Algaculture is a form of aquaculture involving the farming of species of algae. For the fishing industry and the practice of fishing see Fishing. Aquaculture is the farming of freshwater and saltwater organisms including Molluscs Crustaceans and aquatic plants Mariculture is a specialized branch of Aquaculture involving the cultivation of marine organisms for Food and other products in the open Ocean, an enclosed Fish farming is the principal form of Aquaculture, while other methods may fall under Mariculture. Aquaponics (IPA /ˈækwəˈpɒnɪks/ is the symbiotic cultivation of plants and aquatic animals in a recirculating environment Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA is a practice in which the by-products (wastes from one species are recycled to become inputs ( Fertilizers Food) for another Inland saline aquaculture is the farming or culture of aquatic animals and plants using inland (i Raceways are man-made tanks used to produce seafood They are long and narrow and provide a flow-through system for the water which enables a higher density of animals to exist Some 16 countries use Geothermal energy for Aquaculture, including China Israel and the United States Aquaculture engineering is a branch of Agricultural engineering that studies Aquatic Species cultured and the production systems used in their culture For the computer security term see Phishing. Fishing is the activity of catching Fish. Aquaculture is the farming of freshwater and saltwater organisms including Molluscs Crustaceans and aquatic plants Algae ( sing. alga are a large and diverse group of simple typically Autotrophic organisms ranging from Unicellular to Multicellular forms The majority of algae that are intentionally cultivated fall into the category of microalgae, also referred to as phytoplankton, microphytes, or planktonic algae. Microphytes are microscopic Algae, typically found in Freshwater and marine systems and are often called microalgae Phytoplankton are the Autotrophic component of the Plankton community Microphytes are microscopic Algae, typically found in Freshwater and marine systems and are often called microalgae
Macroalgae, commonly known as seaweed, also have many commercial and industrial uses, but due to their size and the specific requirements of the environment in which they need to grow, they do not lend themselves as readily to cultivation on a large scale as microalgae and are most often harvested wild from the ocean. Seaweed is a loose colloquial term encompassing macroscopic Multicellular, benthic marine Algae. Seaweed is a loose colloquial term encompassing macroscopic Multicellular, benthic marine Algae.
Some of the commercial and industrial purposes of algae cultivation are for production of bioplastics, dyes and colorants, feedstock, pharmaceuticals, pollution control, and for possible future food and alternative fuel sources. For information on plastics which are biodegradable see Biodegradable plastic. A dye can generally be described as a Colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied A colourant or colorant is something added to something else to cause a change in Colour. A drug, broadly speaking is any chemical substance that when absorbed into the body Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into an environment that causes instability disorder harm or discomfort to the physical systems or living organisms they are in Alternative fuels, also known as non-conventional Fuels are any Materials or substances that can be used as a Fuel, other than conventional fuels
Presumably, the first use of algae was food. One example is the wrapper on a sushi roll. In Japanese cuisine, is Vinegared Rice, usually topped with other ingredients including fish various meats and vegetables Other species are edible as well, such as Spirulina and dulse (Palmaria palmata). Spirulina is the common name for human and animal food supplements produced primarily from two species of Cyanobacteria (also known as blue-green algae Arthrospira Palmaria palmata (L Kuntze also called dulse, dillisk, dilsk or creathnach, is a Red alga ( Rhodophyta) previously Dulse is a red species sold particularly in Ireland and Atlantic Canada. Palmaria palmata (L Kuntze also called dulse, dillisk, dilsk or creathnach, is a Red alga ( Rhodophyta) previously Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page It is eaten raw, fresh, dried, or cooked like spinach.
Spirulina is a blue-green microalgae with a long history as a food source in East Africa and pre-colonial Mexico. Spirulina is the common name for human and animal food supplements produced primarily from two species of Cyanobacteria (also known as blue-green algae Arthrospira As it is high in protein and other nutrients it is currently used as a food supplement and as a treatment for malnutrition. Chlorella, another popular microalgae, has similar nutrition and is unique for being the source of the "Chlorella Growth Factor," a potent phytochemical which has been shown to increase growth in animals and children and a cell wall which has a high affinity for heavy metals and poisons, particularly mercury. Chlorella is a Genus of single- celled green Algae, belonging to the phylum Chlorophyta. Phytochemicals are plant-derived chemical compounds under scientific research for their potential health-promoting properties but with unproved benefits A cell wall is a tough flexible and sometimes fairly rigid layer surrounding a cell, located external to the Cell membrane, which provides the cell with structural Mercury (ˈmɜrkjʊri also called quicksilver or hydrargyrum, is a Chemical element with the symbol Hg ( Latinized hydrargyrum The cell wall binds to the toxin and helps remove it from the body. Chlorella is very popular in Japan and is currently one of the most prescribed supplements in that country. Chlorella is a Genus of single- celled green Algae, belonging to the phylum Chlorophyta. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics.
Purple laver (Porphyra) is also collected and used in a variety of ways. Porphyra is a foliose Red algal genus of laver, comprising approximately 70 species In Wales, for example "laverbread" is a traditional food, and in Ireland it is collected and made into a jelly by stewing or boiling. REDIRECT Laver (seaweed#Laverbread Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world Preparation also can involve frying or converting to a pinkish jelly by heating the fronds with a little water and beating with a fork. It is also harvested along western coast of North America, from California to British Columbia and by Native Hawaiians and the Māori of New Zealand. California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. British Columbia (ˌbrɪtɨʃ kəˈlʌmbiə ( BC) ( (la Colombie-Britannique C "Kanaka" redirects here For the Tamil actress see Kanaka (actress. This article discusses the Māori people of New Zealand For their language see Māori language, and for other meanings see Māori (disambiguation. New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island
Irish moss (Chondrus crispus), often confused with Mastocarpus stellatus, is the source of carrageenan for the stiffening of instant puddings, sauces, and dairy products such as ice cream. Chondrus crispus, known under the common name Irish moss, or carrageen moss ( Irish carraigín, "little rock" is a species Mastocarpus stellatus, also called Clúimhín Cait Puff Carragheen or Carrageen Moss is closely related to Irish Moss, or Chondrus crispus Carrageenans or carrageenins (ˌkærəˈgiːnənz are a family of linear sulphated Polysaccharides extracted from red Seaweeds The name is derived from Irish moss is also used by brewers as a fining agent; the addition of Irish moss to the wort 15 minutes before the end of the boil produces a clearer beer. Finings are substances that are usually added at or near the completion of the processing of Wine, Beer and various nonalcoholic juice beverages
Sea lettuce (Ulva lactuca), is used in Scotland where it is added to soups and salads. The sea lettuces comprise the Genus Ulva, a group of edible Green algae widely distributed along the coasts of the world's Oceans Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. Dabberlocks or badderlocks (Alaria esculenta) is eaten either fresh or cooked in Greenland, Iceland, Scotland and Ireland. Alaria esculenta is an edible Seaweed, also known as dabberlocks or badderlocks, or winged Kelp. Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat meaning "Land of the Greenlanders" Grønland is a self-governing Danish Province located between the Iceland, officially the Republic of Iceland ( ( Ísland or Lýðveldið Ísland (
For centuries seaweed has been used as fertilizer. Seaweed is a loose colloquial term encompassing macroscopic Multicellular, benthic marine Algae. It is also an excellent source of Potassium for manufacture of potash and potassium nitrate. Potassium (pəˈtæsiəm is a Chemical element. It has the symbol K (kalium from qalīy Atomic number 19 and Atomic mass 39 Potash (or carbonate of potash) is an impure form of Potassium carbonate ( K 2 CO3) Potassium nitrate is a Chemical compound with the Chemical formula K[[Nitrogen N]] O 3
Often it is desired to grow just one species of algae in each growing vessel. With mixed cultures, one species tends to dominate over time and if a non dominant species is believed to have particular nutritive value for some larval animal, it is necessary to obtain pure cultures in order to cultivate this species. Individual species cultures are also needed for research purposes.
A common method of obtaining pure cultures is serial dilution. A wild sample or a contaminated lab sample of algae containing the desired algae is diluted with filtered water and small aliquots are introduced into a large number of small growing containers. The dilution is done following a microscopic examination of the source culture to a degree that leads one to expect on average there will be a few of the growing containers with only one cell of the desired species. Following a suitable period on a light table, microscopic examination then selects out the successful growing containers and they are used to start larger cultures.
When cultivating algae, several factors must be considered, and different algae have different requirements. The water must be in a temperature range that will support the specific algal species being grown. Nutrients must be controlled so algae will not be "starved" and so that nutrients will not be wasted. Light must not be too strong nor too weak.
Algae can be cultured in raceway-type ponds and lakes. A raceway pond is a shallow artificial pond used in the cultivation of Algae.  Because these systems are open to the elements, sometimes called "open-pond" systems, they are much more vulnerable to contamination by other microorganisms, such as invasive algal species or bacteria. Because of these factors, the number of species successfully cultivated in an "open-pond" system for a specific purpose (such as for food, for the production of oil, or for pigments) are relatively limited. For the drug referred to as "pigment" see Black tar heroin. In open systems one does not have control over water temperature and lighting conditions. The growing season is largely dependent on location and, aside from tropical areas, is limited to the warmer months. A major benefit to this type of system are that it is one of the cheaper ones to construct, in the very least only a trench or pond needs to be dug. It can also have some of the largest production capacities relative to other systems of comparable size and cost. This type of culture can be viable when the particular algae in question requires (or is able to survive) some sort of extreme condition that other algae can not survive. For instance, Spirulina sp. can grow in water with a high concentration of sodium bicarbonate and Dunaliela salina will grow in extremely salty water. Open culture can also work if there is a simple inexpensive system of selecting out the desired algae for use and to inoculate new ponds with a high starting concentration of the desired algae. Some chain diatoms fall into this category as they can be filtered from a stream of water flowing through an outflow pipe. A "pillow case" of a fine mesh cloth is tied over the outflow pipe and most algae flow right through. The chain diatoms are held in the bag and used to feed shrimp larvae (in Eastern hatcheries) and to inoculate new tanks or ponds.
A variation on the basic "open-pond" system is to close it off, to cover a pond or pool with a greenhouse. While this usually results in a smaller system, for economic reasons, it does take care of many of the problems associated with an open system. It allows more species to be grown, it allows the species that are being grown to stay dominant, and it extends the growing season, only slightly if unheated, and if heated it can produce year round.
Algae can also be grown in a photobioreactor. Biochemical engineering is a branch of Chemical engineering or Biological engineering that mainly deals with the design and construction of unit processes that A photobioreactor is a bioreactor which incorporates some type of light source. Biochemical engineering is a branch of Chemical engineering or Biological engineering that mainly deals with the design and construction of unit processes that Virtually any translucent container could be called a photobioreactor, however the term is more commonly used to define a closed system, as opposed to an open tank or pond. Because these systems are closed, all essential nutrients must be introduced into the system to allow algae to grow and be cultivated. Essential nutrients include carbon dioxide, water, minerals and light. CO2 sequestration or "storage" is the storage of carbon dioxide (usually captured from the "atmosphere" in a solid material through biological or physical A pond covered with a greenhouse could be considered a photobioreactor. A photobioreactor can be operated in "batch mode" but it is also possible to introduce a continuous stream of sterilized water containing nutrients, air, and carbon dioxide. As the algae grows, excess culture overflows and is harvested. If sufficient care is not taken, continuous bioreactors often collapse very quickly, however once they are successfully started, they can continue operating for long periods. An advantage of this type of algae culture is that algae in the "log phase" is produced which is generally of higher nutrient content than old "senescent" algae. Senescence refers to the biological processes of a living Organism approaching an advanced age (i It can be shown that the maximum productivity for a bioreactor occurs when the "exchange rate" (time to exchange one volume of liquid) is equal to the "doubling time" (in mass or volume) of the algae.
While algae is often grown in monocultures using microbiological techniques to purify the desired strain, another approach has been used very successfully to produce algae feed for the cultivation of a variety of mollusks. Monoculture is the agricultural practice of producing or growing one single crop over a wide area Sea water is passed through filters to remove algae which are too large for the larvae being cultivated. Tanks in a green house, sometimes on a balcony in the mollusk house, are filled with the partially filtered water and nutrients are added. The tanks may be aerated and the water is used after only a day or two of growing. The resulting thin soup of mixed algae has been shown to be an excellent food source for larval mollusks. An advantage of this method of algaculture is the low maintenance requirements.
Different types of photobioreactors include:
In most algal-cultivation systems, light only penetrates the top 3-4 inches of the water. This is because as the algae grow and multiply, they become so dense that they block light from reaching deeper into the pond or tank. Algae only need about 1/10th the amount of light they receive from direct sunlight. Direct sunlight is often too strong for algae. In order to have ponds that are deeper than 4 inches algae growers use various methods to agitate the water in their ponds, thus circulating the algae so that it does not remain on the surface, which would cause it to be over-exposed. Paddle wheels can be used to circulate the water in a pond. Compressed air can be introduced into the bottom of a pond or tank to agitate the water, bringing algae from the lower levels up with it as it makes its way to the surface.
Apart from agitation, another means of supplying light to algae is to place the light in the system. Glow plates are sheets of plastic or glass that can be submerged into a tank, providing light directly to the algae at the right concentration. Glow plates are sheets of glass or plastic that "glow" when light is supplied to one of their edges
The odor associated with bogs, swamps, or any stagnant waters that have been taken over by algae, is due to oxygen depletion in the water caused by the decay of deceased algal blooms. A bog or mire is a Wetland type that accumulates Acidic Peat, a deposit of dead plant material &ndash usually Mosses but also A swamp is a Wetland featuring temporary or permanent inundation of large areas of land by shallow bodies of water An algal bloom is a rapid increase in the population of Algae in an aquatic system Under anoxic conditions, the bacteria inhabiting algae cultures break down the organic material and produce hydrogen sulfide and ammonia which causes the odor. Hydrogen sulfide (or hydrogen sulphide) is the Chemical compound with the formula H 2 S. Ammonia is a compound with the formula N[[hydrogen H3]] It is normally encountered as a Gas with a characteristic pungent Odor This condition, called hypoxia, often results in the death of all aquatic animals. For other uses of the term "hypoxia" see Hypoxia. Hypoxia or oxygen depletion is a phenomenon that occurs in aquatic environments In a system where algae is intentionally cultivated, maintained, and harvested, neither eutrophication nor aquatic hypoxia are likely to occur. Eutrophication is an increase in chemical Nutrients -- typically compounds containing Nitrogen or Phosphorus -- in an Ecosystem, and may occur For other uses of the term "hypoxia" see Hypoxia. Hypoxia or oxygen depletion is a phenomenon that occurs in aquatic environments Living algae does not emit objectionable odors.
Algae can be harvested using microscreens, by centrifugation, or by flocculation. Centrifugation is a process that involves the use of the Centrifugal force for the separation of mixtures used in industry and in laboratory settings Flocculation is a process where a Solute comes out of Solution in the form of floc or flakes  Froth flotation is another method to harvest algae whereby the water and algae are aerated into a froth, with the algae then removed from the water. Aerated water is correctly speaking Distilled water to which purified Air is added to improve its flavor  Alum and ferric chloride are chemical flocculants used to harvest algae. For the purely-slang term alum meaning "graduate" see Alumnus. Iron chloride redirects here For Iron(II chloride see Iron(II chloride. A commercial product called "Chitosin", commonly used for water purification, can also be used as a flocculant. The shells of crustaceans are ground into powder and processed to acquire chitin, a polysaccharide found in the shells, from which chitosin is derived. Structure of crustaceans As Arthropods crustaceans have a stiff Exoskeleton, which must be shed to allow the animal to grow ( Ecdysis or molting Chitin ( C 8 H 13 O 5 N)n (ˈkaɪtən is a long-chain Polymer of a N-acetylglucosamine Polysaccharides are relatively complex Carbohydrates They are Polymers made up of many Monosaccharides joined together by Glycosidic bonds Water that is more brackish, or saline requires additional chemical flocculant to induce flocculation. Harvesting by chemical flocculation is a method that is often too expensive for large operations. Interrupting the carbon dioxide supply to an algal system can cause algae to flocculate on its own, which is called "autoflocculation". Carbon dioxide ( Chemical formula:) is a Chemical compound composed of two Oxygen Atoms covalently bonded to a single Ultrasound based methods of algae harvesting are currently under development, and other, additional methods are currently being developed. Not to be confused with Supersonic. Ultrasound is cyclic Sound pressure with a Frequency greater than the upper 
Algae oils have a variety of commercial and industrial uses, and are extracted through a wide variety of methods. The simplest method is mechanical crushing. Since different strains of algae vary widely in their physical attributes, various press configurations (screw, expeller, piston, etc) work better for specific algae types. Often, mechanical crushing is used in conjunction with chemicals (see below). Estimates of the cost to extract oil from microalgae vary, but are likely to be around $1. 80/kg (compared to $0. 50/kg for palm oil). 
Currently most research into efficient algal-oil production is being done in the private sector, but if predictions from small scale production experiments bear out then using algae to produce biodiesel, bioethanol and biobutanol may be the only viable method by which to produce enough automotive fuel to displace current world gasoline usage. See also Algology Algae fuel, also called algal fuel, oilgae, algaeoleum or third generation biofuel, is a Biofuel Biodiesel refers to a non-petroleum-based Diesel fuel consisting of short chain Alkyl ( Methyl or ethyl) Esters made by Ethanol fuel is Ethanol (ethyl alcohol the same type of Alcohol found in Alcoholic beverages. Butanol may be used as a Fuel in an Internal combustion engine. 
Microalgae have much faster growth-rates than terrestrial crops. The oil yield per unit area of algae is estimated to be 5,000 to 20,000 gallons per acre, per year (4. 6 to 18. 4 l/m2 per year); this is 7 to 30 times greater than the next best crop, Chinese tallow (699 gallons). Triadica sebifera, also referred to as Sapium sebiferum, is commonly known as the Chinese tallow tree, Florida aspen and Gray 
The difficulties in efficient biodiesel production from algae lie in finding an algal strain with a high lipid content and fast growth rate that isn't too difficult to harvest, and a cost-effective cultivation system (ie, type of photobioreactor) that is best suited to that strain. Lipids are broadly defined as any fat- Soluble ( lipophilic) naturally-occurring Molecule, such as fats oils waxes cholesterol sterols fat-soluble Additionally, a cost-effective way to extract the oil must be found.
Open-pond methods have largely been abandoned for the cultivation of algae with high-oil content. Many believe that a major flaw of the Aquatic Species Program was the decision to focus their efforts exclusively on open-ponds. The Aquatic Species Program was a research program in the United States launched in 1978 by President Jimmy Carter and was funded by the United States Department Algae in an open-pond environment are subject to wide swings in temperature and pH, and competition from invasive algae and bacteria. Open systems using a monoculture are also vulnerable to viral infection. The open-pond method makes the entire effort dependent upon the hardiness of the strain chosen, requiring it to be unnecessarily resilient (compared to a closed system) in order to withstand the environmental conditions. For a given amount of photosynthetic energy, an algae strain producing relatively high levels of oil will produce relatively less protein and/or carbohydrate, usually resulting in the species being less hardy, or having a slower growth rate. Algal species with a lower oil content, not having to divert their energies away from growth, have an easier time in the harsher conditions of an open system.
Research into algae for the mass-production of oil is mainly focused on microalgae; organisms capable of photosynthesis that are less than 2 mm in diameter, including the diatoms and cyanobacteria; as opposed to macroalgae, e. Microphytes are microscopic Algae, typically found in Freshwater and marine systems and are often called microalgae Diatoms ( Greek: (dia = "through" + (temnein = "to cut" i Cyanobacteria, also known as blue-green algae, blue-green bacteria or Cyanophyta, is a phylum of Bacteria that obtain their energy g. seaweed. This preference towards microalgae is due largely to its less complex structure, fast growth rate, and high oil content (for some species). Some commercial interests into large scale algal-cultivation systems are looking to tie in to existing infrastructures, such as coal power plants or sewage treatment facilities. This approach not only provides the raw materials for the system, such as CO2 and nutrients; but it changes those wastes into resources.
The corporations Chevron, Honeywell, and Boeing are starting algae businesses. According to Boeing's technology leader for energy and emissions, Dave Daggett, 'In the past two years, we have changed from algae skeptics to proponents'.  The development challenge is to reduce the cost of producing algae oil in commercial volumes, i. e. billions of gallons.
"'In Europe, refiners are producing 1. 4 billion gallons a year from rapeseed, soy, and other plants. In all, the world consumed $1. 7 billion worth of biodiesel last year. That should grow to $26 billion by 2020, says market researcher Global Insight. '"  These figures project an average growth of over 20% per year.
Algae can be used as a biological source for the production of hydrogen. Biological hydrogen production is done in a Bioreactor based on the production of hydrogen by Algae. Biological hydrogen production is done in a Bioreactor based on the production of hydrogen by Algae. Hydrogen (ˈhaɪdrədʒən is the Chemical element with Atomic number 1 In 1939 a German researcher named Hans Gaffron, while working at the University of Chicago, observed that the algae he was studying, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (a green alga), would sometimes switch from the production of oxygen to the production of hydrogen. The University of Chicago is a Private university located principally in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a motile single celled Green alga about 10 Micrometres in diameter that swims with two Flagella.  Gaffron never discovered the cause for this change and for many years other scientists failed in their attempts at its discovery. In the late 1990s professor Anastasios Melis, a researcher at the University of California at Berkeley discovered that by depriving the algae of sulfur it will switch from the production of oxygen (normal photosynthesis), to the production of hydrogen. Anastasios Melis is a Biologist at the University of California Berkeley who is researching the possibility of creating hydrogen from algae. Photosynthesis is a Metabolic pathway that converts Light Energy into Chemical energy. He found that the enzyme responsible for this reaction is hydrogenase, but that the hydrogenase will not cause this switch in the presence of oxygen. Enzymes are Biomolecules that catalyze ( ie increase the rates of Chemical reactions Almost all enzymes are Proteins A hydrogenase is an Enzyme that catalyses the reversible oxidation of molecular Hydrogen (H2 Melis found that depleting the amount of sulfur available to the algae interrupted its internal oxygen flow, allowing the hydrogenase an environment in which it can react, causing the algae to produce hydrogen. A hydrogenase is an Enzyme that catalyses the reversible oxidation of molecular Hydrogen (H2
Algae can be grown to produce biomass, which can then be harvested and burned in the same manner as wood, to produce heat and electricity. Biomass refers to living and recently dead Biological material that can be used as fuel or for industrial production 
Through the use of algaculture grown organisms and cultures, various polymeric materials can be broken down into methane. A polymer is a large Molecule ( Macromolecule) composed of repeating Structural units typically connected by Covalent Chemical bonds Methane is a Chemical compound with the molecular formula. It is the simplest Alkane, and the principal component of Natural gas. 
The algal-oil feedstock that is used to produce biodiesel can also be used for fuel directly as "Straight Vegetable Oil", (SVO). For engines designed to burn #2 diesel fuel the Viscosity of vegetable oil must be lowered to allow for proper Atomization of fuel otherwise incomplete combustion While using the oil in this manner does not require the additional energy needed for transesterification, (processing the oil with an alcohol and a catalyst to produce biodiesel), it does require modifications to a normal diesel engine, whereas biodiesel can be run in any modern diesel engine, unmodified, that is designed to use ultra-low sulfur diesel, the new diesel fuel standard for the United States of America that went into effect in the fall of 2006. In Organic chemistry, transesterification is the process of exchanging the Alcohol group of an Ester compound with another Alcohol. Biodiesel refers to a non-petroleum-based Diesel fuel consisting of short chain Alkyl ( Methyl or ethyl) Esters made by Ultra-low sulfur diesel ( ULSD) (also spelled “ sulphur ” is a term used to describe a standard for defining Diesel fuel with substantially lowered
There are processes for vegetable oil refining that can produce gasoline, diesel, propane, or kerosene from the oil extracted from algae. Vegetable oil can be used as feedstock for an Oil refinery. There it can be transformed into fuel by Hydrocracking (which breaks big molecules into smaller ones using
Algae are cultivated to serve many commercial and industrial uses.
There are many algae that are cultivated for their nutritional value, either for supplemental use, or as a food source. See also Algae Algaculture is a form of Aquaculture involving the farming of species of Algae. See also Algae Algaculture is a form of Aquaculture involving the farming of species of Algae. See also Algae Algaculture is a form of Aquaculture involving the farming of species of Algae. See also Algae Algaculture is a form of Aquaculture involving the farming of species of Algae. See also Algae Algaculture is a form of Aquaculture involving the farming of species of Algae. See also Algae Algaculture is a form of Aquaculture involving the farming of species of Algae. Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) is a blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) that is quite nutritious. Cyanobacteria, also known as blue-green algae, blue-green bacteria or Cyanophyta, is a phylum of Bacteria that obtain their energy This species thrives in open systems and commercial growers have found it well-suited to cultivation. One of the largest production sites for Spirulina is Lake Texcoco in central Mexico. Lake Texcoco (Lago de Texcoco was a natural Lake formation within the Valley of Mexico, a basin with an average Elevation of 2236 m Above  The plants themselves produce a variety of nutrients and high amounts of protein, and is often used commercially as a nutritional supplement. Proteins are large Organic compounds made of Amino acids arranged in a linear chain and joined together by Peptide bonds between the Carboxyl  Extracts and oils from algae are also used as additives in various food products.  The plants also produce Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids, which are commonly found in fish oils, and which have been shown to have positive medical benefits to humans. n −3 fatty acids (popularly referred to as ω−3 fatty acids or omega-3 fatty acids) are a family of unsaturated Fatty acids that n −6 fatty acids (popularly referred to as ω−6 fatty acids or omega-6 fatty acids) are a family of unsaturated Fatty acids In Chemistry, especially Biochemistry, a fatty acid is a Carboxylic acid often with a long unbranched Aliphatic tail ( chain) which Fish oil is Oil derived from the tissues of Oily fish. Fish oil is recommended for a healthy diet because it contains the Omega-3 
Much of the carbon dioxide that is released into the atmosphere is from the burning of fossil fuels. With concerns over global warming, new methods for the thorough and efficient capture of CO2 are being sought out. An alternative to carbon capture and storage, by attaching an algae pond, or photobioreactor to any fuel burning plant, the carbon dioxide produced during combustion can be fed into the algae system. Carbon capture and storage ( CCS) is an approach to mitigating Global warming based on capturing Carbon dioxide (CO2 from large Nutrients can be sourced from sewage, thus turning two pollutants into resources for the production of biodiesel, with a land requirement much smaller than other crop sources. 
Large scale algaculture of the oceans, as well as similar culture of other plankton, is proposed as a future food source in order to support a growing world population. Plankton consist of any drifting Organisms ( Animals Plants Archaea, or Bacteria) that inhabit the Pelagic zone of Food is any substance usually composed primarily of Carbohydrates Fats water and/or Proteins that can be eaten or drunk by an The world population is the total number of living Humans on Earth at a given time Currently, however, it has limited application, since e. g. technologies of the green revolution has resulted in that land-based food production so far has increased faster than the demand of the growing world population. The Green Revolution refers to the transformation of Agriculture that began in 1945 at the request of the Mexican government to establish an agricultural research station to
Specific algal strains can be acquired from algal culture collections.
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