Alexis de Tocqueville
|Birth||July 29, 1805 Verneuil-sur-Seine, Île-de-France, France|
|Death||April 16, 1859 (aged 53) Cannes, France|
|Main interests||Political philosophy, Sociology|
|Notable ideas||Liberalism, Voluntary association|
|Influenced by||Plato, Aristotle, Montesquieu|
|Influenced||J.S. Mill, Friedrich Hayek|
Alexis-Charles-Henri Clérel de Tocqueville (July 29, 1805 – April 16, 1859) was a French political thinker and historian best known for his Democracy in America (appearing in two volumes: 1835 and 1840) and The Old Regime and the Revolution (1856). In the 18th century the philosophies of The Enlightenment began to have a dramatic effect the landmark works of philosophers such as Immanuel Kant and Jean-Jacques Events 1014 - Byzantine-Bulgarian Wars: Battle of Kleidion: Byzantine emperor Basil II inflicts a decisive defeat Year 1805 ( MDCCCV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or Verneuil-sur-Seine is a Village and commune in the Yvelines département of northern France. Île-de-France is one of the ancient Provinces of France, and the one that has been the centre of power during most of French history. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Events 1178 BC - A Solar eclipse may have marked the return of Odysseus, legendary King of Ithaca, to his kingdom Year 1859 ( MDCCCLIX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Cannes (kan in Occitan Canas) is a city in the Alpes-Maritimes department in the region of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The Age of Enlightenment or The Enlightenment is a term used to describe a phase in Western philosophy and cultural life centered upon the eighteenth century Liberalism is a broad array of related ideas and theories of Government that consider individual Liberty to be the most important political goal Political philosophy is the study of questions about the City, Government, Politics, Liberty, Justice, Property, Rights Sociology (from Latin: socius "companion" and the suffix -ology "the study of" from Greek λόγος lógos "knowledge" Liberalism is a broad array of related ideas and theories of Government that consider individual Liberty to be the most important political goal A voluntary association or union (also sometimes called a voluntary organization, unincorporated association, or just an association) is a group Biography Early life Birth and family Plato was born in Athens Greece Aristotle (Greek Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC was a Greek philosopher a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. Charles-Louis de Secondat baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu (Eng John Stuart Mill (20 May 1806 &ndash 8 May 1873 British Philosopher, political economist, civil servant and Member of Parliament, was an influential Friedrich August von Hayek CH ( May 8, 1899 March 23, 1992) was an Austrian British Economist Events 1014 - Byzantine-Bulgarian Wars: Battle of Kleidion: Byzantine emperor Basil II inflicts a decisive defeat Year 1805 ( MDCCCV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or Events 1178 BC - A Solar eclipse may have marked the return of Odysseus, legendary King of Ithaca, to his kingdom Year 1859 ( MDCCCLIX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Political philosophy is the study of questions about the City, Government, Politics, Liberty, Justice, Property, Rights See also History An historian is an individual who studies and writes about History, and is regarded as an Authority on it De la démocratie en Amérique (published in two volumes the first in 1835 and the second in 1840 is a classic French text by Alexis de Tocqueville Year 1835 ( MDCCCXXXV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Year 1840 ( MDCCCXL) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year L'Ancien Régime et la Révolution ( 1856) is a work by the French Historian Alexis de Tocqueville translated in English Year 1856 ( MDCCCLVI) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year In both of these works, he explored the effects of the rising equality of social conditions on the individual and the state in western societies.
Democracy in America (1835), his major work, published after his travels in the United States, is today considered an early work of sociology. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Sociology (from Latin: socius "companion" and the suffix -ology "the study of" from Greek λόγος lógos "knowledge" An eminent representative of the liberal political tradition, Tocqueville was an active participant in French politics, first under the July Monarchy (1830–1848) and then during the Second Republic (1849–1851) which succeeded to the February 1848 Revolution. Liberalism is a broad array of related ideas and theories of Government that consider individual Liberty to be the most important political goal The July Monarchy (1830-1848 was a period of liberal monarchy rule of France under Louis-Philippe History Revolution of 1848 See also Mid-nineteenth century France The industrial population of the Faubourgs The February 1848 Revolution in France ended the reign of King Louis-Philippe, and led to the creation of the French Second Republic (1848-1852 He retired from political life after Louis Napoléon Bonaparte's December 2, 1851 coup, and thereafter began work on The Old Regime and the Revolution, Volume I o a law degree, Alexis de Tocqueville was named auditor-magistrate at the court of Versailles. Napoléon III, also known as Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (full name Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte) (20 April 1808 9 January 1873 was the first President The French Coup d'état of December 2nd 1851 staged by Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (at the time President of the Second French Republic) ended in the successful dissolution Law is a system of rules enforced through a set of Institutions used as an instrument to underpin civil obedience politics economics and society Versailles (vɛʀsaj in French) formerly de facto capital of the kingdom of France, is now a wealthy suburb of Paris and is still an important There, he met Gustave de Beaumont, a prosecutor substitute, who collaborated with him on various literary works. M Gustave de Beaumont (b February 6 1802 in Beaumont-la-Chartre, France d Both were sent to the United States to study the penitentiary system. A prison, penitentiary, or correctional facility is a place in which individuals are physically confined or interned and usually deprived of a range of During this trip, they wrote Du système pénitentiaire aux Etats-Unis et de son application (1832). Back in France, Tocqueville became a lawyer. He met the English economist Nassau William Senior in 1833, and they became good friends and corresponded for many years. Nassau William Senior ( September 26, 1790 - June 4, 1864) English Economist, was born at Compton Berkshire  He published his master-work, De la démocratie en Amérique, in 1835. The success of this work, an early model for the science that would become known as sociology, led him to be named chevalier de la Légion d'honneur (Knight of the Legion of Honour) in 1837, and to be elected the next year to the Académie des sciences morales et politiques. Sociology (from Latin: socius "companion" and the suffix -ology "the study of" from Greek λόγος lógos "knowledge" In 1841 he was elected to the Académie française. L'Académie française, or the French Academy, is the pre-eminent French learned body on matters pertaining to the French language.
|The Liberalism series,|
part of the Politics series
Tocqueville, who despised the July Monarchy (1830–1848), began his political career in the same period. Liberalism is a broad array of related ideas and theories of Government that consider individual Liberty to be the most important political goal Politics Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions Liberalism is a broad array of related ideas and theories of Government that consider individual Liberty to be the most important political goal This is a partial list of individual contributions to liberal political theory on a worldwide scale Modern liberalism in the United States, also referred to as American liberalism, is a political ideology that seeks to use the power of the state to effect change upon society Classical liberalism (also known as traditional liberalism, Laissez-faire liberalism, Market liberalism or in much of the world Conservative liberalism is a variant of Liberalism, combining liberal values and policies with conservative stances or more simply representing the right-wing National liberalism is a variant of liberalism combining Nationalism with some liberal policies especially regarding Economic liberalism Economic liberalism is the Economic component of Classical liberalism. Libertarianism is a term used by a broad spectrum of political philosophies which prioritize individual Liberty and seek to minimize or even abolish the Originally coined by its critics and opponents " neoliberalism " is a label referring to the recent reemergence of Economic liberalism or Classical liberalism Ordoliberalism (also called German neoliberalism) is a school of Liberalism emphasizing the need for the state to ensure that the Free market produces results Paleoliberalism is a term that has at least a few distinct meanings all relating to Liberalism. Social liberalism, also called new liberalism (as it was originally termed high liberalism radical liberalism, modern liberalism, or Cultural liberalism is a liberal view of society that stresses the freedom of individuals from cultural norms Political freedom is the absence of interference with the sovereignty of an individual by the use of coercion or aggression Individual rights refer to the Rights of Individuals in contrast with Group rights. Laissez-faire ( pronunciation: French,; English,) is a French phrase literally meaning Let do (“allow to do” The term "liberal" in "liberal democracy" does not imply that the government of such a democracy must follow the political ideology of Liberal neutrality is the idea that the liberal state should not promote any particular 'conception of the good' The concept of negative liberty refers to freedom from interference by other people ||-||} Positive liberty refers to the opportunity and ability to act to fulfill one's own potential as opposed to Negative liberty, which refers to freedom from Liberty, the freedom to act or believe without being stopped by unnecessary force A free market is a Market in which property rights are voluntarily exchanged at a price arranged completely by the mutual consent of sellers and buyers Capitalism is the Economic system in which the Means of production are owned by private Persons and operated for Profit and where A mixed economy is an Economic system that incorporates aspects of more than one economic system The open society is a concept originally developed by philosopher Henri Bergson. Popular sovereignty or the sovereignty of the people is the belief that the legitimacy of the State is created by the will or consent of its people, who A right is a legal or moral Entitlement or Permission. Rights are of vital importance in theories of Justice and deontological ethics John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704 was an English Philosopher. John Stuart Mill (20 May 1806 &ndash 8 May 1873 British Philosopher, political economist, civil servant and Member of Parliament, was an influential Friedrich August von Hayek CH ( May 8, 1899 March 23, 1992) was an Austrian British Economist Milton Friedman (July 31 1912 November 16 2006 was an American Nobel Laureate Economist and Public intellectual. John Rawls ( February 21, 1921  &ndash November 24, 2002) was an American Philosopher, a Professor of This article gives information on liberalism in diverse countries around the world A general overview and comprehensive discussion of this topic may be found in the article Liberalism. Liberalism in the United States is a broad political and philosophical mindset favoring individual Liberty, and opposing restrictions on liberty whether they come from Liberal International is a Political international for liberal parties. The International Federation of Liberal Youth ( IFLRY) is an international liberal youth organization The European Liberal Democrat and Reform Party (founded in 1993 is a liberal party, mainly active in the European Union, composed of 55 national parties from across The Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe ( French: Alliance des Démocrates et des Libéraux pour l'Europe) is an alliance between two European political parties European Liberal Youth (LYMEC - Liberal and Radical Youth Movement of the European Community is an international organisation of Liberal youth movements - mostly the youth The Council of Asian Liberals and Democrats is a regional organization of liberal and democratic political parties in Asia The Africa Liberal Network (ALN is an organization composed of 16 political parties from 14 African nations and is an associated organisation of Liberal The Liberal Network for Latin America ( Red Liberal de América Latina RELIAL) is an international network founded in 2003 with the official launch taking place in Costa Rica The July Monarchy (1830-1848 was a period of liberal monarchy rule of France under Louis-Philippe Thus, he became deputy of the Manche department (Valognes), a position which he maintained until 1851. Manche is a French department in Normandy named after La Manche ("the sleeve" which is the French name for the English Valognes is a town and commune in Normandy, northwestern France, in the Manche département. In parliament, he defended abolitionist views and upheld free trade, while supporting the colonization of Algeria carried on by Louis-Philippe's regime. Abolitionism was a political movement of the 18th and 19th century which sought to make Slavery illegal particularly in the United States and British West Indies Free trade is a system in which the trade of goods and services between or within countries flows unhindered by government-imposed restrictions French rule of Algeria lasted from 1830 to 1962 under a variety of governmental systems Louis Philippe ( 6 October 1773 &ndash 26 August 1850) was King of the French from 1830 to 1848 in what was known as the Tocqueville was also elected general counsellor of the Manche in 1842, and became the president of the department's conseil général between 1849 and 1851.
Apart from Canada, Tocqueville also made an observational tour of England, producing Memoir on Pauperism. In 1841 and 1846, he traveled to Algeria. For the game see 1841 (board game. Year 1841 ( MDCCCXLI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link For the game see 1846 (board game. Year 1846 ( MDCCCXLVI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display French rule of Algeria lasted from 1830 to 1962 under a variety of governmental systems His first travel inspired his Travail sur l'Algérie, in which he criticized the French model of colonization, based on an assimilationist view, preferring instead the British model of indirect rule, which did not mix different populations together. See Colony and Colonization for examples of colonialism which do not refer to Western colonialism A region or society where several different groups are spontaneously assimilated is sometimes referred to as a Melting pot. Indirect rule is a type of European colonial Policy in which the traditional local power structure or at least part of it is incorporated into the colonial administrative structure He went as far as openly advocating racial segregation between the European colonists and the "Arabs" through the implementation of two different legislative systems (a half century before its effective implementation with the 1881 Indigenous code). See Colony and Colonization for examples of colonialism which do not refer to Western colonialism The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding
After the fall of the July Monarchy during the February 1848 Revolution, Tocqueville was elected a member of the Constituent Assembly of 1848, where he became a member of the Commission charged with the drafting of the new Constitution of the Second Republic (1848–1851). The February 1848 Revolution in France ended the reign of King Louis-Philippe, and led to the creation of the French Second Republic (1848-1852 History Revolution of 1848 See also Mid-nineteenth century France The industrial population of the Faubourgs He defended bicameralism (two parliamentary chambers) and the election of the President of the Republic by universal suffrage. In Government, bicameralism (bi + Latin la ''camera'' chamber is the practice of having two legislative or Parliamentary chambers Thus a bicameral Universal suffrage (also universal adult suffrage, general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to As the countryside was thought to be more conservative than the laboring population of Paris, universal suffrage was conceived as a means to block the revolutionary spirit of Paris.
During the Second Republic, Tocqueville sided with the parti de l'Ordre against the "socialists" and workers. A few days after the February insurrection, he believed a violent clash between the workers' population agitating in favor of a "Democratic and Social Republic" and the conservatives, including the aristocracy and rural population, to be inescapable. As Tocqueville had foreseen, these social tensions eventually exploded during the June Days Uprising of 1848. The June Days Uprising (les journées de Juin refers to the French workers' revolt from June 23 to June 25, 1848, after the closure of the National Led by General Cavaignac, the repression was supported by Tocqueville, who advocated in favour of the "regularization" of the state of siege declared by Cavaignac and others measures leading to the suspension of the constitutional order. Louis-Eugène Cavaignac (15 October 1802 - 28 October 1857 French general second son of Jean-Baptiste Cavaignac and brother of Éléonore Louis Godefroi Cavaignac A state of emergency is a governmental declaration that may suspend certain normal functions of government alert citizens to alter their normal behaviors or order government agencies 
A supporter of Cavaignac and of the parti de l'Ordre, Tocqueville, however, accepted an invitation to enter Odilon Barrot's government as Minister of Foreign Affairs from 3 June to 31 October 1849. Camille Hyacinthe Odilon Barrot (19 September 1791 - 6 August 1873 was a French Politician. The Minister of Foreign Affairs in the Government of France, is the cabinet minister responsible for the Foreign relations of France. There, during the troubled days of June 1849, he pleaded with Jules Dufaure, Interior Minister, for the reestablishment of the state of siege in the capital and approved the arrest of demonstrators. Jules Armand Stanislas Dufaure (4 December 1798 28 June 1881 was a French Statesman. Tocqueville, who since February 1848 had supported laws restricting political freedoms, approved the two laws voted immediately after the June 1849 days, which restricted the liberty of clubs and freedom of the press. Freedom Constitutional or statutory protections pertaining to freedom of the press This active support in favor of laws restricting political freedoms stands in contrast of his defense of freedoms in Democracy in America.
Tocqueville then supported Cavaignac against Louis Napoléon Bonaparte for the presidential election of 1851. Napoléon III, also known as Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (full name Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte) (20 April 1808 9 January 1873 was the first President Opposed to Louis Napoléon's December 2, 1851 coup which followed his election, Tocqueville was among the deputies who gathered at the Xe arrondissement of Paris in an attempt to resist the coup and have Napoleon III judged for "high treason". The French Coup d'état of December 2nd 1851 staged by Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (at the time President of the Second French Republic) ended in the successful dissolution Detained at Vincennes and then released, Tocqueville, who supported the Restoration of the Bourbons against Bonaparte's Second Empire (1851–1871), quit political life and retreated to his castle (château de Tocqueville). Vincennes is a commune of the Val-de-Marne located in the eastern suburbs of Paris, France. Following the ousting of Napoleon I of France in 1814 the Allies restored the Bourbon Dynasty to the French throne The House of Bourbon is an important European Royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. The Second French Empire or Second Empire was the Imperial Bonapartist regime of Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870 between the Second There, he began the draft of L'Ancien Régime et la Révolution, publishing the first tome in 1856, but leaving the second one unfinished.
In Democracy in America, published in 1835, Tocqueville wrote of the New World and its burgeoning democratic order. De la démocratie en Amérique (published in two volumes the first in 1835 and the second in 1840 is a classic French text by Alexis de Tocqueville The New World is one of the names used for the non-Eurasian/non-African parts of the Earth specifically the Americas and Australia. Observing from the perspective of a detached social scientist, Tocqueville wrote of his travels through America in the early 19th Century when the market revolution, Western expansion, and Jacksonian democracy were radically transforming the fabric of American life. Jacksonian Democracy refers to the political philosophy of United States President Andrew Jackson and his supporters He saw democracy as an equation that balanced liberty and equality, concern for the individual as well as the community. Liberty, the freedom to act or believe without being stopped by unnecessary force Egalitarianism (derived from the French word égal, meaning equal) is a political doctrine that holds that all people should be treated as equals and have A critic of individualism, Tocqueville thought that association, the coming together of people for common purpose, would bind Americans to an idea of nation larger than selfish desires, thus making a civil society which wasn't exclusively dependent on the state. A voluntary association or union (also sometimes called a voluntary organization, unincorporated association, or just an association) is a group Civil society is composed of the totality of voluntary civic and social organizations and institutions that form the basis of a functioning Society as opposed to the force-backed A state is a political association with effective Sovereignty over a geographic Area and representing a Population.
Tocqueville's penetrating analysis sought to understand the peculiar nature of American civic life. In describing America, he agreed with thinkers such as Aristotle and Montesquieu that the balance of property determined the balance of political power, but his conclusions after that differed radically from those of his predecessors. Aristotle (Greek Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC was a Greek philosopher a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. Charles-Louis de Secondat baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu (Eng Tocqueville tried to understand why America was so different from Europe in the last throes of aristocracy. Aristocracy is a form of Government, where rule is established through an internal struggle over who has the most status and influence over society and internal relations America, in contrast to the aristocratic ethic, was a society where money-making was the dominant ethic, where the common man enjoyed a level of dignity which was unprecedented, where commoners never deferred to elites, where hard work and money dominated the minds of all, and where what he described as crass individualism and market capitalism had taken root to an extraordinary degree. Money is anything that is generally accepted as Payment for Goods and services and repayment of Debts. Capitalism is the Economic system in which the Means of production are owned by private Persons and operated for Profit and where
The uniquely American morals and opinions, Tocqueville argued, lay in the origins of American society and derived from the peculiar social conditions that had welcomed colonists in prior centuries. Unlike Europe, venturers to America found a vast expanse of open land. Any and all who arrived could own their own land and cultivate an independent life. Sparse elites and a number of landed aristocrats existed, but, according to Tocqueville, these few stood no chance against the rapidly developing values bred by such vast land ownership. With such an open society, layered with so much opportunity, men of all sorts began working their way up in the world: industriousness became a dominant ethic, and "middling" values began taking root.
This equality of social conditions bred political and social values which determined the type of legislation passed in the colonies and later the states. By the late 18th Century, democratic values which championed money-making, hard work, and individualism had eradicated, in the North, most remaining vestiges of old world aristocracy and values. Eliminating them in the South proved more difficult, for slavery had produced a landed aristocracy and web of patronage and dependence similar to the old world, which would last until the antebellum period before the Civil War. " Antebellum " is an expression derived from Latin that means "before war" ( ante, "before" and bellum Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South
Tocqueville asserted that the values that had triumphed in the North and were present in the South had begun to suffocate old-world ethics and social arrangements. Legislatures abolished primogeniture and entails, resulting in more widely distributed land holdings. Primogeniture is the Common law right of the Firstborn son to inherit the entire estate, to the exclusion of younger siblings Fee tail or entail is an obsolete term of art in Common law. It describes an estate of Inheritance in Real property which cannot Landed elites lost the ability to pass on fortunes to single individuals. Hereditary fortunes became exceedingly difficult to secure and more people were forced to struggle for their own living.
This rapidly democratizing society, as Tocqueville understood it, had a population devoted to "middling" values which wanted to amass, through hard work, vast fortunes. In Tocqueville's mind, this explained why America was so different from Europe. In Europe, he claimed, nobody cared about making money. The lower classes had no hope of gaining more than minimal wealth, while the upper classes found it crass, vulgar, and unbecoming of their sort to care about something as unseemly as money; many were virtually guaranteed wealth and took it for granted. At the same time in America workers would see people fashioned in exquisite attire and merely proclaim that through hard work they too would soon possess the fortune necessary to enjoy such luxuries.
These unique American values may explain American exceptionalism and shed light upon many mysterious phenomena, such as why America has never embraced socialism. American exceptionalism (cf " Exceptionalism " refers to the belief that the United States differs qualitatively from other Developed nations Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution To Tocqueville, America was set apart by its peculiar democratic mores. But, despite maintaining, with Aristotle, More, Montesquieu, and others that the balance of property determined the balance of power, Tocqueville argued that, as America showed, equitable property holdings did not ensure the rule of the best men. In fact, it did quite the opposite. The widespread, relatively equitable property ownership which distinguished America and determined its mores and values also explained why the American masses held elites in such contempt.
More than just imploding any traces of old-world aristocracy, ordinary Americans also refused to defer to those possessing, as Tocqueville put it, superior talent and intelligence. These natural elites, who Tocqueville asserted were the lone virtuous members of American society, could not enjoy much share in the political sphere as a result. Ordinary Americans enjoyed too much power, claimed too great a voice in the public sphere, to defer to intellectual superiors. This culture promoted a relatively pronounced equality, Tocqueville argued, but the same mores and opinions that ensured such equality also promoted, as he put it, a middling mediocrity.
Those who possessed true virtue and talent would be left with limited choices. Those with the most education and intelligence would either, Tocqueville prognosticated, join limited intellectual circles to explore the weighty and complex problems facing society which have today become the academic or contemplative realms, or use their superior talents to take advantage of America's growing obsession with money-making and amass vast fortunes in the private sector. Uniquely positioned at a crossroads in American History, Tocqueville's Democracy in America attempted to capture the essence of American culture and values.
However, as a supporter of colonialism, Tocqueville also endorsed the common racialist views of his epoch. See Colony and Colonization for examples of colonialism which do not refer to Western colonialism Racialism is an emphasis on race or racial considerations Racialism entails a belief in the existence and significance of racial categories but not necessarily in a Tocqueville notes that among the races that exist in America:
The first who attracts the eye, the first in enlightenment, in power and in happiness, is the white man, the European, man par excellence; below him appear the Negro and the Indian. These two unfortunate races have neither birth, nor face, nor language, nor mores in common; only their misfortunes look alike. Both occupy an equally inferior position in the country that they inhabit; both experience the effects of tyranny; and if their miseries are different, they can accuse the same author for them. 
Tocqueville concluded that removal of the Negro population from America could not resolve the problem as he writes at the end of the first Democracy:
If the colony of Liberia were able to receive thousands of new inhabitants every year, and if the Negroes were in a state to be sent thither with advantage; if the Union were to supply the society with annual subsidies, and to transport the Negroes to Africa in government vessels, it would still be unable to counterpoise the natural increase of population among the blacks; and as it could not remove as many men in a year as are born upon its territory within that time, it could not prevent the growth of the evil which is daily increasing in the states. Liberia, officially the Republic of Liberia, is a country on the west coast of Africa, bordered by Sierra Leone, Guinea, Côte d'Ivoire The Negro race will never leave those shores of the American continent to which it was brought by the passions and the vices of Europeans; and it will not disappear from the New World as long as it continues to exist. The inhabitants of the United States may retard the calamities which they apprehend, but they cannot now destroy their efficient cause.
In 1855, he wrote the following text published by Maria Weston Chapman in the Liberty Bell: Testimony against Slavery
I do not think it is for me, a foreigner, to indicate to the United States the time, the measures, or the men by whom Slavery shall be abolished. Still, as the persevering enemy of despotism everywhere, and under all its forms, I am pained and astonished by the fact that the freest people in the world is, at the present time, almost the only one among civilized and Christian nations which yet maintains personal servitude; and this while serfdom itself is about disappearing, where it has not already disappeared, from the most degraded nations of Europe.
An old and sincere friend of America, I am uneasy at seeing Slavery retard her progress, tarnish her glory, furnish arms to her detractors, compromise the future career of the Union which is the guaranty of her safety and greatness, and point out beforehand to her, to all her enemies, the spot where they are to strike. As a man, too, I am moved at the spectacle of man's degradation by man, and I hope to see the day when the law will grant equal civil liberty to all the inhabitants of the same empire, as God accords the freedom of the will, without distinction, to the dwellers upon earth. 
Segregation however would be the second best solution to race relations if blacks were not removed or wiped out by a race war. According to him assimilation of blacks would be almost impossible and this was already being demonstrated in the Northern states. As Tocqueville predicted, formal freedom and equality and segregation would become this population's reality after the Civil War and during Reconstruction — as would the bumpy road to true integration of blacks. Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South American political scientist Rogers Smith views Tocqueville as one source of white supremacist thought in America. Rogers Smith (born September 20, 1953) is an American Political scientist and Author noted for his research and writing on American
Assimilation, however, was the best solution for Native Americans. But since they were too proud to assimilate, they would inevitably become extinct. Displacement was another part of America's Indian policy. Forced migration (also called deracination) refers to the coerced movement of a person or persons away from their Home or home Region. Indian Removal was a nineteenth century policy of the government of the United States to ethnically cleanse Native American tribes living east of the Mississippi Both populations were "undemocratic", or without the qualities, intellectual and otherwise, needed to live in a democracy. Tocqueville shared many views on assimilation and segregation of his and the coming epochs, but he opposed Gobineau's scientific racism theories which the latter had espoused in his essay on The Inequality of Human Races (1853–1855). Joseph Arthur Comte de Gobineau ( July 14, 1816 — October 13, 1882) was a French Aristocrat, novelist and man of Scientific racism denotes the use of scientific or ostensibly scientific findings and methods to support or validate racist attitudes and worldviews An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races (1853&ndash1855 by Joseph Arthur Comte de Gobineau is a voluminous work while originally intended as a work of 
French historian of colonialism Olivier LeCour Grandmaison has underlined how Tocqueville (as well as Michelet) used the term "extermination" to describe what was happening during the colonization of Western United States and the Indian removal period. See Colony and Colonization for examples of colonialism which do not refer to Western colonialism Olivier LeCour Grandmaison ( September 19, 1960, Paris) is a French Historian. Jules Michelet ( 21 August 1798 &ndash 9 February 1874) was a French Historian. The Western United States &mdashcommonly referred to as the American West or simply the West &mdashtraditionally refers to the region comprising the westernmost Indian Removal was a nineteenth century policy of the government of the United States to ethnically cleanse Native American tribes living east of the Mississippi  Tocqueville thus expressed himself, in 1841, concerning the conquest of Algeria:
As far as I am concerned, I came back from Africa with the pathetic notion that at present in our way of waging war we are far more barbaric than the Arabs themselves. French rule of Algeria lasted from 1830 to 1962 under a variety of governmental systems These days, they represent civilization, we do not. This way of waging war seems to me as stupid as it is cruel. It can only be found in the head of a coarse and brutal soldier. Indeed, it was pointless to replace the Turks only to reproduce what the world rightly found so hateful in them. This, even for the sake of interest is more noxious than useful; for, as another officer was telling me, if our sole aim is to equal the Turks, in fact we shall be in a far lower position than theirs: barbarians for barbarians, the Turks will always outdo us because they are Muslim barbarians. In France, I have often heard men I respect but do not approve of, deplore that crops should be burnt and granaries emptied and finally that unarmed men, women and children should be seized. In my view these are unfortunate circumstances that any people wishing to wage war against the Arabs must accept. I think that all the means available to wreck tribes must be used, barring those that the human kind and the right of nations condemn. I personally believe that the laws of war enable us to ravage the country and that we must do so either by destroying the crops at harvest time or any time by making fast forays also known as raids the aim of which it to get hold of men or flocks. 
Whatever the case, we may say in a general manner that all political freedoms must be suspended in Algeria. Political freedom is the absence of interference with the sovereignty of an individual by the use of coercion or aggression A state of emergency is a governmental declaration that may suspend certain normal functions of government alert citizens to alter their normal behaviors or order government agencies 
Tocqueville thought the conquest of Algeria was important for two reasons: first, his understanding of the international situation and France’s position in the world, and, second, changes in French society.  Tocqueville believed that war and colonization would "restore national pride, threatened," he believed, by "the gradual softening of social mores" in the middle classes. Their taste for "material pleasures" was spreading to the whole of society, giving it "an example of weakness and egotism". " Applauding the methods of General Bugeaud, Tocqueville went as far as saying that "war in Africa" had become a science: "war in Africa is a science. Thomas Robert Bugeaud Marquis de la Piconnerie Duc d'Isly ( October 15, 1784 - June 10, 1849) was a Marshal of France and Everyone is familiar with its rules and everyone can apply those rules with almost complete certainty of success. One of the greatest services that Field Marshal Bugeaud has rendered his country is to have spread, perfected and made everyone aware of this new science. "
Tocqueville advocated racial segregation in Algeria with two distinct legislations, one for each very separate communities.  Such legislation would eventually be enacted with the Crémieux decrees and the 1881 Indigenous Code, which gave French citizenship to the European Jewish settlers only, while Muslim Algerians were confined to a second-grade citizenship. Adolphe Crémieux ( April 30, 1796 &ndash February 10, 1880) was a French - Jewish lawyer and statesman and a staunch defender French nationality law is historically based on the principle of Jus soli, according to Ernest Renan 's definition opposed to the German
In opposition to Olivier Le Cour Grandmaison, Jean-Louis Benoît claimed that given the extent of racial prejudices during the colonization of Algeria, Tocqueville was one of its "most moderate supporters. " Benoît claimed that it was wrong to assume Tocqueville was a supporter of Bugeaud, despite his 1841 apologetic discourse. It seems that Tocqueville changed viewpoint in particular after his second travel to Algeria in 1846. Hereafter, he criticized Bugeaud's desire to invade Kabylia (home of the Berbers) in a 1847 speech to the Assembly. This article focuses on the region in Algeria For the ethnic group see Kabyle people. Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. Tocqueville, who did advocate racial segregation between Europeans and Arabs, judged otherwise the Berbers. The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding In an August 22, 1837 proposal, Tocqueville distinguished the Berbers from the Arabs. He considered that these last ones should have a self-government (a bit on the model of British indirect rule, thus going against the French assimiliationist stance). Indirect rule is a type of European colonial Policy in which the traditional local power structure or at least part of it is incorporated into the colonial administrative structure A region or society where several different groups are spontaneously assimilated is sometimes referred to as a Melting pot.
Tocqueville's views on the matter were complex, and evolved over time. Even though in his 1841 report on Algeria Tocqueville admitted that Bugeaud succeeded in implementing a technique of war that enabled him to defeat Abd al-Qadir's resistance and applauded him on one hand, he opposed on the other hand the conquest of Kabylia in his first Letter about Algeria (1837). `Abd al-Qādir al-Jazā'irī ( 6 September, 1808 - 26 May, 1883, in Arabic عبد القادر الجزائري was an In this document, he advocated that France and the French military leave Kabylia apart to preserve a peaceful zone so as to try and develop commercial links. The Military of France encompasses an army, a navy, an air force and a military police force. In all his subsequent speeches and writings he kept on being against any attempt towards intrusion into Kabylia.
During the debate concerning the 1846 extraordinary funds, Tocqueville denounced Bugeaud's conduct of military operations, and succeeded in convincing the Assembly of not voting the funds in support of Bugeaud's military columns.  Tocqueville considered Bugeaud's will to invade Kabylia, despite the opposition of the Assembly, as a seditious move in front of which the government opted for cowardice. 
In his 1847 Report on Algeria, Tocqueville declared that Europe should avoid making the same mistake they made with the European colonization of the Americas in order to avoid the bloody consequences. The start of the European colonization of the Americas is typically dated to 1492 although there was at least one earlier colonization effort  More particularly he reminds his countrymen of a solemn caution whereby he warns them that if the methods used towards the Algerian people remain unchanged, colonization will end in a blood bath. The 1847 caution went unheeded and the heralded tragedy did happen.
Tocqueville includes in his report on Algeria that the fate their soldiers and finances depended on how they treated the natives and established a sound government. Creating peace in the country would reduce the number of soldiers. However, by treating the inhabitants of Algeria as an obstacle then the two sides would be subject to much conflict and strife.
Jean-Gérard Lacuée de Cessac
|NAME||Tocqueville, Alexis de|
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Tocqueville, Alexis-Charles-Henri Clérel de; de Tocqueville, Alexis; de Tocqueville, Alexis-Charles-Henri Clérel|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||French political philosopher, historian|
|DATE OF BIRTH||July 29, 1805|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Verneuil-sur-Seine, Île-de-France, France|
|DATE OF DEATH||April 16, 1859|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Cannes, France|