guardian) is a British Newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group.  The keeping of an allotment is colloquially referred to as allotmenteering. Allotment gardens are characterised by a concentration in one place of a few or up to several hundreds of land parcels that are assigned to individual families
In 2006, a report commissioned by the London Assembly identified that whilst demand was at an all time high across the capital, the pressures caused by high density building was further decreasing the amount of allotment land. The London Assembly is an elected body part of the Greater London Authority, that scrutinises the activities of the Mayor of London and has the power with a two-thirds The issue was given further publicity when The Guardian newspaper reported on the community campaign against the potential impact of the development for the 2012 Summer Olympics on the future of the century-old Manor Garden Allotments. The Guardian (until 1959 The Manchester Guardian) is a British Newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. Manor Garden Allotments were allotment gardens occupying 45 acres between the River Lea and the Channelsea River in Hackney Wick, East  In March, 2008, Geoff Stokes, secretary of the National Society for Allotments, claimed that Councils are failing in their duty to provide allotments. "[T]hey sold off land when demand was not so high. This will go on because developers are now building houses with much smaller gardens. "  The Local Government Association has issued guidance asking councils to consider requiring developers to set land aside to make up for the shortfalls in allotment plots. 
Against the falling trend of land set aside for allotments is an increasing awareness of the need for cities to counter issues of food security and climate change through greater self-sufficiency. Food security refers to the availability of food and one's access to it Climate change is any long-term significant change in the “average weather” that a given region experiences Self-sufficiency refers to the state of not requiring any outside aid support or interaction for survival it is therefore a type of personal or collective autonomy. This drive to expand allotmenteering is also a response to food price inflation and surplus provision of land in post-industrial towns and cities in the developed world. Allotment gardens are characterised by a concentration in one place of a few or up to several hundreds of land parcels that are assigned to individual families It finds some inspiration in the urban agriculture response of Cuba to the United States embargo against Cuba in 1962. Urban Agriculture and Peri-Urban Agriculture is the practice of cultivating processing and distributing food in or around (peri-urban a village town or city The Republic of Cuba (ˈkjuːbə or) consists of the island of Cuba (the largest and second-most populous island of the Greater Antilles) Isla de la The United States Embargo Against Cuba (described in Cuba as el bloqueo, Spanish for "the Blockade " is an economic commercial and Some of these themes were taken up in a recent urban agriculture project in Middlesbrough in the Tees Valley. Urban Agriculture and Peri-Urban Agriculture is the practice of cultivating processing and distributing food in or around (peri-urban a village town or city Middlesbrough ( IPA ( Received pronunciation) is a Town in the Tees Valley sub-region of the North East of England The Tees Valley is an area in the North East of England. It can be described as "greater Teesside " and consists of the four unitary authorities 
The history of the allotment gardens in Germany is closely connected with the period of industrialization and urbanization in Europe during the 19th century when a large number of people migrated from the rural areas to the cities to find employment and a better life. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. is a process of social and economic change whereby a human group is transformed from a Pre-industrial society into an industrial one Urbanizationn (also spelled urbanisation) is the physical growth of Urban areas into rural or natural land as a result of population in-migration to an existing Very often, these families were living under extremely poor conditions suffering from inappropriate housing, malnutrition and other forms of social neglect. Malnutrition is a general term for a medical condition caused by an improper or insufficient diet. To improve their overall situation and to allow them to grow their own food, the city administrations, the churches or their employers provided open spaces for garden purposes. These were initially called the “gardens of the poor” and were later termed as “allotment gardens”.
The idea of organized allotment gardening reached a first peak after 1864, when the so-called “Schreber Movement” started in the city of Leipzig in Saxony. Daniel Gottlob Moritz Schreber ( October 15, 1808 - November 10 1861) was a German Physician and university teacher at This sort of fix restores section edit linkpoints to where they belong The Free State of Saxony (Freistaat Sachsen ˈzaksən Swobodny Stat Sakska is the easternmost federal state of Germany. A public initiative decided to lease areas within the city, with the purpose to make it possible for children to play in a healthy environment, and in harmony with nature. Later on, these areas included actual gardens for children, but soon adults tended towards taking over and cultivating these gardens. This kind of gardening type rapidly gained popularity not only in Germany, but also in other European countries, such as Austria and Switzerland. 
The aspect of food security provided by allotment gardens became particularly evident during World Wars I and II. Food security refers to the availability of food and one's access to it A world war is a War affecting the majority of the world's most powerful and populous nations The socio-economic situation was very miserable, particularly as regards the nutritional status of urban residents. Many cities were isolated from their rural hinterlands and agricultural products did not reach the city markets anymore or were sold at very high prices at the black markets. Consequently, food production within the city, especially fruit and vegetable production in home gardens and allotment gardens, became essential for survival (Berliners cultivate vegetables by the ruins of the Reichstag in June 1946). Home gardens, also known as forest gardens are found in humid areas The importance of allotment gardens for food security was so obvious that in 1919, one year after the end of World War I, the first legislation for allotment gardening in Germany was passed. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All The so-called “Small Garden and Small-Rent Land Law”, provided security in land tenure and fixed leasing fees. In 1983, this law was amended by the “Federal Allotment Gardens Act”(Bundeskleingartengesetz). Today, there are still about 1. 4 million allotment gardens in Germany covering an area of 470 km². 
Nevertheless, the importance of allotment gardening in Germany has shifted over the years. While in times of crisis and widespread poverty (from 1850 to 1950), allotment gardening was a part time job, and its main importance was to enhance food security and improve food supply, its present functions have to be seen under a different point of view. In times of busy working days and the hectic urban atmosphere, allotment gardens have turned into recreational areas and locations for social gatherings. As green oases within oceans of asphalt and cement, they are substantially contributing to the conservation of nature within cities. What was previously a part time job is nowadays considered as a hobby where the hectic schedule of the day becomes a distant memory, while digging the flowerbeds and getting a little soil under the fingernails. However, in situations of weak economy and high unemployment rates, gardens become increasingly important for food production again. (Schrebergärten voll im Trend)
In 1895, the first allotment garden of Sweden was established in Malmö, followed by Stockholm in 1904. "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. ('stɔkhɔlm is Sweden 's Capital and its largest City. It is the site of the national Swedish government, the parliament, and the The local authorities were inspired by Anna Lindhagen, a social-democratic leader and a woman in the upper ranks of society, who visited allotment gardens in Copenhagen and was delighted by them. Copenhagen (ˌkəʊpənˈheɪgən ˌkəʊpənˈhɑːgən ˈkəʊpənˌheɪgən ˈkəʊpənˌhɑːgən kʰøb̥ənˈhɑʊ̯ˀn kʰøb̥m̩ˈhɑʊ̯ˀn is the capital and largest city In her first book on the topic devoted to the usefulness of allotment gardens she wrote: “For the family, the plot of land is a uniting bond, where all family members can meet in shared work and leisure. The family father, tired with the cramped space at home, may rejoice in taking care of his family in the open air, and feel responsible if the little plot of earth bestows a very special interest upon life. ”  Anna Lindhagen is said to have met Lenin when he passed through Stockholm from the exile in Switzerland on their return trip to Russia after the February Revolution in 1917 . She invited him to the allotment gardens of "Barnangen" to show all its benefits. However, she did not win his approval. Lenin was totally unresponsive to this kind of activity. To poke in the soil was to prepare the ground for political laziness in the class struggle. The workers should not be occupied with gardening, they should rather devote themselves to the proletarian revolution .
The Swedish Federation of Leisure Gardening was founded in 1921 and represents today more than 26000 allotment and leisure gardeners. The members are organized in about 275 local societies all over Sweden. The land is usually rented from the local authorities.
In 2003, the first allotment garden of the Philippines was established in Cagayan de Oro City, Northern Mindanao as part of a European Union funded project. The Philippines ( Filipino: Pilipinas, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (fil ''Republika ng Pilipinas'' RP The City of Cagayan de Oro (kă-gə'yăn dĕ ôrô abbreviated CDO CDOC or Cag Designated as Region X of the Philippines, Northern Mindanao ( Filipino Hilagang Mindanao) is composed of five  Meanwhile, with the assistance of the German Embassy in Manila and several private donors from Germany, this number has grown to five self-sustaining gardens located in different urban areas of the city, enabling a total of 55 urban poor families the legal access to land for food production. Further four allotment gardens, two of them within the premises of public elementary schools are presently being set up for additional 36 families using the Asset Based Community Development approach. The Asset-Based Community Development (ABCD is a methodology that seeks to uncover and highlight the strengths within communities as a means for sustainable development (Health Promoting Schools, Ecological Sanitation and School Gardens in Mindanao) Some of the gardeners belong to the socially most disadvantaged group in the city, the garbage pickers of the city’s landfill site . Aside of different vegetables, the gardeners grow also herbs and tropical fruits. The term " vegetable " generally means the edible parts of Plants The definition of the word is traditional rather than Scientific, however A(n herb (ˈhɝb or /ˈɝb/ see pronunciation differences) is a plant that is valued for qualities such as medicinal properties flavor scent or the like This list of culinary fruits contains the names of some fruits that are considered edible in some Cuisines The definition of fruit for these lists is a culinary fruit In some gardens, small animals are kept and fish ponds are maintained to avail the gardeners of additional protein sources for the daily dietary needs. Each allotment garden has a compost heap where biodegradable wastes from the garden as well as from the neighboring households are converted into organic fertilizer, thus contributing to the integrated solid waste management program of the city. Compost (ˈkɒmpɒst or US /ˈkɒmpoʊst/ also known as brown manure is the aerobically decomposed remnants of Organic matter. Further, all gardens are equipped with so-called urine-diverting ecological sanitation toilets similar to practices in Danish allotment gardens described by Bregnhøj et al. Ecological sanitation, also known as ecosan or eco-san, is a new paradigm in sanitation that recognises human excreta and household wastewater not as waste but as