Although fossil fuels have become the dominant energy resource for the modern world, alcohol has been used as a fuel throughout history. A filling station, fueling station, gas station, service station, petrol station, or gasbar, Retail Outlet |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld Fossil fuels or mineral fuels are fossil source Fuels that is Hydrocarbons found within the top layer of the Earth’s crust. In Physics and other Sciences energy (from the Greek grc ἐνέργεια - Energeia, "activity operation" from grc ἐνεργός In Chemistry, an alcohol is any Organic compound in which a Hydroxyl group ( - O[[hydrogen H]]) is bound to a Carbon The first four aliphatic alcohols (methanol, ethanol, propanol, and butanol) are of interest as fuels because they can be synthesized biologically, and they have characteristics which allow them to be used in current engines. In Organic chemistry, compounds composed of Carbon and Hydrogen are divided into two classes Aromatic compounds which contain Benzene rings Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naphtha or wood spirits, is a Chemical compound Butanol or butyl alcohol (sometimes also called biobutanol when produced biologically is a Primary alcohol with a 4 Carbon structure and the Molecular One advantage shared by all four alcohols is octane rating. The octane rating is a measure of the resistance of Gasoline and other Fuels to Detonation ( Engine knocking) in spark-ignition Biobutanol has the advantage that its energy density is closer to gasoline than the other alcohols (while still retaining over 25% higher octane rating) - however, these advantages are outweighed by disadvantages (compared to ethanol and methanol) concerning production, for instance. Butanol may be used as a Fuel in an Internal combustion engine. Energy density is the amount of Energy stored in a given system or region of space per unit Volume, or per unit Mass, depending on the context although Generally speaking, the chemical formula for alcohol fuel is CnH2n+1OH. The larger n is, the higher the energy density. Energy density is the amount of Energy stored in a given system or region of space per unit Volume, or per unit Mass, depending on the context although
Alcohol fuels are usually of biological rather than petroleum sources. Petroleum ( L petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit When obtained from biological sources, they are known as bioalcohols (e. g. bioethanol). It is important to note that there is no chemical difference between biologically produced alcohols and those obtained from other sources. Chemistry (from Egyptian kēme (chem meaning "earth") is the Science concerned with the composition structure and properties However, ethanol that is derived from petroleum should not be considered safe for consumption as this alcohol contains about 5% methanol and may cause blindness or death. This mixture may also not be purified by simple distillation, as it forms an azeotropic mixture. An azeotrope (pronounced
Bioalcohols are still in developmental and research stages. Use of optimized crops with higher yields of energy, elimination of pesticides and fertilizers based on petroleum, and a more rigorous accounting process will help improve the feasibility of bioalcohols as fuels. Petroleum ( L petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit
Methanol and ethanol can both be derived from fossil fuels or from biomass. Methanol has been proposed as a fuel for internal combustion and other engines mainly in combination with Gasoline. Ethanol fuel is Ethanol (ethyl alcohol the same type of Alcohol found in Alcoholic beverages. Ethanol is produced through fermentation of sugars and methanol from synthesis gas.
As a fuel methanol and ethanol both have advantages and disadvantages over fuels such as petrol and diesel. Diesel or Diesel fuel (ˈdiːzəl in general is any Fuel used in Diesel engines The most common is a specific fractional distillate of petroleum In spark ignition engines both alcohols can run at a much higher EGR rates and with higher compression ratios. The compression ratio is a single number that can be used to predict the performance of any engine particularly piston engines (but can be used on essentially any Internal-combustion Both alcohols have a high octane rating, with ethanol at 109 RON, 89 MON, (which equates to 99 AKI) and methanol at 109 RON, 103 MON (which equates to 113 AKI) . The octane rating is a measure of the resistance of Gasoline and other Fuels to Detonation ( Engine knocking) in spark-ignition Ordinary European petrol is typically 95 RON, 85 MON, equal to 90 AKI. Note that AKI refers to 'Anti-Knock Index' which averages the RON and MON ratings (RON+MON)/2, and is used on U. S. gas station pumps. As a compression ignition engine fuel, both alcohols create very little particulates, but their low cetane number means that an ignition improver like glycol must be mixed into the fuel with approx. 5%.
With SI engines alcohols have the potential to reduce NOx, CO, HC and particulates. A test with E85 fueled Chevrolet Luminas showed that NMHC went down by 20-22%, NOx by 25-32% and CO by 12-24% compared to reformulated gasoline. Toxic emissions of benzene and 1,3 Butadiene also decreased while aldehyde emissions increased (acetaldehyde in particular).
Tailpipe emissions of CO2 also decrease due to the lower carbon-to-hydrogen ratio of these alcohols, and the improved engine efficiency.
Methanol and ethanol contains soluble and insoluble contaminents . These soluble contaminants, halide ions such as cloride ions, has a large effect on the corrositivity of alcohol fuels. Halide ions increase corrosion in two ways; they chemically attack passivating oxide films on several metals causing piting corrosion, and they increase the conductivity of the fuel. Increased electrical conductivity promotes electrical, galvanic and ordinary corrosion in the fuel system. Soluble contaminents such as aluminumhydroxide, itself a product of corrosion by halide ions, clogs the fuel system over time. To prevent corrosion the fuel system must be made of suitable materals, electrical wires must be properly insulated and the fuel level sensor must be of pulse and hold type (or similar). In addition, high quality alcohol should have a low concentration of contaminents and have a suitable corrosion inhibitor added.
Methanol and ethanol is also incompatible with some polymers. The alcohol is solved by the polymers causing swelling, and over time the oxygen breaks down the carbon-carbon bonds in the polymer causing a reduction in tensile strength. For the past few decades though, most cars have been designed to tolerate up to 10% ethanol (E10) without problem. This include both fuel system compability and lambda compensation of fuel delivery with fuel injection engines featuring closed loop lambda control. In some engines ethanol may degrade some compositions of plastic or rubber fuel delivery components designed for conventional petrol, and also be unable to lambda compensate the fuel properly.
"FlexFuel" vehicles have upgraded fuel system and engine components which are designed for long life using E85 or M85, and the ECU can adapt to any fuel blend between gasoline and E85 or M85. Typical upgrades include modifications to: fuel tanks, fuel tank electrical wiring, fuel pumps, fuel filters, fuel lines, filler tubes, fuel level sensors, fuel injectors, seals, fuel rails, fuel pressure regulators, valve seats and inlet valves. The cost of this E85 upgrade to a modern engine is inexpensive and is less than $100. "Total Flex" Autos destined for the Brazilian market can use E100 (100% Ethanol).
One liter of ethanol contain 21. 1 MJ, a liter of methanol 15. 8 MJ and a liter of gasoline approximatly 32. 6 MJ. In other words, for the same energy content as one liter or one gallon of gasoline, one needs 1. 6 liters/gallons of ethanol and 2. 1 liters/gallons of methanol. Although actual fuel consumption doesn't increase as much as energy content numbers indicate.
Methanol has been proposed as a future biofuel. Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naphtha or wood spirits, is a Chemical compound Methanol has a long history as a racing fuel, as a blend in pre-war Grand Prix Racing to the use of pure methanol in many racing series in primarily North America after the war. Although methanol for racing use mostly have been based on natural gas, methanol is an excellent biofuel and compared to ethanol its primary advantage is it's much greater well-to-wheel efficiency when produced from syngas.
Ethanol is already being used extensively as a fuel additive, and the use of ethanol fuel alone or as part of a mix with gasoline is increasing. Gasoline additives increase Gasoline 's Octane rating or act as Corrosion inhibitors or lubricators, thus allowing the use of higher Compression Ethanol fuel is Ethanol (ethyl alcohol the same type of Alcohol found in Alcoholic beverages. Compared to methanol its primary advantage is that the fuel is non-toxic, although the fuel will produce some toxic exhaust emissions. From 2007, the Indy Racing League will use ethanol as its exclusive fuel, after 40 years of using methanol. The Indy Racing League, better known as IRL, is the sanctioning body of a predominantly American based Open-wheel racing series. . Since September 2007 petrol stations in NSW, Australia are mandated to supply all their petrol with 2% Ethanol content
Methanol combustion is: 2CH3OH + 3O2 → 2CO2 + 4H2O + heat
Ethanol combustion is: C2H5OH + 3O2 → 2CO2 + 3H2O + heat
Propanol and butanol are considerably less toxic and less volatile than methanol. Butanol may be used as a Fuel in an Internal combustion engine. Propan-1-ol is a primary Alcohol with the formula CH3CH2CH2OH Butanol or butyl alcohol (sometimes also called biobutanol when produced biologically is a Primary alcohol with a 4 Carbon structure and the Molecular In particular, butanol has a high flashpoint of 35 °C, which is a benefit for fire safety, but may be a difficulty for starting engines in cold weather. The flash point of a flammable liquid is the lowest Temperature at which it can form an ignitable mixture in air The concept of flash point is however not directly applicable to engines as the compression of the air in the cylinder means that the temperature is several hundred degrees Celsius before ignition takes place.
The fermentation processes to produce propanol and butanol from cellulose are fairly tricky to execute, and the Weizmann organism (Clostridium acetobutylicum) currently used to perform these conversions produces an extremely unpleasant smell, and this must be taken into consideration when designing and locating a fermentation plant. Cellulose is an Organic compound with the formula, a Polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to over ten thousand β(1→4 Clostridium acetobutylicum, included in the genus Clostridium, is a commercially valuable Bacterium. This organism also dies when the butanol content of whatever it is fermenting rises to 7%. For comparison, yeast dies when the ethanol content of its feedstock hits 14%. Yeasts are a growth form of eukaryotic Microorganisms classified in the kingdom Fungi, with about 1500 Species currently described Specialized strains can tolerate even greater ethanol concentrations - so-called turbo yeast can withstand up to 16% ethanol . However, if ordinary Saccharomyces yeast can be modified to improve its ethanol resistance, scientists may yet one day produce a strain of the Weizmann organism with a butanol resistance higher than the natural boundary of 7%. This would be useful because butanol has a higher energy density than ethanol, and because waste fibre left over from sugar crops used to make ethanol could be made into butanol, raising the alcohol yield of fuel crops without there being a need for more crops to be planted. Energy density is the amount of Energy stored in a given system or region of space per unit Volume, or per unit Mass, depending on the context although
Despite these drawbacks, DuPont and British Petroleum have recently announced that they are jointly to build a small scale butanol fuel demonstration plant  alongside the large bioethanol plant they are jointly developing with Associated British Foods. E I du Pont de Nemours and Company (,) is an American chemical company that was founded in July 1802 as a Gunpowder mill by Eleuthère Irénée BP plc, previously known as British Petroleum, is the third largest global Energy company, a multinational oil company (" Oil major Butanol may be used as a Fuel in an Internal combustion engine. Associated British Foods plc ( is a British Multinational food ingredients and retail group with sales of £6
Energy Environment International developed a method for producing butanol from biomass, which involves the use of two separate micro-organisms in sequence to minimize production of acetone and ethanol byproducts. Butanol or butyl alcohol (sometimes also called biobutanol when produced biologically is a Primary alcohol with a 4 Carbon structure and the Molecular 
The Swiss company Butalco GmbH uses a special technology to modify yeasts in order to produce butanol instead of ethanol. Yeasts as production organisms for butanol have decisive advantages compared to bacteria.
Butanol combustion is: C4H9OH + 6O2 → 4CO2 + 5H2O + heat
The 3-carbon alcohol, propanol (C3H7OH), is not used as a direct fuel source for petrol engines that often (unlike ethanol, methanol and butanol), with most being directed into use as a solvent. However, it is used as a source of hydrogen in some types of fuel cell; it can generate a higher voltage than methanol, which is the fuel of choice for most alcohol-based fuel cells. However, since propanol is harder to produce than methanol (biologically OR from oil), methanol fuel cells are still used a lot more often than those that utilise propanol.
Brazil was until recently the largest producer of alcohol fuel in the world, typically fermenting ethanol from sugarcane. Brazil is the world's second largest producer of Ethanol and the world's largest exporter and it is considered to have the world's first Sustainable |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld Sugarcane ( Saccharum) is a genus of 6 to 37 species (depending on taxonomic interpretation of tall perennial grasses (family Poaceae tribe Andropogoneae The country produces a total of 18 billion liters (4. 8 billion gallons) annually, of which 3. 5 billion liters are exported, 2 billion of them to the US . The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Alcohol cars debuted in the Brazilian market in 1978 and became quite popular because of heavy subsidy, but in the 80's prices rose and gasoline regained the leading market share.
But from 2004 on, alcohol is rapidly rising its market share once again because of new technologies involving hybrid fuel car engines , called "Flex" by all major car manufacturers (Volkswagen, General Motors, Fiat, etc. A flexible-fuel vehicle (FFV or dual-fuel vehicle ( Colloquially called a flex-fuel vehicle) is an alternative fuel Automobile or General Motors Corporation ( GM) ( is a multinational automobile manufacturer founded in 1908 and headquartered in the United States. Fiat SpA (an Acronym for Fabbrica Italiana Automobili Torino (Italian Automobile Factory of Turin) is an Italian automobile manufacturer ). "Flex" engines work with gasoline, alcohol or any mixture of both fuels. As of February 2007, approx. 80% of new vehicles sold in Brazil are hybrid fuel 
Because of the Brazilian leading production and technology, many countries became very interested in importing alcohol fuel and adopting the "Flex" vehicle concept.  In March 7th of 2007, US president George W. Bush visited the city of São Paulo to sign agreements with Brazilian president Lula on importing alcohol and its technology as an alternative fuel. George Walker Bush ( born July 6 1946 is the forty-third and current President of the United States. São Paulo ( is the largest city in Brazil, with its metropolitan area ranking among the largest urban areas in the world Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (pronounced /lu'iz i'nasju 'lulɐ da 'siwvɐ/; born October 27, 1945) known simply as Lula, is the thirty-fifth and
Other than Brazil, the only other country with an extensive program for supplying alcohol fuel to supplement petroleum use is Russia, which has reduced its dependency on oil by using methanol made from the destructive pyrolysis of eucalyptus wood and fibre. However, this system is less likely to be emulated elsewhere, due to the disadvantages of methanol fuel, as compared to ethanol fuel Energy density, toxicity, and corrosiveness are the main concerns; methanol contains 40% less energy than ethanol, is more corrosive, and is also 4 times as toxic, with an average lethal dose of as little as 100-125ml (10 to 12. 5 units), compared to 400-500ml, 40 to 50 units, for ethanol.
The United states at the end of 2007 was producing 7 billion gallons (26. E85 is an Alcohol fuel mixture that typically contains a mixture of up to 85% denatured fuel ethanol and Gasoline or other hydrocarbon (HC by 9 billion liters) per year.  E10 or Gasohol is commonly marketed in Delaware and E85 is found in many states, particularly in the Mid West where ethanol from corn is produced locally. Due to government subsidies, many new vehicles are sold each year that can use E85, although the majority are run solely on gasoline due to the limited availability of E85.
Many states and municipalities have mandated that all gasoline fuel be blended with 10 percent alcohol (usually ethanol) during some or all of the year. This is to reduce pollution and allows these areas to comply with federal pollution limits. Because alcohol is partially oxygenated, it produces less overall pollution, including ozone. OZONE is an object oriented Operating system written in the C programming language. In some areas (California in particular) the regulations may also require other formulations or added chemicals that reduce pollution, but add complexity to the fuel distribution and increase the cost of the fuel.